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1.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960757

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection causes significant economic losses to various sectors of the poultry industry worldwide. Over the past few years, the incidence of false layer syndrome in Eastern Canadian layer flocks has been associated with the increased prevalence of the IBV Delmarva (DMV)/1639 strain. In this study, 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) hens were infected with the Canadian DMV/1639 strain and observed until 16 weeks of age in order to determine if the IBV DMV/1639 strain is causing false layer syndrome. Early after infection, the virus showed a wide tissue distribution with characteristic gross and histopathological lesions in the respiratory tract and kidney. Around 60-70% of the infected hens demonstrated continuous cloacal viral shedding until the end of the experiment (at 16 weeks) which was associated with high IBV genome loads detected in the cecal tonsils. The experiment confirmed the field observations that the Canadian DMV/1639 strain is highly pathogenic to the female reproductive tract causing marked cystic lesions in the oviduct. Moreover, significant histopathological damage was observed in the ovary. Our study provides a detailed description of the pathological consequences of the IBV DMV/1639 strain circulating in an important poultry production sector.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Oviducts/virology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/isolation & purification , Oviducts/pathology , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Poultry Diseases/physiopathology , Reproduction , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Virulence
2.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 149-156, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550615

ABSTRACT

Infection of the oviduct by an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in laying hens has been associated with the false layer syndrome. Because the diagnostic procedure for the detection of cystic oviducts by postmortem examinations in IBV-positive replacement pullet flocks could involve the unnecessary sacrifice of numerous healthy pullets without reproductive tract anomalies, the development of a noninvasive and nonlethal diagnostic procedure would be desirable. The first objective of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a transcutaneous ultrasonography method to predict the presence of cystic oviducts compared to postmortem examinations in a commercial pullet flock positive for an IBV genotype Delmarva (DMV) variant. The second objective was to evaluate the performance of the same ultrasonography method to later detect false layers in the same flock in sexually mature hens by identifying the presence of an egg in the oviduct due to the presence of atretic oviducts undetectable by ultrasonography and the absence of cystic oviducts at that age. In replacement pullets, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the ultrasonography (index test) compared to the postmortem examination (reference standard test) were 73% and 91%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 67% and 93%. The ultrasonography technique showed a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 7.82 and a negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.30. In sexually mature hens, the Se, Sp, PPV, and NPV of the ultrasonography compared to the laying status were 98%. The LR+ was 49.00 and the LR- was 0.02 when compared to the laying status. In conclusion, the ultrasonography could replace postmortem examinations to detect cystic oviducts in commercial flocks of replacement pullets previously infected with an IBV-DMV 1639 variant. Although the test accuracy of ultrasonography was excellent for the hens at production peak to identify laying and nonlaying hens based on the presence of an egg in the reproductive tract, its practicality was limited due to atretic oviducts being not detectable.


Precisión diagnóstica de la ultrasonografía para detectar gallinas falsas ponedoras en una parvada comercial infectada por un virus de la bronquitis infecciosa genotipo Delmarva que causa oviductos quísticos. La infección del oviducto por el virus de bronquitis infecciosa (IBV) en gallinas de postura se ha asociado con el síndrome de la falsa ponedora. Debido a que el procedimiento de diagnóstico para la detección de oviductos quísticos mediante exámenes post mortem en parvadas de pollitas de reemplazo positivas para bronquitis infecciosa podría involucrar el sacrificio innecesario de numerosas pollitas sanas sin anomalías del tracto reproductivo, por lo tanto es deseable el desarrollo de un procedimiento de diagnóstico no invasivo y no letal. El primer objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la precisión diagnóstica de un método de ultrasonografía transcutánea para predecir la presencia de oviductos quísticos en comparación con los exámenes post mortem en un lote comercial de pollitas que resultó positivo para una variante del genotipo Delmarva (DMV) del virus de la bronquitos infecciosa. El segundo objetivo fue evaluar el desempeño del mismo método de ultrasonografía para detectar posteriormente gallinas falsas en la misma parvada en las gallinas sexualmente maduras mediante la identificación de la presencia de un huevo en el oviducto debido a la presencia de oviductos atrésicos indetectables por ultrasonografía y la ausencia de oviductos quísticos a esa edad. En las pollitas de reemplazo, la sensibilidad (Se) y la especificidad (Sp) de la ultrasonografía (prueba de índice) en comparación con el examen post mortem (prueba estándar de referencia) fueron de 73% y 91%, respectivamente. El valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y el valor predictivo negativo (VPN) fueron 67% y 93%. La técnica de ultrasonografía mostró una razón de probabilidad positiva (LR+) de 7.82 y una razón de probabilidad negativa (LR­) de 0.30. En las gallinas sexualmente maduras, la Se, Sp, PPV y NPV de la ultrasonografía en comparación con el estado de postura fueron del 98%. El LR + fue 49.00 y el LR­fue 0.02 en comparación con el estado de la postura. En conclusión, la ultrasonografía podría reemplazar los exámenes post mortem para detectar oviductos quísticos en parvadas comerciales de pollitas de reemplazo previamente infectadas con una variante DMV-1639 del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa. Aunque la precisión de la prueba de la ecografía fue excelente para las gallinas en el pico de producción para identificar gallinas ponedoras y no ponedoras en función de la presencia de un huevo en el tracto reproductivo, su funcionalidad fue limitada debido a que los oviductos atrésicos no fueron detectables.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cysts/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/isolation & purification , Poultry Diseases/diagnosis , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysts/virology , Female , Oviducts/virology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Ultrasonography/statistics & numerical data
3.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2459-2468, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359581

ABSTRACT

Cases of poor egg production were investigated in 2 layer farms from Ibaraki Prefecture in eastern Japan. To identify any microbial agents that may have caused the problem, necropsy, bacterial isolation, histopathology, and virus detection were performed. Members of the avian adenoviruses was detected by PCR in oviduct samples from both farms; chicken anemia virus coinfection was also confirmed in one of the farms. Avian adenovirus was isolated from the oviducts of the affected chickens on each farm. Inoculation into chick embryos showed tropism for the chorio-allantoic membrane. Stunting and hemorrhaging was observed in all infected embryos, as well as death in a few. Inoculation of 1-day-old specific pathogen-free chicks, and 400-day-old commercial hens, did not result in any significant findings. The isolated viruses were analyzed by sequencing of the hexon gene and were confirmed as fowl adenovirus type-c serotype-4 (FAdV-4). The 2 virus strains were found to be 99.29% similar to each other. One of the strains, Japan/Ibaraki/Y-H6/2016, was 99.15% similar to the KR5 strain. The other, Japan/Ibaraki/M-HB2/2016, was 99.57% similar to the KR5 strain. Fiber-2 gene analysis confirmed the identity as FAdV-4 that is closely related to nonpathogenic strains. Although nonpathogenic to chicks and laying hens, this infection can possibly cause economic damage. Perhaps the bigger concern is the effect on infected breeder operations. Because the virus is fatal to 9.09% of infected embryos, this could translate to a considerable loss in chick production owing to embryonic death. This is the first report of detection and isolation of FAdV-4 from the chicken oviduct; however, further studies are needed to elucidate its impact on both layer and breeder flocks. Indeed, FAdV-4 has negative effects on the avian reproductive tract as well.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections/veterinary , Aviadenovirus/physiology , Chickens , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Adenoviridae Infections/pathology , Adenoviridae Infections/virology , Animals , Aviadenovirus/classification , Aviadenovirus/isolation & purification , Chicken anemia virus/isolation & purification , Circoviridae Infections/veterinary , Circoviridae Infections/virology , Coinfection/veterinary , Female , Japan , Oviducts/virology , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/virology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms
4.
BMC Mol Cell Biol ; 20(1): 3, 2019 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Egg formation takes place in the oviduct of laying hens over a 24 h period. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes pathological lesions in the chicken oviduct. In the current study, mitochondrial counts were determined in three different segments of the oviduct during egg formation in laying chickens challenged with IBV T strain. Nuclear DNA encoded genes that are involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, fission and function were studied in the shell gland of the oviduct undergoing virus multiplication. RESULTS: In the shell gland, the mitochondrial count was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the challenged group, compared with the control group. However, it did not vary in response to IBV challenge in the isthmus and magnum regions of the oviduct. The gene succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein variant (SDHA) was down-regulated in the shell gland by IBV challenge (P < 0.05), while other genes being studied did not show responses to the challenge (P > 0.05). Differential expression of the genes was observed at different time-points of egg-shell formation. The expression levels of citrate synthase (CS), cytochrome C, somatic (CYC, S) and sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+-K+ATPase) genes were significantly higher, while those of SDHA and dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) genes were significantly lower, at 15 h compared with 5 h following oviposition of the previous egg. The expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) did not show significant change at different time-points. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that IBV T strain infection in laying hens reduced mitochondrial counts only in the shell gland region of the oviduct. The genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis or function may not show synchronised responses to that of mitochondria in the shell gland of chickens under T strain of IBV challenge.


Subject(s)
Chickens/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Egg Shell/metabolism , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Mitochondria/genetics , Organelle Biogenesis , Oviducts/physiopathology , Animals , Citrate (si)-Synthase/genetics , Cytochromes c/genetics , Dynamins/genetics , Electron Transport Complex II/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Oviducts/virology , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha/genetics , Poultry Diseases/genetics , Poultry Diseases/virology , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics
5.
Vet Res ; 49(1): 83, 2018 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157967

ABSTRACT

Since 1997, G1-lineage H9N2 avian influenza viruses have been circulating in Asia and later on in the Middle East, and they have been associated to mild respiratory disease, drops in egg production and moderate mortality in chickens, in particular in the presence of concurrent infections. In this study, we investigated the importance of the G1-lineage H9N2 A/chicken/Israel/1163/2011 virus as a primary pathogen in layers, analyzing its tropism and binding affinity for the oviduct tissues, and investigating the long-term impact on egg production. Besides causing a mild respiratory infection, the virus replicated in the oviduct of 60% of the hens causing different degrees of salpingitis throughout the organ, in particular at the level of the infundibulum, where the detection of the virus was associated with severe heterophilic infiltrate, and necrosis of the epithelium. Binding affinity assays confirmed that the infundibulum was the most receptive region of the oviduct. The drop in egg production was at its peek at 2 weeks post-infection (pi) (60% decrease) and continued up to 80 days pi (35% decrease). On day 80 pi, non-laying birds showed egg yolk peritonitis, and histopathological analyses described profound alteration of the infundibulum architecture, duct ectasia and thinning of the epithelium, while the rest of the oviduct and ovary appeared normal. Our results show that this H9N2 virus is a primary pathogen in layer hens, and that its replication in the infundibulum is responsible for acute and chronic lesions that limits the effective functionality of the oviduct, compromising the commercial life of birds.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/physiology , Influenza in Birds/virology , Oviducts/virology , Pituitary Gland/pathology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Reproduction , Animals , Female , Influenza in Birds/pathology , Influenza in Birds/physiopathology , Ovum , Pituitary Gland/virology , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Poultry Diseases/physiopathology , Tropism
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 221: 33-37, 2018 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981705

ABSTRACT

Generally, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) only infects young ducklings. Since December 2016, severe outbreaks of duck viral infection with egg drop, feed consumption decline, and ovary-oviduct disease have occurred in some laying duck flocks in Shandong Province of China. DHAV-1 isolated from the affected ducks was confirmed as the causative pathogen of the egg drop. Compared with other DHAV-1 strains, the novel isolate has three special amino acid mutation points in the most variable regions at the C-terminus of VP1. The experimental infection in laying ducks indicated that successful immunization with DHAV-1 vaccine could protect laying duck from infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported incidence of a severe duck disease outbreak involving egg drop syndrome caused by DHAV-1.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Ducks , Hepatitis A virus/classification , Hepatitis A/veterinary , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Female , Hepatitis A/pathology , Hepatitis A/virology , Oviducts/pathology , Oviducts/virology , Oviposition , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/pathology
7.
Theriogenology ; 110: 122-129, 2018 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407895

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an enveloped RNA virus that causes deformities in eggshells. The aim of this study was to investigate the innate immune response to IBV, and to determine whether prostaglandin (PG) E2, which is synthesized during inflammation, is involved in the innate immune response in the uterine mucosa. The effects of intra-oviductal inoculation with attenuated IBV (aIBV) on the expression of viral RNA recognition receptors and innate antiviral factors were examined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, and on PGE2 levels by ELISA. Then, the effects of PGE2 on the expression of innate antiviral factors in cultured uterine mucosal cells were examined. The results showed that the expression of RNA virus pattern recognition receptors (TLR3, 7, and MDA5), antimicrobial peptides (avian ß-defensins, including AvBD1, 2, 4-6 and cathelicidins, including CATH1 and 3), and interferons (IFNα, ß, γ, λ) were upregulated, and the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (PG synthase) and the level of PGE2 were increased in the uterine mucosa following aIBV inoculation. The number of AvBD2-positive cells in the mucosa also increased in response to aIBV. In cultured mucosal cells (mainly epithelial), the expression of AvBD4, 10-13 and IFNα, ß, and λ was upregulated following incubation with 500 nM PGE2. These results suggest that the expression of viral RNA-recognition receptors, AvBDs, CATHs, and IFNs and PGE2 are induced by the IBV antigen, and that the expression of a different set of AvBDs is also induced by PGE2 in the cultured uterine mucosal cells. These antiviral factors may play a role in the protection of the uterine mucosa from IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Dinoprostone/physiology , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Uterus/immunology , Animals , Chickens/genetics , Chickens/immunology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Egg Shell/metabolism , Female , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Mucous Membrane/immunology , Mucous Membrane/metabolism , Mucous Membrane/virology , Oviducts/immunology , Oviducts/metabolism , Oviducts/virology , Oviparity , Poultry Diseases/virology , Uterus/metabolism , Uterus/virology , beta-Defensins/genetics
8.
J Gen Virol ; 99(1): 36-43, 2018 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29219807

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in hens is often related to oviduct tissue damage. Our previous study suggested that H9N2 AIV induces cellular apoptosis by activating reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signalling in chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COECs). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that exerts protective effects against oxidative stress and activated HO-1 was recently shown to have antiviral activity. To study the potential involvement of HO-1 in H9N2 AIV proliferation, the role of its expression in H9N2-infected COECs was further investigated. Our results revealed that H9N2 AIV infection significantly up-regulated the expression of HO-1 and that HO-1 down-regulation by ZnPP, a classical inhibitor of HO-1, could inhibit H9N2 AIV replication in COECs. Similarly, the small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of HO-1 also markedly decreased the virus production in H9N2-infected COECs. In contrast, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of HO-1 concomitantly promoted H9N2 AIV replication. Taken together, our study demonstrated the involvement of HO-1 in AIV H9N2 proliferation, and these findings suggested that HO-1 is a potential target for inhibition of AIV H9N2 replication.


Subject(s)
Avian Proteins/genetics , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Heme Oxygenase-1/genetics , Protoporphyrins/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/metabolism , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Avian Proteins/agonists , Avian Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Avian Proteins/metabolism , Chickens , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/metabolism , Oviducts/metabolism , Oviducts/virology , Oxidative Stress , Primary Cell Culture , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/agonists , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
J Gen Virol ; 97(12): 3183-3192, 2016 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27902334

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus infection (AIV) in hens is often related to oviduct tissue damage. The viral non-structural NS1 protein is thought to play a key role in regulating the pathogenicity of AIV, but its exact function in this process remains elusive. In this study, the pro-apoptosis effect of H9N2 NS1 protein was examined on chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COECs) and our data indicated that NS1-induced oxidative stress was a contributing factor in apoptosis. Our data indicate that NS1 protein level was correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in COECs transfected with NS1 expression plasmids. Interestingly, decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were observed in NS1-transfected COECs. Treatment of COECs with antioxidants, such as pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), significantly inhibited NS1-induced apoptosis. Moreover, although antioxidant treatment has little effect on the activation of caspase-8 in NS1-transfected cells, the activation of caspase-3/9 and Bax/Bcl-2 were significantly downregulated. Taken together, the results of our study demonstrated that expression of H9N2 NS1 alone is sufficient to trigger oxidative stress in COECs. Additionally, NS1 protein can induce cellular apoptosis via activating ROS accumulation and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signalling in COECs.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza in Birds/metabolism , Oviducts/cytology , Oxidative Stress , Poultry Diseases/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Caspases/metabolism , Chickens , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/physiopathology , Influenza in Birds/virology , Mitochondria/metabolism , Oviducts/metabolism , Oviducts/virology , Poultry Diseases/physiopathology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 193: 100-5, 2016 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27599936

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis is an economically important poultry disease caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). IBV isolate YN is a virulent strain, which is genetically similar to most of the prevalent strains in China. In this study, 21-day-old commercial laying hens were infected with IBV strain YN. The damaging effects of the virus on the reproductive organs were evaluated with clinical observations, gross autopsy and histopathological examinations during the 100-day monitoring period post infection. IBV strain YN infection caused a death rate of 40.5%. Microscopic lesions were observed on the ovary post-infection, but were restricted to the acute infection period. The pathological damage to the cystic oviducts were observed throughout the surveillance period. This study provides detailed information on the pathological changes in the hen ovary and oviduct after challenge with IBV strain YN, which could provide a better understanding about the pathogenicity of IBV.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Animals , China , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Infectious bronchitis virus/isolation & purification , Ovary/pathology , Ovary/virology , Oviducts/pathology , Oviducts/virology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Virulence
11.
Avian Dis ; 60(2): 450-3, 2016 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27309286

ABSTRACT

We showed here that an H5N8-subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was transmitted to both the internal contents and shells of eggs laid by white leghorn hens experimentally infected with the virus. Seven of eight HPAIV-infected hens laid eggs until 4 days postinoculation (dpi). The mean number of eggs laid per head daily decreased significantly from 0.58 before inoculation to 0.18 after viral inoculation. The virus was detected in the eggs laid by three of the seven hens. Viral transmission was detectable beginning on 3 dpi, and virus titers in tracheal and cloacal swabs from the hens that laid the contaminated eggs exceeded 2.9 log10 EID50. The level of viral replication and its timing when virus replicates enough to be detected in oviduct after virus inoculation appear to be key factors in the transmission of H5N8 HPAIV from infected hens to laid eggs.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary , Influenza A Virus, H5N8 Subtype/physiology , Influenza in Birds/transmission , Poultry Diseases/transmission , Animals , Female , Influenza in Birds/virology , Oviducts/virology , Ovum/virology , Poultry Diseases/virology
12.
Vet Res ; 47: 35, 2016 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26915662

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the mechanism by which H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) affects eggshell quality. Thirty-week-old specific pathogen free egg-laying hens were inoculated with the chicken-origin H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) or with inoculating media without virus by combined intraocular and intranasal routes. The time course for the appearance of viral antigen and tissue lesions in the oviduct was coincident with the adverse changes in egg production in the infected hens. The viral loads of AIV have a close correlation with the changes in the uterus CaBP-D28k mRNA expression as well as the Ca concentrations in the eggshells in the infected hens from 1 to 7 days post inoculation (dpi). Ultrastructural examination of eggshells showed significantly decreased shell thickness in the infected hens from 1 to 5 dpi (P < 0.05). Furthermore, obvious changes in the structure of the external shell surface and shell membrane were detected in the infected hens from 1 to 5 dpi as compared with the control hens. In conclusion, this study confirmed that H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) infection is associated with severe lesions of the uterus and abnormal expression of CaBP-D28k mRNA in the uteri of the infected hens. The change of CaBP-D28k mRNA expression may contribute to the deterioration of the eggshell quality of the laying hens infected with AIV. It is noteworthy that the pathogenicity of H9N2 AIV strains may vary depending on the virus strain and host preference.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Egg Shell/pathology , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/physiology , Influenza in Birds/pathology , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Animals , Avian Proteins/genetics , Avian Proteins/metabolism , Calbindin 1/genetics , Calbindin 1/metabolism , Egg Shell/ultrastructure , Egg Shell/virology , Female , Gene Expression , Influenza in Birds/virology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/veterinary , Oviducts/virology , Poultry Diseases/virology
13.
Avian Pathol ; 45(1): 38-45, 2016.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26503831

ABSTRACT

Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or two doses of inactivated LaSota vaccine, followed three weeks later by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge. Eggs were collected daily and shell, albumen and yolk were subjected to virus isolation, as were oral and cloacal swabs at 2 and 4 days post-challenge (dpc). A second experiment evaluated the distribution of the virus in the reproductive tract of non-vaccinates. All vaccinated chickens survived challenge, and the levels of virus shed from cloacal swabs were decreased significantly when compared to shams. In non-vaccinated hens, virus was detected in the ovary and all segments of the oviduct. Yolk, albumen and eggshell surface from eggs laid at day 4 and 5 post-infection by sham-vaccinated hens were positive for NDV, but eggs from LaSota vaccinated hens lacked virus in internal egg components (i.e. yolk and albumen) and had reduction in the number of positive eggshell surfaces. These results indicate virulent NDV can replicate in the reproductive tract of hens and contaminate internal components of eggs and eggshell surface, but vaccination was able to prevent internal egg contamination, reducing eggshell surface contamination, and reducing shedding from digestive and respiratory tracts in virulent NDV challenged hens.


Subject(s)
Chickens/immunology , Marek Disease Vaccines/immunology , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccination/veterinary , Animals , Chickens/virology , Female , Newcastle Disease/virology , Newcastle disease virus/isolation & purification , Newcastle disease virus/pathogenicity , Oviducts/virology , Ovum/virology , Poultry Diseases/virology
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 177(3-4): 302-14, 2015 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25911114

ABSTRACT

The H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can cause serious damage to the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens, leading to severe egg-drop and poor egg shell quality. However, previous studies in relation to the oviductal-dysfunction resulted from this agent have not clearly been elucidated. In this study, apoptosis and pathologic changes in the oviducts of egg-laying hens caused by H9N2 AIV were evaluated. To understand the immune response in the pathogenic processes, 30-week old specific pathogen free (SPF) egg-laying hens inoculated with H9N2 subtype of AIV through combined intra-ocular and intra-nasal routes. H9N2 AIV infection resulted in oviductal lesions, triggered apoptosis and expression of immune related genes accompanied with infiltration of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8α(+) cells. Significant tissue damage and apoptosis were observed in the five oviductal parts (infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina) at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). Furthermore, immune-related genes, including chicken TLR3 (7, 21), MDA5, IL-2, IFN-ß, CXCLi1, CXCLi2, XCL1, XCR1 and CCR5 showed variation in the egg-laying hens infected with H9N2 AIV. Notably, mRNA expression of IFN-α was suppressed during the infection. These results show distinct expression patterns of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines amongst segments of the oviduct. Differential gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes aggregation occurring in oviducts may initiate the infected tissue in response to virus replication which may eventually lead to excessive cellular apoptosis and tissue damage.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Chickens , Cytokines/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/pathology , Oviducts/pathology , Animals , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Female , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Influenza in Birds/immunology , Influenza in Birds/virology , Oviducts/immunology , Oviducts/virology , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Poultry Diseases/virology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reproduction , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Viral Load
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 282(1803): 20142773, 2015 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25673681

ABSTRACT

Many parasites modify their host behaviour to improve their own transmission and survival, but the proximate mechanisms remain poorly understood. An original model consists of the parasitoid Dinocampus coccinellae and its coccinellid host, Coleomegilla maculata; during the behaviour manipulation, the parasitoid is not in contact with its host anymore. We report herein the discovery and characterization of a new RNA virus of the parasitoid (D. coccinellae paralysis virus, DcPV). Using a combination of RT-qPCR and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that DcPV is stored in the oviduct of parasitoid females, replicates in parasitoid larvae and is transmitted to the host during larval development. Next, DcPV replication in the host's nervous tissue induces a severe neuropathy and antiviral immune response that correlate with the paralytic symptoms characterizing the behaviour manipulation. Remarkably, virus clearance correlates with recovery of normal coccinellid behaviour. These results provide evidence that changes in ladybeetle behaviour most likely result from DcPV replication in the cerebral ganglia rather than by manipulation by the parasitoid. This offers stimulating prospects for research on parasitic manipulation by suggesting for the first time that behaviour manipulation could be symbiont-mediated.


Subject(s)
Coleoptera/parasitology , Coleoptera/virology , RNA Viruses/physiology , Wasps/virology , Animals , Coleoptera/physiology , Female , Host-Parasite Interactions , Larva/parasitology , Larva/virology , Molecular Sequence Data , Oviducts/virology , Wasps/physiology
16.
Vaccine ; 33(11): 1324-30, 2015 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25657093

ABSTRACT

High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens negatively impact egg production and cause egg contamination. Previously, vaccination maintained egg production and reduced egg contamination when challenged with a North American H5N2 HPAIV. However, Asian H5N1 HPAIV infection has some characteristics of increased pathogenicity compared to other H5 HPAIV such as more rapid drop and complete cessation in egg production. Sham (vaccinated at 25 and 28 weeks of age), inactivated H5N1 Once (1X-H5-Vax; vaccinated at 28 weeks of age only) and inactivated H5N1 Twice (2X-H5-Vax; vaccinated at 25 and 28 weeks of age) vaccinated adult White Leghorn hens were challenged intranasally at 31 weeks of age with 6.1 log10 mean embryo infectious doses (EID50) of clade 2.3.2.1a H5N1 HPAIV (A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-675/2011) which was homologous to the inactivated vaccine. Sham-vaccinated layers experienced 100% mortality within 3 days post-challenge; laid soft and thin-shelled eggs; had recovery of virus from oral swabs and in 53% of the eggs from eggshell surface (35%), yolk (24%), and albumin (41%); and had very high titers of virus (average 7.91 log10 EID50/g) in all segments of the oviduct and ovary. By comparison, 1X- and 2X-H5-Vax challenged hens survived infection, laid similar number of eggs pre- and post-challenge, all eggs had normal egg shell quality, and had significantly fewer contaminated eggs with reduced virus quantity. The 2X-H5-Vax hens had significantly higher HI titers by the day of challenge (304 GMT) and at termination (512 GMT) than 1X-H5-Vax hens (45 GMT and 128 GMT). The current study demonstrated that AIV infections caused by clade 2.3.2.1a H5N1 variants can be effectively controlled by either double or single homologous vaccination.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Eggs/virology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Animals , Chickens/immunology , Egg Shell/anatomy & histology , Egg White/virology , Egg Yolk/virology , Female , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/virology , Ovary/virology , Oviducts/virology , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, Inactivated
17.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 164(1-2): 56-66, 2015 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25593044

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine whether the egg-laying phase and estrogen affect the induction of cytotoxic cells in response to avian infectious bronchitis (IB) virus at early stage of infection in the oviduct. Attenuated IB virus (aIBV group) or its vehicle (control group) was introduced to the oviductal magnum lumen of White Leghorn hens in the laying and molting phase, as well as molting hens injected with estradiol benzoate (M-EB hens) or corn oil (M-oil hens). Oviductal isthmus and uterus were collected 24h after injection. The frequency of CD8(+) and TCRγδ(+) T cells expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, followed by image analysis. The expression of the genes of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), natural killer cell receptor (BNK), cytotoxic substances (granzyme, perforin), and cytokines (CXCL12, CX3CL1, and IFNγ) were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The frequency of CD8(+) and TCRγδ(+) T cells in the isthmus, and CD8(+) cells in the uterus was significantly higher in the aIBV group compared to the control group of laying and M-EB hens. The expression of all the genes examined in this study in the isthmus, and CX3CL1 and IFNγ expression in the uterus was significantly higher in the aIBV group in the laying and M-EB hens. These results suggested that infection with IB virus causes an immune response involving the influx of cytotoxic cells and upregulation of cytokines in the isthmus and uterus at early stage of infection. This response was stronger during the laying phase compared to the molting phase, probably due to the effect of estrogen.


Subject(s)
Chickens/immunology , Chickens/virology , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/drug effects , Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Oviducts/immunology , Oviducts/virology , Animals , Avian Proteins/genetics , Avian Proteins/immunology , Chickens/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cytokines/genetics , Estradiol/pharmacology , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Oviducts/drug effects , Oviposition/genetics , Oviposition/immunology , Poultry Diseases/genetics , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Poultry Diseases/virology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/drug effects , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 7/immunology
18.
Vet Res ; 45: 67, 2014 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24928425

ABSTRACT

The avian coronavirus (AvCoV) infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major poultry pathogen. A characteristic feature of IBV is the occurrence of many different strains belonging to different serotypes, which makes a complete control of the disease by vaccinations a challenging task. Reasons for differences in the tissue tropism and pathogenicity between IBV strains, e.g. a predilection for the kidneys or the oviduct are still an open question. Strains of the QX genotype have been major pathogens in poultry flocks in Asia, Europe and other parts of the world. They are the cause of severe problems with kidney disease and reproductive tract disorders. We analysed infectivity and binding properties of the QX strain and compared them with those of the nephropathogenic strain B1648. As most IBV strains do not infect permanent cell lines and show infection only in primary chicken cells of the target organs, we developed a culture system for chicken oviduct explants. The epithelial cells of the oviduct showed a high susceptibility to infection by the QX strain and were almost resistant to infection by the nephropathogenic B1648 strain. Binding tests with isolated primary oviduct epithelial cells and soluble S1 proteins revealed that S1 proteins of two IBV strains bound with the same efficiency to oviduct epithelial cells. This attachment was sialic acid dependent, indicating that the sugar binding property of IBV spike proteins is not the limiting factor for differences in infection efficiency for the oviduct of the corresponding viruses.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Tropism , Animals , Base Sequence , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/metabolism , Oviducts/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
Theriogenology ; 81(8): 1129-38, 2014 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24612789

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism by which the avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) affects eggshell formation. Attenuated IBV (aIBV group) or vehicle (control group) was injected into the oviductal magnum lumen of White Leghorn laying hens. The changes in the expression of genes related to eggshell formation (collagen types I and V, and CaBP-D28K), densities of cytotoxic cells (CD8(+) and TCR-γδ(+) T cells), and gene expression of molecules related to cytotoxic immunoreaction (B-NK, perforin, granzyme, and IL-2) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6 and IFN-γ) were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or immunohistochemistry in the isthmus and uterus. Gene expression of IL-1ß and IL-6receptors in the tubular gland cells of the isthmus and uterus was analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression of collagen type I, but not collagen type V, in the isthmus and CaBP-D28K in the uterus was decreased in the aIBV group compared with that in the control. The frequencies of CD8(+) cells and TCR-γδ(+) T cells in the isthmus and uterus were significantly higher in the aIBV group than in the control group. The expression of cytotoxic molecular and proinflammatory cytokines was also higher in the aIBV group than in the control. The expression of IL-6 receptor, but not IL-1ß receptor, was identified in the tubular gland cells in the isthmus and uterus. These results suggest that IBV infection causes disorder of eggshell formation by disturbing gene expression of collagen type I in the isthmus and CaBP-D28K in the uterus, probably via the effects of substances from cytotoxic cells and proinflammatory cytokines.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Egg Shell/metabolism , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Oviducts/physiopathology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , Antigens, Viral/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Collagen/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokines/genetics , Female , Gene Expression , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Lymphocyte Count , Oviducts/immunology , Oviducts/virology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/analysis , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-1/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Uterus/cytology , Uterus/immunology
20.
Vet Pathol ; 50(6): 956-60, 2013 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23697482

ABSTRACT

Infection with high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has been associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations in poultry, including severe depression in egg production and isolation of HPAIV from eggs laid by infected hens. To evaluate the pathobiology in the reproductive tract of chickens, adult hens were inoculated intranasally with 3 HPAIV strains. All 3 strains induced lesions in the reproductive tract 36 to 72 hours after inoculation. Positive immunostaining was observed in all segments of the reproductive tract, occurring predominantly in stromal cells and superficial germinal epithelium of the ovary, in mucosal epithelial cells and less often glandular epithelium throughout the oviduct, and in vascular endothelium. This study generates important data and explains previously reported virus isolation from yolk, due to ovarian virus replication, and virus recovery from albumin, due to virus replication in epithelial cells in several segments of the oviduct.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/pathology , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Reproductive Tract Infections/veterinary , Animals , Eggs/virology , Epithelium/virology , Female , Genitalia, Female/pathology , Genitalia, Female/virology , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Influenza in Birds/virology , Ovary/pathology , Ovary/virology , Oviducts/virology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Reproductive Tract Infections/pathology , Reproductive Tract Infections/virology , Virulence , Virus Replication
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