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1.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 260(15): 1971-1978, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974567

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the effects of practice ownership on wellbeing of US private practice veterinarians. Sample: 1,217 practice owners and 1,414 associate veterinarians (ie, nonowners) who participated in the 2021 AVMA Census of Veterinarians and Practice Owners Survey. Procedures: A professional quality of life instrument was used to measure compassion satisfaction (CS; a positive attribute), burnout (BO), and secondary traumatic stress (STS) in practice owners and nonowners both as scores and as score categories (low, moderate, and high CS, BO, and STS). For hypothesis tests, propensity score matching was used, with owners (n = 595) matched to nonowners (595) on several demographic and employment factors. Results: Owners had significantly (P < .001) higher CS scores (mean ± SE, 34.1 ± 0.3) and lower BO scores (26.1 ± 0.3) than nonowners (32.8 ± 0.3 and 26.9 ± 0.3, respectively), but STS scores were comparable between groups (27.4 ± 0.3 and 27.5 ± 0.3; P = .55). The prevalence of low CS scores and high BO scores was significantly (P < .001) higher for nonowners versus owners (53.8% vs 42.7% and 51.6% vs 46.4%, respectively). Both owners and nonowners had a high prevalence of high STS scores (81.8% and 83.2%, respectively; P = .53). Clinical Relevance: Results suggested that practice ownership confers a benefit to private practice veterinarians in terms of CS and BO, but not STS. The prevalence of poor CS, BO, and STS scores was higher than reported previously for 2016 to 2018, suggesting an impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The high prevalence of high STS scores in both groups warrants attention and action to protect the welfare of the veterinary workforce and support optimal patient care.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Compassion Fatigue , Veterinarians , Animals , Humans , Quality of Life , Ownership , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/veterinary , Compassion Fatigue/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Private Practice
2.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 260(12): 1482-1488, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assess US veterinarians' perceptions regarding vaccine concerns (their own and owners') and the association between owners' vaccine concerns and COVID-19 antivaccination sentiments. SAMPLE: Members of the Veterinary Information Network. PROCEDURES: An electronic survey distributed via the Veterinary Information Network data collection portal. RESULTS: 1,341 US veterinarians completed the survey. Top veterinarian concerns for vaccinating a healthy adult dog were anaphylaxis, soreness at injection site, and lethargy; for cats, these concerns included vaccine-associated sarcoma, lethargy, and soreness at injection site. Veterinarians reported that the most common concerns mentioned by owners included that the pet does not go outside, that vaccinations are unnecessary, that vaccinations can lead to chronic or severe illness, and cost. Veterinarians reported an increased number of dog and cat owners reluctant about or resistant to the idea of rabies vaccines and core vaccines since the time that COVID-19 vaccines became widely available. There was an association between veterinarians' perceptions of local COVID-19 antivaccination sentiments and the increase in the number of vaccine-resistant or -concerned clients. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: There appears to be little overlap between veterinarians' primary concerns related to vaccinations and their perception of dog and cat owners' primary concerns. The fact that the number of resistant clients is positively associated with the presence of veterinarians' perceptions of a local COVID-19 antivaccination sentiment suggests that human antivaccination sentiments impact pet owners' views of companion animal vaccinations. A better understanding of the cognitive biases that impact owners' vaccine decisions can help veterinarians better communicate with vaccine-reluctant clients and increase vaccination compliance rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Veterinarians , Veterinary Medicine , Humans , Cats , Dogs , Animals , Veterinarians/psychology , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19 Vaccines , Lethargy/veterinary , Ownership , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/veterinary
3.
Vet Rec ; 191(5): e1738, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been increasing provision of veterinary telemedicine consultations, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, little evidence currently exists examining these remote consultations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore veterinary and cat owner experiences of telemedicine consultations during the pandemic. METHODS: Two questionnaires, one aimed at veterinary professionals and one at cat owners, were launched in September 2020. Questions explored the type of consultation conducted remotely, the perceived advantages and disadvantages of telemedicine, and the role of telemedicine in the future of veterinary practice. RESULTS: Responses were received from 242 veterinary professionals and 98 owners with experience of telemedicine. Monitoring and advice consultations were felt to be most suited to telemedicine. Reduced stress for owners/cats was seen as an advantage of telemedicine, while lack of clinical examination and risk of misdiagnosis were viewed as disadvantages. Most respondents (85.7% [n = 84/98] of owners; 67.4% [n = 163/242] of veterinary professionals) felt practices should continue to offer telemedicine consultations. CONCLUSION: With increasing pet ownership and practice workload, telemedicine may play a crucial role in the future of veterinary practice. Future work should focus on a strategic approach to feline telemedicine, integrating it alongside face-to-face visits and developing technologies to maximise its advantages.


Subject(s)
Animal Technicians , COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Surgeons , Telemedicine , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Ownership , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855727

ABSTRACT

The economic and health crises related to the COVID-19 pandemic raised considerable concern about child and family diet, especially among small-holder farming households in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In rural Nepal, 309 families (including 368 children aged 6-66 months) were enrolled pre-COVID-19 in a prospective study of a nutrition education intervention and family milk consumption. The intervention could not be implemented due to COVID-19; however, child and family diet was assessed in three household surveys (one before and two during the pandemic). Over time, after adjusting for child and household factors, child and family diet quality declined (reduced diet diversity, consumption of milk and animal-source-foods (ASF)). However, in dairy-animal-owning (vs. non-dairy-animal-owning) households, both children and family were more likely to consume milk (aOR respectively 2.88× (p < 0.05), 5.81× (p < 0.001)). Similarly, in households producing >3.5 L/d milk (vs. ≤3.5 L/d), children and family members were more likely to consume milk (respectively 7.45× and 11.88× (both p < 0.001)). Thus, the overall decline in child and family diet quality, especially related to milk consumption, was buffered independently by household ownership of ≥1 dairy animals (cow or buffalo) and by milk production >3.5 L/day. A better understanding of these protective factors might facilitate the development of interventions to promote resilience in future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ownership , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cattle , Diet , Female , Humans , Milk , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
5.
Inj Prev ; 28(5): 434-439, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854381

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Research surrounding firearm ownership is often contextualised within the perspectives of older white men. We expand this description using the perceptions of a diverse group of firearm-owning stakeholders. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews from October 2020 to May 2021 with Colorado/Washington State stakeholders representing (1) firearm ranges/retailers; (2) law enforcement agencies or (3) relevant state/national firearm organisations. Data were analysed using standard qualitative techniques and included 25 participants, representing varied sociocultural groups including racial and ethnic minorities, political minorities and sexual minorities. RESULTS: Participants for this analysis were of different self-identified sociocultural groups including racial and ethnic minorities (African American, Hispanic and Asian), political minorities (liberal) and sexual minorities, defined as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT). Perspectives on firearm ownership included an idea of gun culture as a component of (1) personal identity, (2) an expression of full citizenship and (3) necessary for self-protection. A strong subtheme was the intersection of minority group and firearm owner identities, creating a need for divergent social communities because of ideas on traditional gun culture. These communities are a safe place for individuals belonging to minority groups to escape negative external and internal group associations with firearms. CONCLUSION: Perspectives on firearms and firearm ownership in the secondary analysis were heterogeneous and related to personal experiences, external and internal group pressures that influence individual behaviour. Understanding the breadth of perspectives on firearm ownership is imperative to engaging individuals for risk reduction. This study adds to the literature by expanding an understanding of the motivation for firearm ownership among diverse communities.


Subject(s)
Firearms , African Americans , Female , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Male , Ownership , Qualitative Research
6.
BMJ ; 377: o977, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832400
7.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 76, 2022 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The world is facing an unprecedented systemic shock to population health, the economy and society due to the devastating impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. As with most economic shocks, this is expected to disproportionately impact vulnerable groups in society such as those in poverty and those in precarious employment as well as marginalised groups such as women, the elderly, Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups and those with health conditions. The current literature is rich in normative recommendations on plural ownership as a key building block of an inclusive economy rooted in communities and their needs. There is, however, a need for a rigorous synthesis of the available evidence on what impact (if any) plural ownership may potentially have on the inclusivity of the economy. This review seeks to synthesise and compare the available evidence across the three economic sectors (private, public and third). METHODS: We will search eight bibliographic databases (Sociological abstracts, EBSCO Econlit, OVID Embase, OVID Medline, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), ProQuest Public Health, Web of Science, Research Papers in Economics (Repec) - EconPapers) from the earliest data available in each database until January 2021. Grey literature will be identified from Google (advanced), Google Scholar and 37 organisational websites identified as relevant to the research question. We will include comparative studies of plural ownership from high-income countries that report outcomes on access to opportunities, distribution of benefits, poverty, and discrimination. A bespoke search strategy will be used for each website to account for the heterogeneity in content and search capabilities and will be fully documented. A standardised data extraction template based on the Population-Intervention-Context-Outcome (PICO) template will be developed. We will assess the strength of evidence for different forms of economic ownership identified in relation to the impact of each on the four economic outcomes of interest, paying particular attention to the role of wider contextual factors as they emerge through the evidence. DISCUSSION: The findings of this review are intended to inform policymaking at local, national and international level that prioritises and supports the development of different economic and business models. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework registration DOI: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/BYH5A.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ownership , Aged , Employment , Female , Humans , Income , Pandemics , Review Literature as Topic
8.
Prev Med ; 159: 107067, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796000

ABSTRACT

This study sought to examine public support for gun carrying-related policies from 2019 to 2021, a period encompassing the COVID-19 pandemic and increasing calls for racial and social justice. We conducted the National Survey of Gun Policy in January 2019 and 2021. The surveys were fielded using the NORC AmeriSpeak panel. Respondents indicated support for six policies regulating civilian gun carrying. Analyses, conducted in 2021, incorporated survey weights for nationally representative estimates. There were significant declines in support from 2019 to 2021 for two policies that would expand where civilians can lawfully carry guns: allowing concealed carry when on K-12 school grounds (23% in 2021 vs 31% in 2019) and college/university campuses (27% vs 36%). Support was also significantly lower for requiring concealed carry applicants to pass a test demonstrating safe and lawful use (74% in 2021 vs 81% in 2019). For the two new policies in the 2021 survey, more than half of respondents overall supported prohibiting open carry at demonstrations/rallies (54%) and prohibiting the carry of guns into government buildings (69%). There was lower support among gun owners (39% and 57%, respectively). Since 2019, there has been a decline in support for expanding locations for civilian gun carrying. Support remains high among U.S. adults, including the two-thirds of gun owners, for requiring concealed carry applicants to demonstrate competence in safe and lawful gun use. Our findings in support of a more regulated approach to concealed carry are in direct contrast to state-level shifts eliminating concealed gun carrying regulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Adult , Humans , Ownership , Pandemics , Public Opinion , United States
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6091, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788317

ABSTRACT

The question of pet ownership contributing to human well-being has received mixed empirical evidence. This contrasts with the lay intuition that pet ownership contributes positively to wellness. In a large representative sample, we investigate the differences that may exist between pet vs. non-pet owners in terms of their well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic, and examine among different sociodemographic strata, for whom pet ownership can be more vs. less beneficial. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among Canadian adults (1220 pet owners, 1204 non-pet owners). Pet owners reported lower well-being than non-pet owners on a majority of well-being indicators; this general pet ownership effect held when accounting for pet species (dogs, cats, other species) and number of pets owned. Compared to owners of other pets, dog owners reported higher well-being. When examining the effect of pet ownership within different socioeconomic strata, being a pet owner was associated with lower well-being among: women; people who have 2 + children living at home; people who are unemployed. Our results offer a counterpoint to popular beliefs emphasising the benefits of pets to human wellness during the COVID-19 pandemic and confirm the importance of accounting for sociodemographic factors to further understand the experience of pet ownership.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ownership , Pets/psychology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dogs , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e223245, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750276

ABSTRACT

Importance: Both major depression and firearm ownership are associated with an increased risk for death by suicide in the United States, but the extent of overlap among these major risk factors is not well characterized. Objective: To assess the prevalence of current and planned firearm ownership among individuals with depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional survey study using data pooled from 2 waves of a 50-state nonprobability internet survey conducted between May and July 7, 2021. Internet survey respondents were 18 years of age or older and were sampled from all 50 US states and the District of Columbia. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported firearm ownership; depressive symptoms as measured by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Results: Of 24 770 survey respondents (64.6% women and 35.4% men; 5.0% Asian, 10.8% Black, 7.5% Hispanic, and 74.0% White; mean [SD] age 45.8 [17.5]), 6929 (28.0%) reported moderate or greater depressive symptoms; this group had mean (SD) age of 38.18 (15.19) years, 4587 were female (66.2%), and 406 were Asian (5.9%), 725 were Black (10.5%), 652 were Hispanic (6.8%), and 4902 were White (70.7%). Of those with depression, 31.3% reported firearm ownership (n = 2167), of whom 35.9% (n = 777) reported purchasing a firearm within the past year. In regression models, the presence of moderate or greater depressive symptoms was not significantly associated with firearm ownership (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% CI, 0.98-1.17) but was associated with greater likelihood of a first-time firearm purchase during the COVID-19 pandemic (adjusted OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.56-2.02) and greater likelihood of considering a future firearm purchase (adjusted OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.23-1.90). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, current and planned firearm ownership was common among individuals with major depressive symptoms, suggesting a public health opportunity to address this conjunction of suicide risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ownership , Pandemics , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707322

ABSTRACT

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association between pet ownership and quality of life (QoL), loneliness, anxiety, stress, overall health, and mental health of Canadians during the COVID-19 pandemic using a One Health perspective. An online bilingual survey was completed by 1500 Canadians in April-May 2021. Socio-demographics, health, QoL, stress and anxiety, loneliness, social support, pet ownership, and attitude towards pets data were collected. Crude and adjusted associations between pet ownership and mental health and well-being indicators were estimated. The 1500 participants were from all provinces and territories, half were women; half of the participants were pet owners by design. The crude association estimates showed that pet owners had poorer QoL, overall health, and mental health than non-pet owners, and were lonelier, more stressed, and more anxious than non-pet owners. Adjusted estimates showed that these associations disappeared with the inclusion of the confounders (socio-economic, demographic, health, and pet-related variables). Our results suggest that there was no association between pet ownership and the mental health and well-being indicators measured in the present study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Ownership , Pandemics , Pets , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263791, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700510

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between dog and cat ownership, the onset of disability and all-cause mortality in an older population. Dog and cat owners take more regular exercise and have closer social relationships than non-owners. We further assess the beneficial effects of these moderating variables on the onset of disability and mortality. METHODS: Dog and cat ownership data were collected from 11233 community-dwelling adults age 65 years and older. These data were matched with data about the onset of disability held by the Japanese long-term care insurance system. Local registry data were used to ascertain all-cause mortality. RESULTS: During the approximately 3.5 year follow-up period, 17.1% of the sample suffered onset of disability, and 5.2% died. Logistic regression analysis indicated that, compared with a reference group of those who had never owned a dog (odds ratio fixed at 1.0), older adults who were currently dog owners had a significantly lower odds ratio of onset of disability (OR = 0.54 95% CI: 0.37-0.79). Our results further show that regular exercise interacts with dog ownership to reduce the risk of disability. The association of dog and/or cat ownership with all-cause mortality was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Dog ownership appears to protect against incident disability among older Japanese adults. Additional benefits are gained from ownership combined with regular exercise. Daily dog care may have an important role to play in health promotion and successful aging.


Subject(s)
Aging/psychology , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Ownership/statistics & numerical data , Pets , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/pathology , Animals , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Dogs , Female , Humans , Japan , Male
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 812253, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686576

ABSTRACT

This paper studies whether the market can recognize the value of corporate governance mechanisms (ownership structure, board structure, and managerial incentives) of Chinese listed companies. We find that when companies are faced with "black swan" events, such as COVID-19, non-state-owned enterprise are found to be more valuable, that is, the stock price of non-state-owned enterprises are more immune to the negative shocks of COVID-19. For board structure, the arrangement of the duality of chairman and CEO is found to be more valuable and can effectively alleviate the negative shocks of the epidemic on the stock price. For managerial incentives mechanisms, it shows that management shareholding, management compensation, and executive stock options are all effective mechanisms and can better withstand the negative shocks of the COVID-19 epidemic on the stock price of companies. This paper sheds light on the value of corporate governance mechanisms in the Chinese capital market from the perspective of investors, which enriches literature in the field of corporate governance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China , Humans , Ownership , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Bioethics ; 36(4): 445-452, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673001

ABSTRACT

This study examines the practical implications of libertarian theories of justice in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. First, we show that the libertarian central value of freedom does not just include economic and political autonomy but also one's right to life. Secondly, we demonstrate that lockdown measures are acceptable to libertarianism if they are appropriately implemented. Nevertheless, in contrast to a utilitarian approach, libertarians reject excessive interventions, such as contact-tracing mobile apps, even if these promote people's welfare. Thirdly, we show that there is a broad spectrum of lockdown implementation methods based on differing interpretations of Lockean property rights. By comparing three kinds of libertarianism, we outline a set of libertarian proposals that use markets for the exchange of permission slips to go out during a lockdown. We then show that libertarianism offers a reasonable and non-conflicting resolution for the trade-off between health and people's freedom, thereby illustrating the suitability and legitimacy of a libertarian response to the current crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Freedom , Humans , Ownership , Pandemics
15.
Sleep Health ; 8(2): 161-166, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although there is widespread speculation about guns helping people to sleep better, this idea has only recently faced empirical scrutiny. We test whether people who own guns tend to exhibit healthier sleep outcomes than people who do not own guns and whether the association between community stress and sleep is less pronounced for people who own guns. DESIGN: We use ordinary least squares, multinomial logistic, and binary logistic regression to model cross-sectional survey data. SETTING: Our data span the United States. PARTICIPANTS: The 2021 Crime, Health, and Politics Survey (CHAPS) is based on a national probability sample of 1714 adults. MEASUREMENTS: Our analyses include multiple measures of gun ownership (personal ownership, keeping a gun in one's bedroom, and COVID-19 pandemic gun purchases), community stress (neighborhood disorder, neighborhood danger during the pandemic, and perceptions of police protection), and sleep (insomnia symptoms, sleep duration, and pandemic sleep). RESULTS: We found that people who own guns and people who do not own guns tend to exhibit similar sleep outcomes and that people who experience community stressors tend to exhibit similar sleep outcomes regardless of gun ownership. CONCLUSION: Our analyses confirm that gun ownership is unrelated to sleep and that guns are insufficient to mitigate the detrimental effects of community stress on sleep. We extend prior work by (a) using more detailed measurements of gun ownership, community stress, and sleep, (b) assessing whether people keep a gun in their bedroom, and (c) exploring the intersection of pandemic gun purchases and pandemic sleep quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Ownership , Pandemics , Sleep , United States/epidemiology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542568

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with lower quality of life, reduced social participation, and decreased self-efficacy. The COVID-19 pandemic has had documented effects on the health and wellbeing of people with and without MS. Previous research has demonstrated the positive impact pets can have for people living with long-term conditions. Objectives: To explore the rates of pet ownership and pet attachment in people living with MS and pet ownership associations with quality of life, satisfaction with social roles, and self-efficacy scores; and to explore the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on people's perceived relationships with their pets. Materials and Methods: A postal questionnaire was distributed to members of a local MS Register and a control group of people without MS. The questionnaire assessed quality of life, satisfaction with social roles, self-efficacy, the perceived roles of pets, and pet-related concerns experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: No apparent difference in attachment to pets was found between the patient and control groups. Pet ownership and level of attachment were not associated with differences in quality of life or self-efficacy scores in people living with MS. Using multiple regression analysis, pet ownership was associated with a decrease in satisfaction with participation in social roles, but with the estimated effect being small compared to having a diagnosis of MS or being unemployed. Most participants reported that pets had positive roles during the pandemic, and the most reported pet-related concern was access to veterinary treatment. Conclusion: Pet owners both with and without MS reported subjective benefits to their wellbeing from pet ownership during COVID-19, although analysis suggested that pet ownership was associated with a reduction in satisfaction with social roles. The study had several limitations and suggestions are made for future work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Animals , Humans , Ownership , Pandemics , Pets , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e048094, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537949

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between gun ownership and perceptions about COVID-19 among Texas adults as the pandemic emerged. We considered perceived likelihood that the pandemic would lead to civil unrest, perceived importance of taking precautions to prevent transmission and perceptions that the threat of COVID-19 has been exaggerated. METHODS: Data were collected from 5 to 12 April 2020, shortly after Texas' stay-at-home declaration. We generated a sample using random digit dial methods for a telephone survey (n=77, response rate=8%) and by randomly selecting adults from an ongoing panel to complete the survey online (n=1120, non-probability sample). We conducted a logistic regression to estimate differences in perceptions by gun ownership. To account for bias associated with use of a non-probability sample, we used Bayesian data integration and ran linear regression models to produce more accurate measures of association. RESULTS: Among the 60% of Texas adults who reported gun ownership, estimates of past 7-day gun purchases, ammunition purchases and gun carrying were 15% (n=78), 20% (n=100) and 24% (n=130), respectively. We found no evidence of an association between gun ownership with perceived importance of taking precautions to prevent transmission or with perceived likelihood of civil unrest. Results from the logistic regression (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.63) and the linear regression (ß=0.18, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.29) suggest that gun owners may be more likely to believe the threat of COVID-19 was exaggerated. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with those without guns, gun owners may have been inclined to downplay the threat of COVID-19 early in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Adult , Bayes Theorem , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Ownership , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas
19.
Public Health Rep ; 137(1): 137-148, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523161

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Nursing homes are a primary setting of COVID-19 transmission and death, but research has primarily focused only on factors within nursing homes. We investigated the relationship between US nursing home-associated COVID-19 infection rates and county-level and nursing home attributes. METHODS: We constructed panel data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) minimum dataset, CMS nursing home data, 2010 US Census data, 5-year (2012-2016) American Community Survey estimates, and county COVID-19 infection rates. We analyzed COVID-19 data from June 1, 2020, through January 31, 2021, during 7 five-week periods. We used a maximum likelihood estimator, including an autoregressive term, to estimate effects and changes over time. We performed 3 model forms (basic, partial, and full) for analysis. RESULTS: Nursing homes with nursing (0.005) and staff (0.002) shortages had high COVID-19 infection rates, and locally owned (-0.007) or state-owned (-0.025) and nonprofit (-0.011) agencies had lower COVID-19 infection rates than privately owned agencies. County-level COVID-19 infection rates corresponded with COVID-19 infection rates in nursing homes. Racial and ethnic minority groups had high nursing home-associated COVID-19 infection rates early in the study. High median annual personal income (-0.002) at the county level correlated with lower nursing home-associated COVID-19 infection rates. CONCLUSIONS: Communities with low rates of nursing home infections had access to more resources (eg, financial resources, staffing) and likely had better mitigation efforts in place earlier in the pandemic than nursing homes that had access to few resources and poor mitigation efforts. Future research should address the social and structural determinants of health that are leaving racial and ethnic minority populations and institutions such as nursing homes vulnerable during times of crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Humans , Ownership , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
20.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 57(2): 239-243, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513956

ABSTRACT

Under the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns regarding prolonged screen time and mental health effects in children have increased. We examined the association of depression with smartphone ownership in school children at four time points: September 2019, July 2020, December 2020, and March 2021. The analysis revealed an interaction between group and time, indicating that depressive symptoms among smartphone owners were significantly more severe than in the other group. These results were clearer for fourth-year students, pointing that smartphone possession at younger ages may be a risk factor for mental health in the new lifestyle caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smartphone , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Ownership , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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