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1.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102392, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of people in many ways. However, little is known about weight gain in American adults during the pandemic. AIMS AND METHODS: The purpose of this study was to conduct a national assessment of weight gain in adult Americans after the first year of the pandemic. An online questionnaire was employed to explore perceptions of adults regarding pandemic weight gain and the relationship between weight gain and sociodemographic characteristics, pre-pandemic weight status, and psychological distress. Multiple methods were used to assess the psychometric properties of the questionnaire (i.e., face validity, content validity, and internal consistency reliability testing). Chi-Square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to assess group differences and predictors of weight gain in the study participants. RESULTS: A total of 3,473 individuals participated in the study with weight changes distributed as: gained weight (48%), remained the same weight (34%), or lost weight (18%). Those who reported being very overweight before the pandemic were most likely to gain weight (65%) versus those who reported being slightly overweight (58%) or normal weight (40%) before the pandemic. Weight gain was statistically significantly higher in those with anxiety (53%), depression (52%), or symptoms of both (52%). The final multiple regression model found that the statistically significant predictors of pandemic weight gain were psychological distress, pre-pandemic weight status, having children at home; and time since last bodyweight check. CONCLUSIONS: Population health promotion strategies in the pandemic should emphasize stress reduction to help individuals manage body weight and avoid chronic diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Weight Gain/physiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/etiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/etiology , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
2.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125716

ABSTRACT

The increase in sedentary behaviors during the COVID-19-induced lockdown may have led to a significant weight gain. To investigate this hypothesis, a representative sample of the Spanish adult population comprising 1000 subjects was enrolled in a cross-sectional study between 26 May and 10 June 2020. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted consisting of 29 questions on the topic of lifestyle habits during the lockdown. The cohort comprised 51.5% women and 51% overweight or obese subjects and had a mean age of 50 ± 18 years. Of the respondents, 44.5% self-reported weight gain during the lockdown; of these, 58.0% were women, 69.9% had previous excess weight, 44.7% lived with a relative who also gained weight, and 73.5 experienced increased appetite. Further, an increased consumption of energy-dense products was found relative to respondents who did not gain weight (p ≤ 0.016 for all). Additionally, respondents were unaware that obesity is a poor prognostic factor for COVID-19 infection, lived in smaller flats, and had a lower level of education and lower monthly income. The factors independently associated with weight gain were female gender, previous overweight or obesity, lack of food care, increased appetite, and increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, alcoholic beverages, and snacks (p ≤ 0.023 for all). Should another lockdown be mandated, extra caution is warranted to prevent weight gain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/etiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/etiology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Weight Gain
3.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 34(4): 656-659, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had wide-reaching primary and secondary health implications. The UK government implemented a national lockdown to slow the rate of infection at the end of March 2020, lasting until early summer 2020. The results from a UK nationwide survey suggest the majority of inflammatory bowel disease patients were followed up using technology-enabled care services (TECS) during this time. We therefore aimed to explore the impact of the pandemic on nutritional status of children with inflammatory bowel disease, focusing on the effect of national lockdown from March to early summer 2020. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. All patients with a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease, aged <18 years, and under the care of Southampton Children's Hospital were eligible for inclusion. Those patients who attended an outpatient appointment during time period 1 (November 2019 to February 2020), and following the period of national lockdown, time period 2 (July to November 2020), were included in the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 116 patients had paired measures. Using the World Health Organization criteria of nutritional status, 19% (n = 22/116) were mildly malnourished with a body mass index Z score (BMIZ) < -1. In this group, the mean BMIZ was -1.3 ± 0.9 at time point 1 versus -1.9 ± 0.9 at time point 2 (p = 0.03). The mean BMIZ score of those children who were overweight at time point 1 was 1.2 ± 1.2 versus 1.6 ± 1.4 at time point 2 (p = 0.2) During the period of lockdown, 27% of malnourished children (n = 6/22), 2% of normally nourished children (BMIZ > -1 to < 1) (n = 1/51) (p ≤ 0.0001) and none of the overweight children (BMIZ > 1) (n = 0/43) children (p ≤ 0.0001) had a TECS nutrition review. CONCLUSIONS: Dietetic reviews were severely restricted during the first national lockdown. Patients with low BMIZ prior to lockdown became more malnourished. During the ongoing pandemic, it is important to identify those children with nutrition risk, focusing support on this group of children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Nutritional Status , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Anthropometry , Body Mass Index , Child , Child Nutrition Disorders/etiology , Diet Surveys , Female , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/etiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
4.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983006

ABSTRACT

Unexpected isolation, which has not yet been seen on a global scale, has created the conditions for evaluating nutrition in a situation of reduced spatial activity. The study aimed to assess the influence of lockdown on selected eating habits of Polish adults. An anonymous questionnaire was conducted, including questions about eating habits and self-reported anthropometric measurements, referring to "before" and "during" lockdown. We reported the findings of 312 adults (aged 41.12 ± 13.05 years). Overall, 64.1% of the participants were women, 77.7% urban inhabitants and 78.6% employed. The average length of social isolation was 50.79 ± 10.53 days. The majority (51.6%) of the respondents did not eat outside the house during lockdown (p < 0.0001). The number of meals eaten during the day during lockdown increased significantly, 11.2% of the respondents ate 5 and more meals (p < 0.0001). The percentage of people snacking between meals increased by 5.1% during lockdown (p = 0.0001). Eggs, potatoes, sweets, canned meat and alcohol were consumed considerably more commonly during lockdown, while fast-food products, instant soups and energy drinks were eaten or drunk significantly less frequently. A marked decrease in the number of daily servings of the following products was observed: bakery products, red meat, fast food, instant soups, sweet beverages and energy drinks. Conversely, the number of daily servings of sweets and canned meat significantly increased. Two thirds of the respondents reported body weight changes, with 45.86% of the participants being overweight during lockdown. Significant changes in the diet of Polish adults were found during lockdown due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Health Behavior , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Social Isolation , Weight Gain , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fast Foods , Female , Food Preferences , Humans , Life Style , Male , Meals , Middle Aged , Obesity/etiology , Overweight/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Population
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