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1.
Am J Health Promot ; 36(2): 385-387, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624918

ABSTRACT

Both global and US data show associations between COVID-19 death rates and overweight or obesity, which are also risk factors for several other outcomes. Evidence suggests that among the strategies to reduce overweight and obesity are the simple actions of increasing fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Potential benefits include saving thousands of lives and billions of dollars in a future pandemic and reduced risk of other chronic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Fruit , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vegetables
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613810

ABSTRACT

We hypothesized that women who are overweight, experiencing COVID-19-related stress, and with high body dissatisfaction would have significantly greater disordered eating than those of healthy weight, without stress, and with low body dissatisfaction. Participants (N = 1354 women; Mage= 31.89 years, SD = 11.14) filled in the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, the Emotional Overeating Questionnaire, the Eating Motivation Survey, the Mindful Eating Questionnaire, and a COVID-19-related stress measure and sociodemographic survey. The cluster analysis technique revealed four distinct clusters: (a) Cluster 1 (N = 314): healthy body weight, no COVID-related stress, and low body dissatisfaction (M = 1.19); (b) Cluster 2 (N = 131): overweight, no COVID-related stress, and high body dissatisfaction (M = 2.41); (c) Cluster 3 (N = 597): healthy body weight, COVID-related stress, and low body dissatisfaction (M = 1.27); (d) Cluster 4 (N = 312): overweight, COVID-related stress, and high body dissatisfaction (M = 2.84). Generally, our outcomes partially support our hypothesis, as higher levels of some types of disordered eating were observed in women who were overweight with COVID-related stress and high body dissatisfaction (Cluster 4) as compared with women with healthy body weight, no COVID-related stress, and with low levels of body dissatisfaction (Cluster 1). Our results indicate that both body weight status, as well as COVID-19-related stress and body dissatisfaction, may contribute to the intensity of disordered eating. During future epidemic-related quarantines, this may be an argument in favor of organizing support regarding emotional functioning, body image, and eating behaviors, particularly for the most vulnerable groups-including overweight and obese women.


Subject(s)
Body Dissatisfaction , COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Body Image , Cluster Analysis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 237-244, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535079

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19, caused by the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has overwhelmed the world's health systems. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients treated in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with or suspected of having COVID-19 from March 23 to July 31, 2020 was conducted. RESULTS: 4,401 patients were hospitalized at Central Military Hospital, out of which 35 % were beneficiaries, 26 % civilians, 28 % active military personnel, and only 11 %, retired military personnel. Male gender predominated, both in hospitalized patients and in those who died, as well as the O+ group and absence of comorbidities; among the observed comorbidities, the main ones were overweight and diabetes. Hospitalized patients' median age was 49 years, while median age of those who died was 62 years; women older than 51 years had a higher risk of dying. Adjusted case fatality rate was 18.5 %; 50 % died within the first six days. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the epidemiological characteristics and main comorbidities in Mexican patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Overweight/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
4.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 209, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social consequences of COVID-19 pandemic are universally known. In particular, the pediatric population is dealing with a radical lifestyle change. For some risk categories, such as overweight or obese children, the impact of home confinement has been greater than for others. The increased sedentary life, the wrong diet and social distancing have stopped the chance of losing weight. The aims of this study were to analyse the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the behavior changes in a obese pediatric population and to explore the correlation between the new lifestyle and the level of parental instruction. METHODS: Data show features of 40 obese and overweight pediatric patients of our Clinic in Messina (Italy). We evaluated weight, height, BMI and other biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, transaminases, glycemia and insulinemia. After the lockdown, we contacted all patients in order to get some information about diet, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle changes in correlation to the level of their parents' instruction. Additionally, we also evaluated 20 children twice from a clinical and laboratory perspective. RESULTS: The study showed an increase of daily meals during COVID-19 lockdown (3.2 ± 0.4 vs 5 ± 1, P < 0.001). In particular, children whose parents have primary school diploma ate a greater significant number of meals during the lockdown, compared to those who have parents with secondary school diploma (P = 0.0019). In addition, the 95% of patients did low physical activity during the lockdown and the 97.5% spent more time in sedentary activity. Even if BMI's values don't show significant differences, they have increased after the lockdown. We didn't find any correlation between biochemical parameters before and after the lockdown. CONCLUSION: The lockdown has had bad consequences on good style of life's maintenance in overweight and obese children. The absence of a significant correlation between the worsening of biochemical parameters and the lockdown doesn't allow to exclude any long-term consequences. It's safe to assume that, if the hours spent in sedentary activity and the number of meals don't diminish, there will probably repercussion on the biochemical parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Exercise/physiology , Life Style , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Quarantine/methods , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 421, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The growing number of adolescents who are overweight or obese (OW / OB) is a public concern. The present study was aimed to evaluate physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) (screen time (ST) and homework time (HT)) among Yazd OW/OB adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed among 510 students aged 12-16 in Yazd, Iran. The general information, PA, and SB (ST and HT) were collected by interview based on the WHO standard questionnaire. Anthropometric data were assessed by precise instruments. Daily energy intake (Energy) was obtained from a 7-day food record. Nutritionist 4 software (version I) was run to estimate the energy. RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of SB > 2h/day (97.6), ST > 2h/day (70.3%), overweight or obesity (40%), abdominal obesity (36.9%), physical inactivity (29.8%) among the students. The younger age (p = 0.014), energy (p < 0.001), no access to the yard (p < 0.001), family size ≤ 2 (p = 0.023), passive transportation, (p = 0.001), the highest school days' HT (p = 0.033) and SB (p = 0.021), and the highest weekends' HT among the students were the risk factors for OW/OB. The highest PA level was associated with a lower risk of OW/OB (p < 0.001). The findings were not the same in both sexes. Compared to the normal weight students, OW / OB spent more time on school days and weekdays for ST (P <0.001), HT (P <0.001, P = 0.005) and SB (P <0.001), respectively. OW/OB students showed a higher weekends' ST (p < 0.001) and lower HT (p = 0.048) than normal-weight students. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SB, ST, OW/OB, and physical inactivity were common. The school days and weekends' HT, the school days' SB and HT, age, energy, PA, and access to the yard, family size, and passive transportation were related to the greater chances of OW/OB students. Given that the expansion of online education and self-isolation in a new situation with COVID-19, it seems we will meet the worrying results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Sedentary Behavior
6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374473

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related restrictions impacted weight and weight-related factors during the initial months of the pandemic. However, longitudinal analyses are scarce. An online, longitudinal study was conducted among self-selected UK adults (n = 1818), involving three surveys (May-June, August-September, November-December 2020), covering anthropometric, sociodemographic, COVID-19-related and behavioural measures. Data were analysed using generalised estimating equations. Self-reported average weight/body mass index (BMI) significantly increased between the May-June period and the August-September period (74.95 to 75.33 kg/26.22 kg/m2 to 26.36kg/m2, p < 0.001, respectively), and then significantly decreased to November-December (to 75.06 kg/26.27 kg/m2, p < 0.01), comparable to May-June levels (p = 0.274/0.204). However, there was great interindividual variation, 37.0%/26.7% increased (average 3.64 kg (95% confidence interval: 3.32, 3.97)/1.64 kg/m2 (1.49, 1.79)), and 34.5%/26.3% decreased (average 3.59 kg (3.34, 3.85)/1.53 kg/m2 (1.42, 1.63)) weight/BMI between May-June and November-December. Weight/BMI increase was significantly negatively associated with initial BMI, and positively associated with monthly high fat, salt and sugar (HFSS) snacks intake and alcohol consumption, and for BMI only, older age. Associations were time-varying; lower initial BMI, higher HFSS snacks intake and high-risk alcohol consumption were associated with maintaining weight/BMI increases between August-September and November-December. The average weight/BMI of UK adults fluctuated between May-June and November-December 2020. However, the substantial interindividual variation in weight/BMI trajectories indicates long-term health impacts from the pandemic, associated with food and alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Feeding Behavior , Overweight/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Biological Variation, Population , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Snacks , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Weight Gain , Weight Loss , Young Adult
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045547, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354574

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the possible relationship between television viewing and overweight and obesity among Timorese women of reproductive age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analysed the Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2016 dataset. A weighted sample of 11 398 Timorese women aged 15-49 years was chosen using a two-stage stratified random sampling technique. Asian criteria-based body mass index (BMI) cut-offs were used to define overweight (BMI 23.0 to <27.5 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2). Frequency of TV viewing was categorised into three groups: (1) not at all, (2) less than once a week and (3) at least once a week. Multilevel ordered logistic regression was performed to identify the correlates of overweight and obesity. Both crude and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) along with a 95% CI were calculated to show the strength of association. RESULTS: Among 11 398 respondents, 19.4% were overweight or obese (overweight: 15.7% and obese: 3.8%). Although about half of the respondents reportedly did not watch TV at all, just over two-thirds watched TV at least once a week. Women who watched TV at least once a week were found to have 1.3 times the odds of being overweight or obese compared with those who never watched TV (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.5; p<0.001). However, when stratified by settlement type, the statistical significance stood for the rural women only (AOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 1.8; p<0.001), after adjusting for the covariates. CONCLUSION: Watching TV at least once a week was found to be a significant correlate of overweight and obesity in rural Timorese women of reproductive age. Further studies need to be undertaken to assess physical activity, sedentary and dietary patterns to clarify the possible mechanism through which TV viewing may influence BMI in those groups.


Subject(s)
Overweight , Television , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Timor-Leste
8.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3219-3226, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with multiple metabolic diseases are at high risk for the occurrence and death of COVID-19. Little is known about patients with underweight and metabolically healthy obesity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of BMI and COVID-19 mortality in hospitalized patients, and also explore the association in different metabolically healthy (MHS) and unhealthy status (MUS). METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cohort study based on 3019 inpatients from Wuhan was conducted. Included patients were classified into four groups according the BMI level (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity), and patients with at least one of the metabolic abnormalities (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia) was defined as MUS. Multiple Cox model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR). Compared to patients with normal weight, the HRs of overweight and obesity for COVID-19 mortality were 1.91 (95%CI:1.02-3.58) and 2.54 (95%CI:1.22-5.25) respectively in total patients, and 2.58 (95%CI:1.16-5.75) and 3.89 (95%CI:1.62-9.32) respectively in the elderly. The HR of underweight for COVID-19 mortality was 4.58 (95%CI:1.56-13.48) in the elderly. For different metabolic statuses, both underweight, overweight and obesity had obviously negative association with COVID-19 mortality in total and elderly patients with MUS. However, no significance was found in non-elderly and patients with MHS. CONCLUSION: Not only overweight or obesity, but also underweight can be associated with COVID-9 mortality, especially in the elderly and in patients with MUS. More large-scale studies are needed for patients with underweight and metabolically healthy overweight or obesity.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity, Metabolically Benign/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339593

ABSTRACT

Changes in school meal programs can affect well-being of millions of American children. Since 2014, high-poverty schools and districts nationwide had an option to provide universal free meals (UFM) through the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP). The COVID-19 pandemic expanded UFM to all schools in 2020-2022. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011, we measured CEP effects on school meal participation, attendance, academic achievement, children's body weight, and household food security. To provide plausibly causal estimates, we leveraged the exogenous variation in the timing of CEP implementation across states and estimated a difference-in-difference model with child random effects, school and year fixed effects. On average, CEP participation increased the probability of children's eating free school lunch by 9.3% and daily school attendance by 0.24 percentage points (p < 0.01). We find no evidence that, overall, CEP affected body weight, test scores and household food security among elementary schoolchildren. However, CEP benefited children in low-income families by decreasing the probability of being overweight by 3.1% (p < 0.05) and improving reading scores of Hispanic children by 0.055 standard deviations. UFM expansion can particularly benefit at-risk children and help improve equity in educational and health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Food Assistance/statistics & numerical data , Food Services/statistics & numerical data , Meals , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Academic Success , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lunch , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , United States/epidemiology
10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3085-3094, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The recent COVID-19 pandemic has further increased the importance of reducing obesity and prediabetes/diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the association between adiposity and regression of prediabetes/diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS) included 1351 individuals with overweight/obesity, aged 40-65, free of major cardiovascular diseases and physician diagnosed diabetes. From the 1012 participants with baseline prediabetes/diabetes, 598 who completed the follow-up were included. Over the follow-up, 25% regressed from prediabetes to normoglycemia or from diabetes to prediabetes or normoglycemia. Poisson regression with robust standard error was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) adjusting for major confounders. Higher neck circumference (NC) was associated with regression of prediabetes/diabetes (RR = 0.45 comparing extreme tertiles; 95% CI:0.30-0.66); RR was 0.49 (95% CI:0.34-0.73) for waist circumference (WC) and 0.64 (95% CI:0.44-0.92) for BMI. Significant associations were found using median cut-offs or continuous measures for weight and BMI. Greater reduction in BMI (comparing extreme tertiles) was significantly associated with regression of prediabetes/diabetes (RR = 1.44; 95% CI:1.02-2.02). Continuous measures of change in adiposity (except for NC) were also associated with regression of prediabetes/diabetes for BMI and weight. Participants who reduced BMI (>5%) increased prediabetes/diabetes regression (RR = 1.61; 95% CI:1.15-2.25) compared to those who did not; similarly for weight (RR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.10-2.19). Additional analysis for body fat percentage showing slightly weaker results than BMI/weight further supported our findings. CONCLUSION: Lower baseline adiposity and higher reduction in adiposity were associated with regression of prediabetes/diabetes among individuals with overweight/obesity.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Poisson Distribution , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Waist Circumference
11.
Acad Pediatr ; 21(8): 1434-1440, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on parental perceptions of health behaviors and food insecurity among children with overweight and obesity living in San Francisco and to assess the relationship between food insecurity and dietary intake during the pandemic. METHODS: Parents of children ages 4 to 12 in San Francisco with body mass index ≥85th percentile measured at a clinic visit at a Federally Qualified Health Center or academic practice from January 1st to March 15th, 2020 were eligible to participate. Parents completed a survey reporting on child health behaviors and household food insecurity prior to and since the start of the pandemic. Survey items were abstracted from validated surveys with adaptations. Regression models evaluated associations between food insecurity and dietary intake variables. RESULTS: Most participants (n = 145) were publicly insured (90%), Latino (77%), and spoke Spanish at home (70%). Parents perceived that child mean daily nonacademic screen time was higher during the pandemic compared to before (3.8 hours vs 1.6 hours). Mean daily physical activity was reported to be lower compared to prior to the pandemic (1 hour vs 1.8 hours). On average, reported bedtime shifted 1.6 hours later. Food insecurity increased significantly but was not associated with intake of fruits, vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, or foods with added sugar during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Parents of children with overweight or obesity in San Francisco perceive increased child screen time, decreased physical activity and later bedtimes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings suggest a need for policies that support healthy lifestyle behaviors among low-income children during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Child, Preschool , Health Behavior , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Parents , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 399-403, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIM: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health threat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between D-Sat and depression, anxiety and stress in obese patients during the coronavirus pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in 228 obese and overweight women on a weight loss diet was conducted through the use of two questionnaires. General characteristics, anthropometric indices, D-Sat and mental status were assessed in these patients. RESULTS: The greatest weight loss (WL) and waist circumference (WC) change was associated with the highest tertile of the D-Sat score in the first four months of the coronavirus pandemic (P < 0.05). Participants with the highest tertile of all D-sat score compared to those with the lowest had an 84% decrease in odds of depression. The highest tertile was also associated with decreased odds of anxiety (OR: 0.32 95%CI: 0.14; 0.68) The adjusted odds of stress score were negatively associated to the highest tertile of the D-Sat score (OR: 0.09, 95%CI (0.03, 0.23). WL was inversely related to stress (P < 0.05). Participants with higher WL and WC reduction had fewer depressive symptoms (P < 0.05). Sleep time and family income were associated with obesity. CONCLUSIONS: D-Sat and positive personal and family dynamics can improve the mental status of obese and overweight patients during quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Patient Satisfaction , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(11): 3040-3045, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319239

ABSTRACT

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic prompted the rapid development of remote medical services. During lockdown periods, children's growth data were obtained from parents' home assessments. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of home height and weight measurements and analyse their utility in clinical decision-making. METHODS: A retrospective, single-centre observational study. Children aged 3-18 years were measured for weight and height at home using guidance provided to parents on proper measurements techniques before subsequent professional re-evaluation at our endocrine institution clinic. The two sets of measurements were compared and analysed according to various clinical parameters. RESULTS: Height measurements at home and in the clinic were comparable (diff = 0.1 ± 1.3cm, p = 0.42) amongst the 107 children (mean age 10.2 ± 3.7, 56.1% males) participating in the study, except in overweight and obese children where they were significantly higher in the clinic (diff = 0.86 ± 1.48cm, p = 0.018). Weight and BMI were significantly higher in the clinic (diff = 0.45 ± 0.8kg and diff = 0.3 ± 0.6kg/m2 , p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Height measurements of children by their parents were accurate except in obese and overweight children, whereas weight measurements tended to be lower than in the clinic. With proper guidance, parents' home measurements of height and weight are accurate and suitable for clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Parents , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(10): 2269-2273, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19-related school closures may increase the prevalence of childhood obesity, which has aroused public concerns. We aimed to analyze the weight and height changes in Chinese preschool children during the COVID-19-related school closures period. METHODS: A total of 124,603 children from multi-city kindergartens in China were included in this study. We evaluated the prevalence of overweight and obese in preschool children experienced school closures, and compared the changes in BMI, weight, and height of preschool children among COVID-19 school closures period, the same period last year and the same period the year before last. RESULTS: After the school closures, childhood obesity prevalence increased, whereas overweight prevalence decreased. During school closures, the average increase in height was about 1 cm less as compared with the same period last year and the year before last, but no noteworthy difference in the weight change was observed among the three periods. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 school closures, children's height increase seemed to be more affected than weight change. Innovative, robust, and highly adaptable strategies should be taken to increase physical activity, reduce sedentary time and promote healthy diets, to minimize the adverse impact of school closures.


Subject(s)
Body Height/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Schools
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273490

ABSTRACT

On 11 March 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study focuses on a narrative review about the illness during the first year of the pandemic in relation to obesity. Databases were used to search studies published up to 8 December 2020. In total, 4430 articles and other scientific literature were found, and 24 articles were included in this one-year narrative review. The mean BMI value of severe COVID-19 patients ranged from 24.5 to 33.4 kg/m2, versus <18.5 to 24.3 kg/m2 for non-severe patients. Articles using the terms obesity or overweight without indicating the BMI value in these patients were common, but this is not useful, as the anthropometric parameters, when not defined by this index, are confusing due to the classification being different in the West compared to among Asian and Korean criteria-based adults. We proposed a new term, called COVID obesity, to define the importance of this anthropometric parameter, among others, in relation with this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Comorbidity , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(9): 2132-2136, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253920

ABSTRACT

There may be sex differences in BMI and blood pressure levels in school-age children, especially in the face of lifestyle changes. This study aimed to explore sex differences in changes in BMI and blood pressure in Chinese school-aged children during the COVID-19 quarantine. The cohort study of 445 school-aged children examined the change of BMI and blood pressure during the five-month quarantine. Multivariable Cox regression models were created to identify potential predictors of overweight, obesity, and elevated blood pressure (EBP). During the COVID-19 quarantine, the proportion of boys with overweight and obesity increased (P = 0.036), and the proportion of both boys and girls with Pre-EBP and EBP increased (P = 0.004 in boys; P < 0.001 in girls). The multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the setting, eating chili, parents' perception of their child's size and family doting were associated with overweight, obesity, and EBP. The study showed that BMI was more likely to increase in boys, and blood pressure increased in both boys and girls during the COVID-19 quarantine.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Quarantine , Sex Factors , Child , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology
18.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(4): e161-e169, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233353

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic may have negatively impacted children's weight status owing to the closure of schools, increased food insecurity and reliance on ultraprocessed foods, and reduced opportunities for outdoor activity. METHODS: In this interrupted time-series study, height and weight were collected from children (n=1,770 children, mean age=8.7 years, 55.3% male, 64.6% Black) and were transformed into BMI z-score in each August/September from 2017 to 2020. Mixed-effects linear regression estimated yearly BMI z-score change before the COVID-19 pandemic year (i.e., 2017-2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic year (i.e., 2019-2020). Subgroup analyses by sex, race (i.e., Black, White, other race), weight status (overweight or obese and normal weight), and grade (i.e., lower=kindergarten-2nd grade and upper=3rd-6th grade) were conducted. RESULTS: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, children's yearly BMI z-score change was +0.03 (95% CI= -0.10, 0.15). Change during the COVID-19 pandemic was +0.34 (95% CI=0.21, 0.47), an acceleration in BMI z-score change of +0.31 (95% CI=0.19, 0.44). For girls and boys, BMI z-score change accelerated by +0.33 (95% CI=0.16, 0.50) and +0.29 (95% CI=0.12, 0.46), respectively, during the pandemic year. Acceleration in BMI z-score change during the pandemic year was observed for children who were Black (+0.41, 95% CI=0.21, 0.61) and White (+0.22, 95% CI=0.06, 0.39). For children classified as normal weight, BMI z-score change accelerated by +0.58 (95% CI=0.40, 0.76). Yearly BMI z-score change accelerated for lower elementary/primary (+0.23, 95% CI=0.08, 0.37) and upper elementary/primary (+0.42, 95% CI=0.42, 0.63) children. CONCLUSIONS: If similar BMI z-score accelerations occurred for children across the world, public health interventions to address this rapid unhealthy BMI gain will be urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Body Mass Index , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Acta Biomed ; 92(2): e2021196, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to evaluate BMI changes in children and adolescent with obesity or overweight, analyzing the possible risk factors that contributed to weight gain during a pandemic-associated lockdown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted at the Pediatric Endocrinology Department of a third-level University Hospital in Rome, including children and adolescents with overweight and obesity. Personal, anthropometrics data and other information about physical activity, eating habits and psychological aspects were collected. RESULTS: We included in our study 64 participants, of which 33 (51.6%) were patients with overweight and 31 (48.4%) with obesity. We divided patients in two groups: patients with pre-versus post-lockdown Δ-BMI > 0 (31, 48.4%) and patients with Δ-BMI < 0 (33, 51.6%). Our data showed that patients whose BMI increased were more sedentary (p=0.024 for physical activity and p=0.005 for hours spent with videogames) during the pandemic. As for the eating habits more than half of the subjects (67.2%) had increased the consumption of homemade desserts, bread, pasta and pizza, and a worse diet was found in patients with BMI gain (p=0.000). Regarding the psychic condition the 80% of patients reported psychological discomfort, and patients with an increase in BMI had episodes of emotional feeding more frequently (p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID19 pandemic has had disastrous effects not only directly, but also indirectly through the lockdown especially on some categories, such as adolescents with overweight and obesity. The results indicate that it also causes significant changes in lifestyle, physical inactivity and psychological problems among children and adolescents with obesity/overweight.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Life Style , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) ; 10(5): 281-292, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207238

ABSTRACT

Significance: Chronic wounds impact the quality of life (QoL) of nearly 2.5% of the total population in the United States and the management of wounds has a significant economic impact on health care. Given the aging population, the continued threat of diabetes and obesity worldwide, and the persistent problem of infection, it is expected that chronic wounds will continue to be a substantial clinical, social, and economic challenge. In 2020, the coronavirus disease (COVID) pandemic dramatically disrupted health care worldwide, including wound care. A chronic nonhealing wound (CNHW) is typically correlated with comorbidities such as diabetes, vascular deficits, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. These risk factors make persons with CNHW at high risk for severe, sometimes lethal outcomes if infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (pathogen causing COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted several aspects of the wound care continuum, including compliance with wound care visits, prompting alternative approaches (use of telemedicine and creation of videos to help with wound dressing changes among others), and encouraging a do-it-yourself wound dressing protocol and use of homemade remedies/substitutions. Recent Advances: There is a developing interest in understanding how the social determinants of health impact the QoL and outcomes of wound care patients. Furthermore, addressing wound care in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of telemedicine options in the continuum of care. Future Directions: The economic, clinical, and social impact of wounds continues to rise and requires appropriate investment and a structured approach to wound care, education, and related research.


Subject(s)
Leg Ulcer/epidemiology , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Wound Infection/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Bandages , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/economics , Diabetic Foot/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/therapy , Education, Medical , Education, Nursing , Foot Ulcer/economics , Foot Ulcer/epidemiology , Foot Ulcer/therapy , Humans , Leg Ulcer/economics , Leg Ulcer/therapy , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Patient Education as Topic , Pressure Ulcer/economics , Pressure Ulcer/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care , Social Determinants of Health , Telemedicine , United States/epidemiology , Varicose Ulcer/economics , Varicose Ulcer/epidemiology , Varicose Ulcer/therapy , Wound Infection/economics , Wound Infection/microbiology , Wound Infection/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/economics , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
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