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1.
Am J Health Promot ; 36(2): 385-387, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624918

ABSTRACT

Both global and US data show associations between COVID-19 death rates and overweight or obesity, which are also risk factors for several other outcomes. Evidence suggests that among the strategies to reduce overweight and obesity are the simple actions of increasing fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Potential benefits include saving thousands of lives and billions of dollars in a future pandemic and reduced risk of other chronic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Fruit , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vegetables
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613810

ABSTRACT

We hypothesized that women who are overweight, experiencing COVID-19-related stress, and with high body dissatisfaction would have significantly greater disordered eating than those of healthy weight, without stress, and with low body dissatisfaction. Participants (N = 1354 women; Mage= 31.89 years, SD = 11.14) filled in the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, the Emotional Overeating Questionnaire, the Eating Motivation Survey, the Mindful Eating Questionnaire, and a COVID-19-related stress measure and sociodemographic survey. The cluster analysis technique revealed four distinct clusters: (a) Cluster 1 (N = 314): healthy body weight, no COVID-related stress, and low body dissatisfaction (M = 1.19); (b) Cluster 2 (N = 131): overweight, no COVID-related stress, and high body dissatisfaction (M = 2.41); (c) Cluster 3 (N = 597): healthy body weight, COVID-related stress, and low body dissatisfaction (M = 1.27); (d) Cluster 4 (N = 312): overweight, COVID-related stress, and high body dissatisfaction (M = 2.84). Generally, our outcomes partially support our hypothesis, as higher levels of some types of disordered eating were observed in women who were overweight with COVID-related stress and high body dissatisfaction (Cluster 4) as compared with women with healthy body weight, no COVID-related stress, and with low levels of body dissatisfaction (Cluster 1). Our results indicate that both body weight status, as well as COVID-19-related stress and body dissatisfaction, may contribute to the intensity of disordered eating. During future epidemic-related quarantines, this may be an argument in favor of organizing support regarding emotional functioning, body image, and eating behaviors, particularly for the most vulnerable groups-including overweight and obese women.


Subject(s)
Body Dissatisfaction , COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Body Image , Cluster Analysis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 720589, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593019

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Motor Performance (MP) in children is an important resource for their future active lifestyle and health. Monitoring of MP is crucial to derive information of trends and to implement specific programs on the base of current MP levels. A variety of MP assessment tools exist, making it difficult to determine a "gold-standard" for assessment and to compare the findings. In Germany, the German Motor Test 6-18 (GMT 6-18) and Kinderturntest Plus 3-10 (KITT+ 3-10) are widely used MP assessment tools. The aim of this paper is to show which key questions can be answered within the context of a best practice example of a MP assessment tool and what can be derived from this for a practical application (the Fitness Barometer). Methods: The raw data of the Fitness Barometer was collected with the MP assessment tools GMT 6-18 and KITT+ 3-10 from 2012 through 2020. Data was pooled anonymously with the e-Research infrastructure MO|REdata and categorized into percentiles for MP and BMI. Overall, we included data of 23,864 children for the statistical analyses. T-tests for independent samples, percentage frequency analysis, descriptive statistics (chi- square-test) and single analysis of variance were conducted. Results and Discussion: Children tested reached a mean value of 57.03 (SD = 18.85). Of the sample, 12.7% children were overweight or obese and there is a significant difference between age groups [ χ ( 4 ) 2 = 178.62, p < 0.001, Cramer V = 0.09; n = 23.656]. The relationship between BMI category and mean value of MP was significant [F (4,19,523) = 224.81, p < 0.001]. During 2020, the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, mean value of endurance and speed decreased [Welch's F (1,573) = 8.08, p = 0.005; Welch's F (1,610) = 35.92, p < 0.001]. The GMT 6-18 and KITT+ 3-10 are valid, objective, reliable, and economic MP assessment tools for monitoring MP levels and derive added practical value. Specific programs and interventions should focus on the findings of these. The Fitness Barometer is a best practice example how a standardized assessment tool of monitoring MP point to trends on which practical evidence-based suggestions can be derived with many various partners and expertise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Exercise , Humans , Overweight , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554919

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent self-isolation exacerbated the problem of insufficient amounts of physical activity and its consequences. At the same time, this revealed the advantage of vitamin D. Thus, there was a need to verify the effects of those forms of training that can be performed independently. In this study, we examined the effects of Nordic walking (NW) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) with regard to the impact of the metabolite vitamin D. We assigned 32 overweight adults (age = 61 ± 12 years) to one of two training groups: NW = 18 and HIIT = 14. Body composition assessment and blood sample collection were conducted before starting the training programs and a day after their completion. NW training induced a significant decrease in myostatin (p = 0.05) concentration; however, the range was dependent on the baseline concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. This drop was accompanied by a significant negative correlation with the decorin concentration. Unexpectedly, NW caused a decrement in both forms of osteocalcin: undercarboxylated (Glu-OC) and carboxylated-type (Gla-OC). The scope of Glu-OC changes was dependent on a baseline concentration of 25(OH)D2 (r = -0.60, p = 0.01). In contrast, the HIIT protocol did not induce any changes. Overall results revealed that NW diminished the myostatin concentration and that this effect is more pronounced among adults with a sufficient concentration of vitamin D metabolites.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , High-Intensity Interval Training , Myostatin/blood , Overweight , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vitamin D/blood , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Overweight/blood , Overweight/physiopathology
5.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542689

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to perform a 12-month follow-up of health parameters after a 17-week lifestyle intervention in overweight airline pilots. A parallel-group (intervention and control) study was conducted amongst 72 overweight airline pilots (body mass index > 25) over a 12-month period following the emergence of COVID-19. The intervention group (n = 35) received a personalized dietary, sleep, and physical activity program over a 17-week period. The control group (n = 37) received no intervention. Measurements for subjective health (physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, fruit and vegetable intake, and self-rated health) via an electronic survey, and objective measures of body mass and blood pressure were taken at baseline and at 12 months. Significant interactions for group × time from baseline to 12-months were found for all outcome measures (p < 0.001). Body mass and mean arterial pressure significantly decreased in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Outcome measures for subjective health (physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, fruit and vegetable intake, and self-rated health) significantly increased in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Results provide preliminary evidence that a brief three-component healthy sleep, diet and physical activity intervention can elicit and sustain long-term improvements in body mass and blood pressure management, health behaviors, and perceived subjective health in pilots and may support quality of life during an unprecedented global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Health Behavior , Life Style , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Overweight
6.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 237-244, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535079

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19, caused by the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has overwhelmed the world's health systems. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients treated in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with or suspected of having COVID-19 from March 23 to July 31, 2020 was conducted. RESULTS: 4,401 patients were hospitalized at Central Military Hospital, out of which 35 % were beneficiaries, 26 % civilians, 28 % active military personnel, and only 11 %, retired military personnel. Male gender predominated, both in hospitalized patients and in those who died, as well as the O+ group and absence of comorbidities; among the observed comorbidities, the main ones were overweight and diabetes. Hospitalized patients' median age was 49 years, while median age of those who died was 62 years; women older than 51 years had a higher risk of dying. Adjusted case fatality rate was 18.5 %; 50 % died within the first six days. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the epidemiological characteristics and main comorbidities in Mexican patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Overweight/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
7.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493512

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiome manipulation to alter the gut-lung axis may potentially protect humans against respiratory infections, and clinical trials of probiotics show promise in this regard in healthy adults and children. However, comparable studies are lacking in overweight/obese people, who have increased risks in particular of viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). This Addendum further analyses our recent placebo-controlled trial of probiotics in overweight/obese people (focused initially on weight loss) to investigate the impact of probiotics upon the occurrence of URTI symptoms. As well as undergoing loss of weight and improvement in certain metabolic parameters, study participants taking probiotics experienced a 27% reduction in URTI symptoms versus control, with those ≥45 years or BMI ≥30 kg/m2 experiencing greater reductions. This symptom reduction is apparent within 2 weeks of probiotic use. Gut microbiome diversity remained stable throughout the study in probiotic-treated participants. Our data provide support for further trials to assess the potential role of probiotics in preventing viral URTI (and possibly also COVID-19), particularly in overweight/obese people.


Subject(s)
Obesity/complications , Overweight/complications , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Adult , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Self Report
8.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 209, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social consequences of COVID-19 pandemic are universally known. In particular, the pediatric population is dealing with a radical lifestyle change. For some risk categories, such as overweight or obese children, the impact of home confinement has been greater than for others. The increased sedentary life, the wrong diet and social distancing have stopped the chance of losing weight. The aims of this study were to analyse the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the behavior changes in a obese pediatric population and to explore the correlation between the new lifestyle and the level of parental instruction. METHODS: Data show features of 40 obese and overweight pediatric patients of our Clinic in Messina (Italy). We evaluated weight, height, BMI and other biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, transaminases, glycemia and insulinemia. After the lockdown, we contacted all patients in order to get some information about diet, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle changes in correlation to the level of their parents' instruction. Additionally, we also evaluated 20 children twice from a clinical and laboratory perspective. RESULTS: The study showed an increase of daily meals during COVID-19 lockdown (3.2 ± 0.4 vs 5 ± 1, P < 0.001). In particular, children whose parents have primary school diploma ate a greater significant number of meals during the lockdown, compared to those who have parents with secondary school diploma (P = 0.0019). In addition, the 95% of patients did low physical activity during the lockdown and the 97.5% spent more time in sedentary activity. Even if BMI's values don't show significant differences, they have increased after the lockdown. We didn't find any correlation between biochemical parameters before and after the lockdown. CONCLUSION: The lockdown has had bad consequences on good style of life's maintenance in overweight and obese children. The absence of a significant correlation between the worsening of biochemical parameters and the lockdown doesn't allow to exclude any long-term consequences. It's safe to assume that, if the hours spent in sedentary activity and the number of meals don't diminish, there will probably repercussion on the biochemical parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Exercise/physiology , Life Style , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Quarantine/methods , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051230, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443604

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Obesity and vitamin D deficiency are major public health problems. According to the pathophysiological mechanism of obesity as well as the bidirectional relationship between obesity and vitamin D metabolism and storage, vitamin D supplementation in obese and overweight subjects could have beneficial effects on the energy and metabolic homoeostasis. This review will assess the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on the energy and metabolic homoeostasis in overweight and obese subjects. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols, we retrieved the relevant literature from the following electronic bibliographic databases: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from inception to June 2021. A manual search of the reference lists of all the relevant research articles will be performed to identify additional studies. We will include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English that examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on energy and metabolic homoeostasis in overweight and obese subjects. RCTs with multiple vitamin D groups will also be included. Two reviewers will independently complete the article selection, data extraction and rating. The bias tool from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. A narrative or quantitative synthesis will be performed based on the available data. The planned start and end dates for the study were 1 February 2021 and 1 March 2022. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be required for this review. The results of this review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021228981.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Overweight , Dietary Supplements , Homeostasis , Humans , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Vitamin D
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 421, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The growing number of adolescents who are overweight or obese (OW / OB) is a public concern. The present study was aimed to evaluate physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) (screen time (ST) and homework time (HT)) among Yazd OW/OB adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed among 510 students aged 12-16 in Yazd, Iran. The general information, PA, and SB (ST and HT) were collected by interview based on the WHO standard questionnaire. Anthropometric data were assessed by precise instruments. Daily energy intake (Energy) was obtained from a 7-day food record. Nutritionist 4 software (version I) was run to estimate the energy. RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of SB > 2h/day (97.6), ST > 2h/day (70.3%), overweight or obesity (40%), abdominal obesity (36.9%), physical inactivity (29.8%) among the students. The younger age (p = 0.014), energy (p < 0.001), no access to the yard (p < 0.001), family size ≤ 2 (p = 0.023), passive transportation, (p = 0.001), the highest school days' HT (p = 0.033) and SB (p = 0.021), and the highest weekends' HT among the students were the risk factors for OW/OB. The highest PA level was associated with a lower risk of OW/OB (p < 0.001). The findings were not the same in both sexes. Compared to the normal weight students, OW / OB spent more time on school days and weekdays for ST (P <0.001), HT (P <0.001, P = 0.005) and SB (P <0.001), respectively. OW/OB students showed a higher weekends' ST (p < 0.001) and lower HT (p = 0.048) than normal-weight students. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SB, ST, OW/OB, and physical inactivity were common. The school days and weekends' HT, the school days' SB and HT, age, energy, PA, and access to the yard, family size, and passive transportation were related to the greater chances of OW/OB students. Given that the expansion of online education and self-isolation in a new situation with COVID-19, it seems we will meet the worrying results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Sedentary Behavior
11.
Obes Facts ; 14(5): 543-549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394297

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obesity are associated with a more severe COronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). Adipose tissue-related chronic inflammation could be a promoter for the occurrence of the cytokine storm that predicts aggravation of COVID-19. The primary aim was to investigate if this increased risk for more severe COVID-19 was associated with a higher inflammatory response. METHODS: We enrolled patients <75 years old hospitalized in a medical COVID-19 ward with SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. Patients were classified according to BMI as normal weight, overweight, and obesity. Laboratory parameters were measured at admission and every second day during the hospital stay. RESULTS: Ninety patients (64.4% males; median age 61 years) were enrolled. Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was needed in 9% of the patients with normal weight, in 32.4% of the patients with overweight, and in 12.9% of the patients with obesity (p = 0.045). Maximal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during hospital stay was 92 (48-122) mg/L in patients with normal weight, 140 (82-265) mg/L in patients with overweight, and 117 (67-160) mg/L in patients with obesity (p = 0.037). Maximal ferritin values were 564 (403-1,379) µg/L in patients with a normal weight, 1,253 (754-2,532) µg/L in patients with overweight, and 828 (279-1,582) µg/L in patients with obesity (p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Patients with overweight and obesity required more IMV and had higher peaks of CRP and ferritin than patients with normal weight during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , C-Reactive Protein , Female , Ferritins , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Overweight/complications
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2121675, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372682

ABSTRACT

Importance: Previous studies have shown reductions in self-reported physical activity levels in children associated with implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures, and data on objectively assessed health parameters are limited. Objective: To examine the association of COVID-19 mitigation measures with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) measures and body mass index (BMI) among primary schoolchildren. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included children aged 7 to 10 years from 12 randomly selected primary schools in urban and rural districts of Klagenfurt, Austria. Baseline CRF and BMI measurements were obtained in September 2019 before COVID-19 mitigation measures were implemented, and follow-up measurements were obtained in June and September 2020. Exposures: COVID-19 mitigation measures. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a 6-minute endurance run test. Height and weight were objectively measured. Standard deviation scores were calculated for CRF and BMI. Changes over time were analyzed using analyses of variance. Secondary analyses were performed for subgroups stratified by sex. Results: A total of 764 children (383 girls [50.1%]) aged 7 to 10 years had all measurements completed. From September 2019 to September 2020, CRF SD scores changed by -1.06 (95% CI, -1.13 to -1.00), with a similar decrease in both boys and girls. Body mass index SD scores had increased by 0.12 (95% CI, 0.06-0.16) in June 2020 and by 0.16 (95% CI, 0.12-0.20) in September 2020 compared with September 2019. The increase in BMI SD scores (from September 2019 to September 2020) was greater among boys (0.23; 95% CI, 0.18-0.29) than among girls (0.09; 95% CI, 0.04-0.15). During the 1-year period, the percentage of children with overweight or obesity increased from 20.3% (155 children) to 24.1% (184 children) (difference, 3.8% [29 children]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of children in Austria, COVID-19 mitigation measures were associated with decreases in CRF measures and increases in BMI. The findings suggest that collaborative efforts are needed to reverse these changes in children's health to prevent long-term negative health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Exercise , Obesity/etiology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Austria , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child Health , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Sports
13.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374473

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related restrictions impacted weight and weight-related factors during the initial months of the pandemic. However, longitudinal analyses are scarce. An online, longitudinal study was conducted among self-selected UK adults (n = 1818), involving three surveys (May-June, August-September, November-December 2020), covering anthropometric, sociodemographic, COVID-19-related and behavioural measures. Data were analysed using generalised estimating equations. Self-reported average weight/body mass index (BMI) significantly increased between the May-June period and the August-September period (74.95 to 75.33 kg/26.22 kg/m2 to 26.36kg/m2, p < 0.001, respectively), and then significantly decreased to November-December (to 75.06 kg/26.27 kg/m2, p < 0.01), comparable to May-June levels (p = 0.274/0.204). However, there was great interindividual variation, 37.0%/26.7% increased (average 3.64 kg (95% confidence interval: 3.32, 3.97)/1.64 kg/m2 (1.49, 1.79)), and 34.5%/26.3% decreased (average 3.59 kg (3.34, 3.85)/1.53 kg/m2 (1.42, 1.63)) weight/BMI between May-June and November-December. Weight/BMI increase was significantly negatively associated with initial BMI, and positively associated with monthly high fat, salt and sugar (HFSS) snacks intake and alcohol consumption, and for BMI only, older age. Associations were time-varying; lower initial BMI, higher HFSS snacks intake and high-risk alcohol consumption were associated with maintaining weight/BMI increases between August-September and November-December. The average weight/BMI of UK adults fluctuated between May-June and November-December 2020. However, the substantial interindividual variation in weight/BMI trajectories indicates long-term health impacts from the pandemic, associated with food and alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Feeding Behavior , Overweight/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Biological Variation, Population , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Snacks , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Weight Gain , Weight Loss , Young Adult
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045547, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354574

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the possible relationship between television viewing and overweight and obesity among Timorese women of reproductive age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analysed the Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2016 dataset. A weighted sample of 11 398 Timorese women aged 15-49 years was chosen using a two-stage stratified random sampling technique. Asian criteria-based body mass index (BMI) cut-offs were used to define overweight (BMI 23.0 to <27.5 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2). Frequency of TV viewing was categorised into three groups: (1) not at all, (2) less than once a week and (3) at least once a week. Multilevel ordered logistic regression was performed to identify the correlates of overweight and obesity. Both crude and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) along with a 95% CI were calculated to show the strength of association. RESULTS: Among 11 398 respondents, 19.4% were overweight or obese (overweight: 15.7% and obese: 3.8%). Although about half of the respondents reportedly did not watch TV at all, just over two-thirds watched TV at least once a week. Women who watched TV at least once a week were found to have 1.3 times the odds of being overweight or obese compared with those who never watched TV (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.5; p<0.001). However, when stratified by settlement type, the statistical significance stood for the rural women only (AOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 1.8; p<0.001), after adjusting for the covariates. CONCLUSION: Watching TV at least once a week was found to be a significant correlate of overweight and obesity in rural Timorese women of reproductive age. Further studies need to be undertaken to assess physical activity, sedentary and dietary patterns to clarify the possible mechanism through which TV viewing may influence BMI in those groups.


Subject(s)
Overweight , Television , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Timor-Leste
15.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1292-1301, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354178

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused deaths and shortages in medical resources worldwide, making the prediction of patient prognosis and the identification of risk factors very important. Increasing age is already known as one of the main risk factors for poor outcomes, but the effect of body mass index (BMI) on COVID-19 outcomes in older patients has not yet been investigated. Aim: We aimed to determine the effect of BMI on the severity and mortality of COVID-19 among older patients in South Korea. Methods: Data from 1272 COVID-19 patients (≥60 years old) were collected by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The odds ratios (ORs) of severe infection and death in the BMI groups were analyzed by logistic regression adjusted for covariates.Results: The underweight group (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) had a higher OR for death (adjusted OR = 2.23, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.06-4.52) than the normal weight group (BMI, 18.5-22.9 kg/m2). Overweight (BMI, 23.0-24.9 kg/m2) was associated with lower risks of both severe infection (adjusted OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.94) and death (adjusted OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.27-0.91). Conclusions: Underweight was associated with an increased risk of death, and overweight was related to lower risks of severe infection and death in older COVID-19 patients in Korea. However, this study was limited by the lack of availability of some information, including smoking status.KEY MESSAGESUnderweight is an independent risk factor of death in older COVID-19 patients.Overweight patients have a lower risk of death and severe infection than normal-weight patients.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Overweight/mortality , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thinness/mortality
16.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3219-3226, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with multiple metabolic diseases are at high risk for the occurrence and death of COVID-19. Little is known about patients with underweight and metabolically healthy obesity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of BMI and COVID-19 mortality in hospitalized patients, and also explore the association in different metabolically healthy (MHS) and unhealthy status (MUS). METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cohort study based on 3019 inpatients from Wuhan was conducted. Included patients were classified into four groups according the BMI level (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity), and patients with at least one of the metabolic abnormalities (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia) was defined as MUS. Multiple Cox model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR). Compared to patients with normal weight, the HRs of overweight and obesity for COVID-19 mortality were 1.91 (95%CI:1.02-3.58) and 2.54 (95%CI:1.22-5.25) respectively in total patients, and 2.58 (95%CI:1.16-5.75) and 3.89 (95%CI:1.62-9.32) respectively in the elderly. The HR of underweight for COVID-19 mortality was 4.58 (95%CI:1.56-13.48) in the elderly. For different metabolic statuses, both underweight, overweight and obesity had obviously negative association with COVID-19 mortality in total and elderly patients with MUS. However, no significance was found in non-elderly and patients with MHS. CONCLUSION: Not only overweight or obesity, but also underweight can be associated with COVID-9 mortality, especially in the elderly and in patients with MUS. More large-scale studies are needed for patients with underweight and metabolically healthy overweight or obesity.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity, Metabolically Benign/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339593

ABSTRACT

Changes in school meal programs can affect well-being of millions of American children. Since 2014, high-poverty schools and districts nationwide had an option to provide universal free meals (UFM) through the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP). The COVID-19 pandemic expanded UFM to all schools in 2020-2022. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011, we measured CEP effects on school meal participation, attendance, academic achievement, children's body weight, and household food security. To provide plausibly causal estimates, we leveraged the exogenous variation in the timing of CEP implementation across states and estimated a difference-in-difference model with child random effects, school and year fixed effects. On average, CEP participation increased the probability of children's eating free school lunch by 9.3% and daily school attendance by 0.24 percentage points (p < 0.01). We find no evidence that, overall, CEP affected body weight, test scores and household food security among elementary schoolchildren. However, CEP benefited children in low-income families by decreasing the probability of being overweight by 3.1% (p < 0.05) and improving reading scores of Hispanic children by 0.055 standard deviations. UFM expansion can particularly benefit at-risk children and help improve equity in educational and health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Food Assistance/statistics & numerical data , Food Services/statistics & numerical data , Meals , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Academic Success , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lunch , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , United States/epidemiology
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(8): 1294-1308, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333021

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) study previously reported that intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) reduced incident depressive symptoms and improved health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over nearly 10 years of intervention compared with a control group (the diabetes support and education group [DSE]) in participants with type 2 diabetes and overweight or obesity. The present study compared incident depressive symptoms and changes in HRQOL in these groups for an additional 6 years following termination of the ILI in September 2012. METHODS: A total of 1,945 ILI participants and 1,900 DSE participants completed at least one of four planned postintervention assessments at which weight, mood (via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9), antidepressant medication use, and HRQOL (via the Medical Outcomes Scale, Short Form-36) were measured. RESULTS: ILI participants and DSE participants lost 3.1 (0.3) and 3.8 (0.3) kg [represented as mean (SE); p = 0.10], respectively, during the 6-year postintervention follow-up. No significant differences were observed between groups during this time in incident mild or greater symptoms of depression, antidepressant medication use, or in changes on the physical component summary or mental component summary scores of the Short Form-36. In both groups, mental component summary scores were higher than physical component summary scores. CONCLUSIONS: Prior participation in the ILI, compared with the DSE group, did not appear to improve subsequent mood or HRQOL during 6 years of postintervention follow-up.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Quality of Life , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Life Style , Overweight/therapy , Weight Loss
19.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3085-3094, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The recent COVID-19 pandemic has further increased the importance of reducing obesity and prediabetes/diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the association between adiposity and regression of prediabetes/diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS) included 1351 individuals with overweight/obesity, aged 40-65, free of major cardiovascular diseases and physician diagnosed diabetes. From the 1012 participants with baseline prediabetes/diabetes, 598 who completed the follow-up were included. Over the follow-up, 25% regressed from prediabetes to normoglycemia or from diabetes to prediabetes or normoglycemia. Poisson regression with robust standard error was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) adjusting for major confounders. Higher neck circumference (NC) was associated with regression of prediabetes/diabetes (RR = 0.45 comparing extreme tertiles; 95% CI:0.30-0.66); RR was 0.49 (95% CI:0.34-0.73) for waist circumference (WC) and 0.64 (95% CI:0.44-0.92) for BMI. Significant associations were found using median cut-offs or continuous measures for weight and BMI. Greater reduction in BMI (comparing extreme tertiles) was significantly associated with regression of prediabetes/diabetes (RR = 1.44; 95% CI:1.02-2.02). Continuous measures of change in adiposity (except for NC) were also associated with regression of prediabetes/diabetes for BMI and weight. Participants who reduced BMI (>5%) increased prediabetes/diabetes regression (RR = 1.61; 95% CI:1.15-2.25) compared to those who did not; similarly for weight (RR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.10-2.19). Additional analysis for body fat percentage showing slightly weaker results than BMI/weight further supported our findings. CONCLUSION: Lower baseline adiposity and higher reduction in adiposity were associated with regression of prediabetes/diabetes among individuals with overweight/obesity.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Poisson Distribution , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Waist Circumference
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e044292, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325118

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Weight loss, consumption of a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern, reduced sodium intake and increased physical activity have been shown to lower blood pressure (BP). Use of web-based tools and telehealth to deliver lifestyle counselling could be potentially scalable solutions to improve BP through behavioural modification though limited data exists to support these approaches in clinical practice. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This randomised controlled trial will compare the efficacy of a telehealth versus self-directed lifestyle intervention in lowering 24-hour SBP in patients with overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and 24-hour SBP 120-160 mm Hg. All participants receive personalised recommendations to improve dietary quality based on a web-based Food Frequency Questionnaire, access to an online comprehensive weight management programme and a smartphone dietary app. The telehealth arm additionally includes weekly calls with registered dietitian nutritionists who use motivational interviewing. The primary outcome is change from baseline to 12 weeks in 24-hour SBP. Secondary outcomes include changes from baseline in 24-hour diastolic BP, daytime SBP, nighttime SP, daytime diastolic BP, nighttime diastolic BP, total Healthy Eating Index-2015 score, weight, waist circumference and physical activity. Other prespecified outcomes will include change in individual components of the Healthy Eating Index-2015 score, and satisfaction with the Healthy BP research study measured on a 5-point Likert scale. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the Geisinger Institutional Review Board. Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03700710.


Subject(s)
Life Style , Telemedicine , Blood Pressure , Humans , Obesity/therapy , Overweight/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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