Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 295
Filter
1.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1199381, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232573

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Risk factors for noncommunicable diseases such as insufficient physical activity (PA), overweight or hypertension are becoming increasingly predominant among children globally. While school-based interventions are promising preventive strategies, evidence of their long-term effectiveness, especially among vulnerable populations, is scarce. We aim to assess the short-term effects of the physical and health KaziKidz intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors and the long-term, pre-and post-COVID-19 pandemic changes thereof in high-risk children from marginalized communities. Methods: The intervention was tested in a cluster-randomized controlled trial between January and October 2019 in eight primary schools near Gqeberha, South Africa. Children with overweight, elevated blood pressure, pre-diabetes, and/or borderline dyslipidemia were identified and re-assessed 2 years post-intervention. Study outcomes included accelerometry-measured PA (MVPA), body mass index (BMI), mean arterial pressure (MAP), glucose (HbA1c), and lipid levels (TC to HDL ratio). We conducted mixed regression analyses to assess intervention effects by cardiometabolic risk profile, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to evaluate longitudinal changes in the high-risk subpopulation. Results: We found a significant intervention effect on MVPA during school hours for physically inactive children, and among active as well as inactive girls. In contrast, the intervention lowered HbA1c and TC to HDL ratio only in children with glucose or lipid values within the norm, respectively. At follow-up, the intervention effects were not maintained in at-risk children, who showed a decline in MVPA, and an increase in BMI-for-age, MAP, HbA1c and TC to HDL ratio. Conclusion: We conclude that schools are key settings in which to promote PA and improve health; however, structural changes are necessary to ensure that effective interventions reach marginalized school populations and achieve sustainable impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Female , Humans , Child , South Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Follow-Up Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin , Overweight , Pandemics , Exercise , Glucose , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Lipids
2.
J Sports Sci ; 41(5): 441-450, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240428

ABSTRACT

It is important to monitor secular trends in children's motor performance, as healthy and physically active children are more likely to become healthy and physically active adults. However, studies with regular and standardized monitoring of motor performance in childhood are scarce. Additionally, the impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on secular trends is unknown. This study describes secular changes in balancing backwards, jumping sidewards, 20-m sprint, 20-m Shuttle Run Test (SRT) and anthropometric data in 10'953 Swiss first graders from 2014 to 2021. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to estimate secular trends for boys vs. girls, lean vs. overweight and fit vs. unfit children. The potential influence of COVID-19 was also analysed. Balance performance decreased (2.8% per year), whereas we found improvements for jumping (1.3% per year) and BMI (-0.7% per year). 20-m SRT performance increased by 0.6% per year in unfit children. Children affected by COVID-19 measures had an increased BMI and were more overweight and obese, but motor performance was mostly higher. In our sample, secular changes in motor performance show promising tendencies from 2014 to 2021. The effects of COVID-19 mitigation measures on BMI, overweight and obesity should be monitored in additional birth cohorts and follow-up studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Overweight , Male , Adult , Female , Humans , Child , Overweight/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Switzerland/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Obesity , Schools
3.
Nutrients ; 15(11)2023 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238075

ABSTRACT

For the choices of food products, food preferences are crucial, as they influence the intake of nutrients and the resultant quality of diet, but in Poland, no studies of food preferences were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic on a population of young adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyze the determinants of food preferences in a Polish population-based sample of primary school adolescents as part of the Diet and Activity of Youth during COVID-19 (DAY-19) Study. The DAY-19 Study focused on a national sample of a population of primary school adolescents who were recruited based on cluster sampling of participants from counties and schools, yielding a sample of 5039 individuals. Their food preferences were assessed using the Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), and they were compared in subgroups stratified by (1) gender: male and female; (2) age: younger (10-13 years) and older (14-16 years); (3) place of residence: urban and rural; (4) Body Mass Index (BMI): underweight, normal body weight, and overweight/obese (assessed based on Polish growth reference values); and (5) physical activity level: low and moderate (assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for children aged 10-13 (IPAQ-C) and adolescents aged 14-16 (IPAQ-A)). In the population of adolescents, no statistically significant differences in food preferences between subgroups stratified by gender were observed (p > 0.05). For boys, none of the studied factors (age, place of residence, BMI, physical activity level) was statistically significant determinant of food preferences (p < 0.05), while for girls, all of them were statistically significant determinants (p > 0.05). All the assessed factors (age, place of residence, BMI, physical activity level) in girls were associated with preferences for snacks, and older girls, those from a rural environment, those who were underweight and overweight/obese, as well as those having a low physical activity level declared a higher preference for snacks than younger ones (p = 0.0429), those from an urban environment (p = 0.0484), those of a normal body weight (p = 0.0091), and those having a moderate physical activity level (p = 0.0083). Similarly, girls from rural environments declared a higher preference for starches than those from urban environments (p = 0.0103), and girls having a low physical activity level declared a higher preference for fruit than those having a moderate physical activity level (p = 0.0376). Taking this into account, the population of girls, in particular, needs dedicated educational actions to support proper nutritional habits. Additionally, older age, living in a rural environment, being underweight and overweight/obese, and having a low physical activity level may be indicated as factors predisposing one to food preferences potentially promoting unhealthy dietary habits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Preferences , Child , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Overweight/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Body Mass Index , Obesity/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Schools
4.
J Endocrinol ; 258(2)2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243273

ABSTRACT

Obesity is associated with a higher risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and increased mortality. In the current study, we have investigated the expression of ACE2, NRP1, and HMGB1, known to facilitate severe acute respiratory symptom coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) cell entry, in adipose tissue from non-COVID-19 control patients with normal weight, overweight, and obesity. All factors were expressed, but no significant differences between the groups were observed. Furthermore, diabetes status and medications did not affect the expression of ACE2. Only in obese men, the expression of ACE2 in adipose tissue was higher than in obese women. In the adipose tissue from patients who died from COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the adipocytes even though the patients died more than 3 weeks after the acute infection. This suggests that adipocytes may act as reservoirs for the virus. In COVID-19 patients, the expression of NRP1 was increased in COVID-19 patients with overweight and obesity. Furthermore, we observed an increased infiltration with macrophages in the COVID-19 adipose tissues compared to control adipose tissue. In addition, crown-like structures of dying adipocytes surrounded by macrophages were observed in the adipose tissue from COVID-19 patients. These data suggest that in obese individuals, in addition to an increased mass of adipose tissue that could potentially be infected, increased macrophage infiltration due to direct infection with SARS-CoV-2 and sustained viral shedding, rather than preinfection ACE2 receptor expression, may be responsible for the increased severity and mortality of COVID-19 in patients with obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Overweight/complications , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism
5.
Nutrients ; 15(11)2023 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243208

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity is a global public health problem. Worldwide, 41 million children under 5 years and 340 million children and adolescents between 5 and 19 years are overweight. In addition, the recent COVID-19 epidemic has further amplified this social phenomenon. Obesity is a condition associated with various comorbidities, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The pathophysiology of NAFLD in obesity is intricate and involves the interaction and dysregulation of several mechanisms, such as insulin resistance, cytokine signaling, and alteration of the gut microbiota. NAFLD is defined as the presence of hepatic steatosis in more than 5% of hepatocytes, evaluated by histological analysis. It can evolve from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver failure. Body weight reduction through lifestyle modification remains the first-line intervention for the management of pediatric NAFLD. Indeed, studies suggest that diets low in fat and sugar and conversely rich in dietary fibers promote the improvement of metabolic parameters. This review aims to evaluate the existing relationship between obesity and NAFLD in the pediatric population and to assess the dietary patterns and nutritional supplementations that can be recommended to prevent and manage obesity and its comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , End Stage Liver Disease , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Overweight/metabolism , Pediatric Obesity/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Diet , Fibrosis , End Stage Liver Disease/pathology , Liver/metabolism
6.
Clin Ther ; 45(3): e103-e114, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317433

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health concern that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In previous studies of MetS management, low-carbohydrate diets have been strongly emphasized, despite the fact that many apparently healthy individuals have difficulties adhering to these diets on a long-term basis. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the effects of a moderately restricted carbohydrate diet (MRCD) on cardiometabolic risk factors in women with MetS. METHODS: This parallel 3-month, single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in Tehran, Iran, among 70 women with overweight or obesity aged 20 to 50 years with MetS. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either MRCD (42%-45% carbohydrates and 35%-40% fats) (n = 35) or a normal weight loss diet (NWLD) (52%-55% carbohydrates and 25%-30% fats) (n = 35). Both diets contained the same quantity of protein, which accounted for 15% to 17% of total energy. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profile, and glycemic indices were all assessed before and after the intervention. FINDINGS: Compared with the NWLD group, following an MRCD significantly decreased weight (-4.82 vs -2.40 kg; P = 0.01), body mass index (-1.88 vs -0.94 kg/m2; P = 0.01), waist circumference (-5.34 vs -2.75 cm; P = 0.01), hip circumference (-2.58 vs -1.11 cm; P = 0.01), serum triglyceride (-26.8 vs -7.19 mg/dL; P = 0.01), and increased serum HDL-C levels (1.89 vs. 0.24 mg/dL; P = 0.01). There was no significant difference between the 2 diets in waist-to-hip ratio, serum total cholesterol, serum LDL-C, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin levels, or the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance. IMPLICATIONS: Moderate carbohydrate replacement with dietary fats significantly improved weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, serum triglyceride, and HDL-C levels among women with MetS. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials identifier: IRCT20210307050621N1.


Subject(s)
Metabolic Syndrome , Female , Humans , Overweight/complications , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Single-Blind Method , Iran , Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects , Obesity , Body Mass Index , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Triglycerides , Risk Factors
7.
World J Pediatr ; 19(5): 469-477, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the impact of the temporary kindergarten closure policy under COVID-19 in 2020 on childhood overweight and obesity is inadequate. We aimed to examine differences in rates of overweight and obesity from 2018 to 2021 among kindergarten children aged 3-7 years. METHODS: Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 1 standard deviation (SD) for age and sex, and obesity was defined as BMI > 2 SD for age and sex. Generalized linear mixed modeling was used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 44,884 children and 71,216 growth data points from all 57 public kindergartens in Jiading District, Shanghai, China were analyzed. The rates of obesity from 2018 to 2021 were 6.9%, 6.6%, 9.5%, and 7.3% in boys and 2.8%, 2.8%, 4.5%, and 3.1% in girls, respectively. The rates of overweight from 2018 to 2021 were 14.3%, 14.3%, 18.2%, and 15.3% in boys and 10.6%, 10.9%, 13.9%, and 11.6% in girls. The rates of obesity and overweight among kindergarten children in 2020 were significantly higher than those in 2018, 2019, and 2021. Compared to 2020, the odds ratios of the obesity rate in 2018, 2019, and 2021 were 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.77, P < 0.001], 0.72 (95% CI = 0.64-0.80, P < 0.001) and 0.81 (95% CI = 0.72-0.92, P = 0.001), respectively. The odds ratios of the overweight rate in 2018, 2019, and 2021 were 0.75 (95% CI = 0.69-0.82, P < 0.001), 0.78 (95% CI = 0.72-0.84, P < 0.001), and 0.89 (95% CI = 0.81-0.97, P = 0.008), respectively, compared to 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of overweight and obesity significantly increased among kindergarten children in 2020 after the 5-month kindergarten closure. It was critical to provide guidance to caregivers on fostering a healthy lifestyle for children at home under public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Male , Female , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Overweight/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , China/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Body Mass Index
8.
Nutrients ; 15(9)2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the changes in distinct types of screen time and explore their longitudinal association with children and adolescents' weight status. METHODS: A two-wave longitudinal study was conducted among 2228 children and adolescents (6-19 years) in Shanghai, China, before and during the pandemic. Recreational screen time (watching TV/videos, online gaming, using social media, and browsing webpages), educational screen time (online homework and online class), and BMI were measured using a self-reported questionnaire. Mixed-effects models were constructed to assess the associations between screen time and weight status. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 20.5% and 10.2% at baseline, respectively. Both recreational and educational screen time increased significantly over two months. While recreational screen time was found to be a risk factor for obesity, it was not the case for educational screen use. Specifically, adolescents who spent more time watching TV/videos had a higher obesity risk (OR = 1.576). No significant associations were found in children. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity were prevalent among children and adolescents in China. Reducing screen-based activities is a promising strategy to prevent unhealthy weight gain in Chinese children and adolescents, while it is necessary to consider the content and distinguish between educational and recreational screen use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Longitudinal Studies , Screen Time , China/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(2)2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310319

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Childhood obesity has been increasing at a worrisome pace and emerging as a non-infectious pandemic in the pediatric population in recent years. Raising awareness on this problem is of utmost importance, in order to take action to control body weight from an early age. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective study among overweight or obese children evaluated on an outpatient basis in the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology of a tertiary care hospital in Bucharest Romania in 2021 in order to identify laboratory changes occurring according to age and sex. Results: A total of 268 children were included in the analysis, with a median age of 10.9 years (IQR: 8.3, 13.3 years); 61.8% were obese and 38.2% overweight. We identified a subclinical pro-inflammatory status characterized by increased neutrophil count (12.7%) and increased C-reactive protein (16.4%). Biochemically, we identified the highest increases for uric acid (35.4%). More than half of the children included in the study had dyslipidemia-specific changes: high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (50.0%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (58.9%) and increased triglyceride levels (12.7%), especially children with a body mass-index (BMI) percentile above 95%. Increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was identified in 20.3% and low thyroxine (T4) level in 13.4%, especially in females. Conclusions: Early measures to control excess body weight are needed since preventing obesity is easier than treating it. However, this is often difficult to do in our country because parents frequently do not recognize the problem until it is advanced. Furthermore, doctors are not always adequately prepared and sometimes they do not have the support of the health systems to provide children in need with the adequate care. Educational strategies and awareness of issue should be revisited in current post-pandemic context that facilitates increase of obesity prevalence in children. Increase of efficient communication could be achieved by pointing to these objective findings.


Subject(s)
Overweight , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Female , Humans , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Romania/epidemiology , Male
10.
Acta Paediatr ; 112(7): 1548-1554, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306636

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine the effects of obesity in childhood on SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study combining the Israeli Growth Survey and COVID-19 data for children with at least one SARS-CoV-2 test from 16 February 2020 to 20 December 2021. Overweight and obesity status were based on body mass index and the Center for Disease Control criteria. Multivariate logistics regression was performed to validate reliability for weight categories at the age of approximately 6 years compared with weights at approximately 12 years. RESULTS: A total of 444 868 records for children with an overall positivity rate of 22% were studied. The mean age was 9.5 years. The odds ratios of children with obesity or overweight after controlling for sex at 6 years to test positive were 1.07-1.12 and 1.06-1.08 (depending on the model), respectively, compared to those with healthy range body mass index. CONCLUSION: Excess weight appears to increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This finding should be considered for public health planning. For example, children with overweight and obesity should be prioritised for vaccination. Excess weight in childhood can be harmful at a young age and not only for long-term health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Humans , Child , Overweight/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Weight Gain
11.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 31(3): 413-424, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292562

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Phenotypical comparisons between individuals with obesity without binge eating disorder (OB) and individuals with obesity and comorbid binge eating disorder (OB + BED) are subject to ongoing investigations. At the same time, gender-related differences have rarely been explored, raising the question whether men and women with OB and OB + BED may require differently tailored treatments. METHOD: We retrospectively compared pre- versus post-treatment data in a matched sample of n = 180 men and n = 180 women with OB or OB + BED who received inpatient treatment. RESULTS: We found that men displayed higher weight loss than women independent of diagnostic group. In addition, men with OB + BED showed higher weight loss than men with OB after 7 weeks of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings add to an emerging yet overall still sparse body of studies comparing phenotypical features and treatment outcomes in men and women with OB and OB + BED; implications for further research are discussed. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was prospectively registered with the German Clinical Trial Register as part of application DRKS00028441.


Subject(s)
Binge-Eating Disorder , Bulimia , Female , Humans , Male , Binge-Eating Disorder/epidemiology , Binge-Eating Disorder/therapy , Binge-Eating Disorder/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Overweight , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome , Weight Loss
12.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 77(4): 460-467, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Further investigation is needed to define the impact of long-term pandemic lockdown in children. OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in body mass index z-score (zBMI), lifestyle, Health-Related Quality of Life and proportion of overweight or obesity (OW/OB) in 6- to 9-year-old children in Argentina. METHODS: Observational study with baseline measurements prior to lockdown and follow-up after eight months of strict restrictive measures (November 2020, first visit, n = 144) and after ten months of partial reopening (September 2021, second visit, n = 108). Anthropometric changes from baseline to first visit in lockdown group (LG) were compared with a historical control group (HCG, n = 134). Follow-up visits included anthropometric measures, lifestyle questionnaire and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. RESULTS: Change in zBMI was higher in LG [median, IQR: 0.46 (-0.00; 0.83)] vs HCG [median, IQR: 0.02 (-0.31; 0.27)]; p < 0.001, particularly in children with pre-existing OW/OB. In LG, zBMI was higher at first and second visit vs baseline (p < 0.001) and in second visit vs first visit for boys (p = 0.037) but not for girls. The proportion of children with OW/OB increased from baseline (43.5%) to first (56.5%) and second visit (58.3%) (p = 0.029). Unlike girls, the proportion of boys with OW/OB increased from baseline to first and second visit (p = 0.045). Change in zBMI was higher in children with less healthy habits (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain continued to increase in boys when lockdown measurements were eased, although sedentary behaviors decreased and quality of life improved, indicating that the effects of pandemic lockdown could be difficult to reverse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Female , Child , Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Quality of Life , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Obesity/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Weight Gain , Overweight/epidemiology , Life Style
13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 31 Suppl 1: 150-160, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297924

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of telephone-based delivery of weekday-only time-restricted eating (TRE), its preliminary efficacy for metabolic outcomes, and concurrent lifestyle changes. METHODS: Twenty-two breast cancer survivors aged 60+ years with overweight/obesity completed an 8-week feasibility study of 12 to 8 p.m. weekday-only ad libitum TRE. The intervention was delivered by one registered dietitian call, twice-daily automated text messages asking about eating start and stop times, and three support phone calls. Magnetic resonance imaging, venipuncture, and 3 days of diet records and accelerometry were performed at baseline and after intervention. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 66 (SD 5) years with BMI of 31.8 (4.8) kg/m2 . Intervention implementation was successful, including excellent adherence (98%), participant acceptability, and a low symptom profile and cost ($63/participant). There were no significant changes in individual components of metabolic syndrome, lipid profile, or hemoglobin A1c , despite clinically relevant changes occurring within individual participants. Magnetic resonance imaging-derived hepatic steatosis and thigh myosteatosis did not change. Dietary intake changes included reduced energy (-22%) and protein (-0.2 g/kg). Physical activity and sleep did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of telephone-delivered weekday TRE is a feasible, acceptable, low-symptom, and low-cost intervention. Future studies may consider a longer intervention length for more consistent metabolic improvements and counseling to enhance protein intake.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Cancer Survivors , Humans , Aged , Female , Overweight/therapy , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Obesity/therapy , Exercise
14.
J Nutr ; 153(4): 1178-1188, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diet, a key component of type 1 diabetes (T1D) management, modulates the intestinal microbiota and its metabolically active byproducts-including SCFA-through fermentation of dietary carbohydrates such as fiber. However, the diet-microbiome relationship remains largely unexplored in longstanding T1D. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether increased carbohydrate intake, including fiber, is associated with increased SCFA-producing gut microbes, SCFA, and intestinal microbial diversity among young adults with longstanding T1D and overweight or obesity. METHODS: Young adult men and women with T1D for ≥1 y, aged 19-30 y, and BMI of 27.0-39.9 kg/m2 at baseline provided stool samples at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 mo of a randomized dietary weight loss trial. Diet was assessed by 1-2 24-h recalls. The abundance of SCFA-producing microbes was measured using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. GC-MS measured fecal SCFA (acetate, butyrate, propionate, and total) concentrations. Adjusted and Bonferroni-corrected generalized estimating equations modeled associations of dietary fiber (total, soluble, and pectins) and carbohydrate (available carbohydrate, and fructose) with microbiome-related outcomes. Primary analyses were restricted to data collected before COVID-19 interruptions. RESULTS: Fiber (total and soluble) and carbohydrates (available and fructose) were positively associated with total SCFA and acetate concentrations (n = 40 participants, 52 visits). Each 10 g/d of total and soluble fiber intake was associated with an additional 8.8 µmol/g (95% CI: 4.5, 12.8 µmol/g; P = 0.006) and 24.0 µmol/g (95% CI: 12.9, 35.1 µmol/g; P = 0.003) of fecal acetate, respectively. Available carbohydrate intake was positively associated with SCFA producers Roseburia and Ruminococcus gnavus. All diet variables except pectin were inversely associated with normalized abundance of Bacteroides and Alistipes. Fructose was inversely associated with Akkermansia abundance. CONCLUSIONS: In young adults with longstanding T1D, fiber and carbohydrate intake were associated positively with fecal SCFA but had variable associations with SCFA-producing gut microbes. Controlled feeding studies should determine whether gut microbes and SCFA can be directly manipulated in T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Acetates , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Eating , Fatty Acids, Volatile/analysis , Feces/chemistry , Fructose , Obesity , Overweight , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
15.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 185, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the differential diagnosis of girls aged 6 to 8 years with idiopathic premature thelarche (IPT) and central precocious puberty (CPP) during the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored predicted adult height (PAH) discrepancy to guide appropriate diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: From January 2020 to December 2021, Chinese girls aged 6 to 8 years with precocious puberty were recruited. They were divided into IPT and CPP groups. Clinical characteristics, including height, weight, body mass index (BMI), basal luteinizing hormone (LH), oestradiol, uterine length and volume, follicle numbers (d > 4 mm) and bone age (BA) were recorded. We analysed differential diagnosis and PAH discrepancy in both groups. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore risk factors for CPP, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to evaluate the diagnostic value of related indexes. RESULTS: Sixty patients, including 40 girls with IPT and 20 girls with CPP, were recruited. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the entire cohort was 25% (15/60) and was significantly higher in IPT than CPP, 32.5% (13/40) vs. 10% (2/20), respectively (P=0.045). There were significant differences in LH, uterine volume, follicle numbers and BA (P<0.05). The impaired PAH of IPT and CPP was 0.01 ± 1.19 SD and 0.62 ± 0.94 SD with significant differences (P=0.047). Logistic regression analysis showed that LH and follicle numbers were independent risk factors for CPP. The ROC curve showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of LH and follicle numbers were 0.823 and 0.697. The sensitivity and specificity of LH with a cut off of 0.285 IU/L were 78.9% and 77.8%. The sensitivity and specificity of follicle numbers with a cut off of 3.5 were 89.5% and 52.8%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in 6- to 8-year-old girls with precocious puberty was high. Auxological data should not be used in the differential diagnosis of IPT and CPP. Basal LH above 0.285 IU/L and follicle numbers greater than 4 were important features suggestive of CPP. PAH was impaired in individuals with CPP, but it was not impaired in individuals with IPT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Puberty, Precocious , Female , Adult , Humans , Child , Puberty, Precocious/diagnosis , Puberty, Precocious/epidemiology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Pilot Projects , Overweight/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Luteinizing Hormone , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing
16.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0282823, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303723

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Excess body weight causes 4 million deaths annually across the world. The number of people affected by humanitarian crises stands at a record high level with 1 in 95 people being forcibly displaced. These epidemics overlap. Addressing obesity is a post-acute phase activity in non-communicable disease management in humanitarian settings. Information is needed to inform guidelines and timing of interventions. The objective of this review was to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity in populations directly affected by humanitarian crises; the cascade of care in these populations and perceptions of patients with overweight and obesity. METHODS: Literature searches were carried out in five databases. Grey literature was identified. The population of interest was non-pregnant, civilian adults who had experience of humanitarian crises (armed conflict, complex emergencies and natural disasters). All study types published from January 1st, 2011, were included. Screening, data extraction and quality appraisal were carried out in duplicate. A narrative synthesis is presented. RESULTS: Fifty-six reports from forty-five studies were included. Prevalence estimates varied widely across the studies and by subgroups. Estimates of overweight and obesity combined ranged from 6.4% to 82.8%. Studies were heterogenous. Global distribution was skewed. Increasing adiposity was seen over time, in older adults and in women. Only six studies were at low risk of bias. Body mass index was the predominant measure used. There were no studies reporting cascade of care. No qualitative studies were identified. CONCLUSION: Overweight and obesity varied in crisis affected populations but were rarely absent. Improved reporting of existing data could provide more accurate estimates. Worsening obesity may be prevented by acting earlier in long-term crises and targeting risk groups. The use of waist circumference would provide useful additional information. Gaps remain in understanding the existing cascade of care. Cultural norms around diet and ideal body size vary.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Overweight , Humans , Female , Aged , Overweight/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Narration
17.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 120(4): e20220277, 2023 03.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) increase the expression of ACE2, which is a receptor for entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells. Though evidence suggests that ARB/ACEI are safe among the general population with COVID-19, their safety in patients with overweight/obesity-related hypertension deserves further evaluation. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between ARB/ACEI use and COVID-19 severity in patients with overweight/obesity-related hypertension. METHODS: This study included 439 adult patients with overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) and hypertension, diagnosed with COVID-19 and admitted to University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinic from March 1 to December 7, 2020. Mortality and severity of COVID-19 were evaluated based on length of stay in hospital, intensive care unit admission, use of supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations of ARB/ACEI use with mortality and other markers of COVID-19 severity, with a two-sided alpha set at 0.05. RESULTS: Exposure to ARB (n = 91) and ACEI (n = 149) before hospitalization was significantly associated with lower mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 0.362, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.149 to 0.880, p = 0.025) and a shorter length of stay (95% CI -0.217 to -0.025, p = 0.015). Additionally, patients using ARB/ACEI showed a non-significant trend toward lower intensive care unit admission (OR = 0.727, 95% CI 0.485 to 1.090, p = 0.123), use of supplemental oxygen (OR = 0.929, 95% CI 0.608 to 1.421, p = 0.734), mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.728, 95% CI 0.457 to 1.161, p = 0.182), and vasopressors (OR = 0.677, 95% CI 0.430 to 1.067, p = 0.093). CONCLUSION: Results suggest that hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and overweight/obesity-related hypertension who were prescribed ARB/ACEI before admission to the hospital exhibit lower mortality and less severe COVID-19 than those who were not taking ARB/ACEI. The results also suggest that exposure to ARB/ACEI may protect patients with overweight/obesity-related hypertension from severe COVID-19 and death.


FUNDAMENTO: Os bloqueadores dos receptores da angiotensina (BRA) e os inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina (IECA) aumentam a expressão de ACE2, que é um receptor para entrada de SARS-CoV-2 nas células. Embora as evidências sugiram que os IECA/BRA são seguros entre a população geral com COVID-19, sua segurança em pacientes com hipertensão relacionada ao sobrepeso/obesidade merece uma avaliação mais aprofundada. OBJETIVO: Avaliamos a associação entre o uso de IECA/BRA e a gravidade da COVID-19 em pacientes com hipertensão relacionada ao sobrepeso/obesidade. MÉTODOS: O presente estudo incluiu 439 pacientes adultos com sobrepeso/obesidade (índice de massa corporal ≥ 25 kg/m2) e hipertensão, diagnosticados com COVID-19 e internados no University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinic entre 1º de março e 7 de dezembro de 2020. Foram avaliadas a mortalidade e a gravidade da COVID-19 com base no tempo de internação hospitalar, internação em unidade de terapia intensiva, uso de oxigênio suplementar, ventilação mecânica e uso de vasopressores. A regressão logística multivariável foi usada para examinar as associações do uso de IECA/BRA com a mortalidade e outros marcadores de gravidade de COVID-19, com um alfa bilateral definido em 0,05. RESULTADOS: A exposição aos BRA (n = 91) e IECA (n = 149) antes da hospitalização foi significativamente associada a menor mortalidade ( odds ratio [OR] = 0,362, intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95% 0,149 a 0,880, p = 0,025) e menor tempo de internação hospitalar (IC 95% −0,217 a −0,025, p = 0,015). Adicionalmente, os pacientes em uso de IECA/BRA apresentaram uma tendência não significativa de menor internação em unidade de terapia intensiva (OR = 0,727, IC 95% 0,485 a 1,090, p = 0,123), uso de oxigênio suplementar (OR = 0,929, IC 95% 0,608 a 1,421,p = 0,734), ventilação mecânica (OR = 0,728, IC 95% 0,457 a 1,161, p = 0,182) e vasopressores (OR = 0,677, IC 95% 0,430 a 1,067, p = 0,093). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que pacientes internados com COVID-19 e hipertensão relacionada ao sobrepeso/obesidade que receberam IECA/BRA antes da internação apresentam menor mortalidade e COVID-19 menos grave do que aqueles que não estavam tomando IECA/BRA. Os resultados também sugerem que a exposição aos IECA/BRA pode proteger pacientes com hipertensão relacionada ao sobrepeso/obesidade de COVID-19 grave e morte.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Overweight/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/complications , Obesity/complications , Oxygen
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(7)2023 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301151

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, governments around the world have adopted an array of measures intended to control the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, using both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). NPIs are public health interventions that do not rely on vaccines or medicines and include policies such as lockdowns, stay-at-home orders, school closures, and travel restrictions. Although the intention was to slow viral transmission, emerging research indicates that these NPIs have also had unintended consequences for other aspects of public health. Hence, we conducted a narrative review of studies investigating these unintended consequences of NPIs, with a particular emphasis on mental health and on lifestyle risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCD): physical activity (PA), overweight and obesity, alcohol consumption, and tobacco smoking. We reviewed the scientific literature using combinations of search terms such as 'COVID-19', 'pandemic', 'lockdowns', 'mental health', 'physical activity', and 'obesity'. NPIs were found to have considerable adverse consequences for mental health, physical activity, and overweight and obesity. The impacts on alcohol and tobacco consumption varied greatly within and between studies. The variability in consequences for different groups implies increased health inequalities by age, sex/gender, socioeconomic status, pre-existing lifestyle, and place of residence. In conclusion, a proper assessment of the use of NPIs in attempts to control the spread of the pandemic should be weighed against the potential adverse impacts on other aspects of public health. Our findings should also be of relevance for future pandemic preparedness and pandemic response teams.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Population Health , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Obesity/epidemiology
19.
Pediatr Obes ; 17(6): e12890, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ramifications of COVID-19 restrictions might accelerate the already rising proportion of children with overweight or obesity. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between COVID-19 restrictions and changes in body mass index (BMI) and the proportion of children with overweight or obesity. METHODS: Cohort study with baseline measurements in September 2019 (prior to COVID-19 restrictions) and follow-up in June 2020, September 2020, and March 2021 at 12 primary schools in Austria. The height and weight of 738 children aged 7 to 10 years were measured and age- and sex-specific national and international standardized values were calculated. Changes over time were analysed by analysis of variance. RESULTS: Mean BMIIOTF standard deviation scores (SDS) increased by 0.24 (95% CI, 0.21-0.28) between September 2019 and March 2021. The proportion of children with overweight or obesity increased from 20.7% to 26.2% during this period (p < 0.001) using national reference values-EQUI BMIAUT -comparable results were observed. Simultaneously, the heightAUT SDS increased by 0.06 (95% CI, 0.05-0.08) with a larger increase in girls (+0.11; p < 0.001) than in boys (+0.03; p = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 restrictions were associated with accelerated increases in mean BMI and the proportion of children with overweight or obesity. The increase in height SDS in girls calls for further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Acceleration , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Schools
20.
Clin Obes ; 12(3): e12522, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258249

ABSTRACT

Remote learning and shelter-in-place orders during the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with obesity risk factors such as decreased physical activity, altered routines and sleep schedules, increased screen time, and non-nutritious food choices. The objective of this brief report is to describe change in weight category 3-6 months after the onset of the pandemic in a cohort of 4509 low-income youth. Inclusion criteria were youth aged 2-17 years with weight and height measure in a large primary care network between 1 January and 30 March 2020 (Q1), designated as pre-COVID period; and 1 June-30 September 2020, (Q3), as early-COVID period. Change in weight category was assessed between Q1 and Q3. Adjusting for visit type and time lapse, logistic regression was conducted to examine the association between weight category change and age, sex, and race/ethnicity. The proportion of youth with overweight or obesity increased from 37.8% to 44.6%; and declined by 5.6% in the healthy weight category. Over the 3-6 month period, 23.1% of youth gained ≥5 kg, 4.3% gained ≥10 kg, and 17.8% increased their BMI by ≥2 units. Among underweight youth, 45.3% switched to the healthy weight category, with a median weight gain of 2.1 kg (interquartile range [IQR] = 2.1 kg). Median weight gain was highest among those youth with severe obesity (5.8 kg, IQR = 5.2 kg). Younger age (2-9 years), female and ethnic-minority youth were more likely to change to a higher/worse weight category. Significant weight gain occurred in the first 3-6 months of the pandemic among low-income youth, reflecting the short-term effects of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Weight Gain
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL