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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 108(5_Suppl): 47-55, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302644

ABSTRACT

Donor transitions, where externally funded programs transfer to country ownership and management, are increasingly common. The Countrywide Mortality Surveillance for Action - Mozambique (COMSA) project established a nationwide surveillance system capturing vital events at the community level with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. COMSA was implemented in partnership between Johns Hopkins University (a U.S.-based academic institution) and the Instituto Nacional de Saúde (National Institute for Health) and Instituto Nacional de Estatística (National Institute for Statistics), two Mozambican public institutions. Midway through the project, the Gates Foundation directed COMSA's partners to develop and implement a transition plan that ensured COMSA's activities could be institutionalized after Gates Foundation funding ended. Here we describe the process and activities that COMSA underwent for transition planning, including stakeholder engagement and advocacy, securing financial commitments, documenting operational activities, capacity building, and supporting strategic planning. Facilitators included a project model that already embedded significant implementation and management responsibility with local agencies, high-level commitment to COMSA's activities from local stakeholders, establishing dedicated personnel and budget to manage transition, and fortuitous timing for financing. Challenges included needing to engage multiple government agencies to ensure buy-in, navigating tensions around future roles and responsibilities, reviewing and adjusting existing implementation structures, and the reality that this transition involved shifting financing from one development partner to another. Transition implementation was also constrained by the COVID-19 pandemic because key stakeholders were engaged in response efforts. COMSA's experience highlights lessons and threats for future programs facing donor transition in uncertain environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Mozambique , Pandemics/prevention & control , Organizations , Ownership
2.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284101, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301135

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected us in numerous ways and may consequently impact our relationships with pet dogs and cats. We conducted a longitudinal survey to examine the temporal patterns of owner-pet relationship, stress, and loneliness during four phases of the pandemic: 1) pre-pandemic (February 2020), 2) lockdown (April to June 2020), 3) reopening (September to December 2020), and 4) recovery (January 2021 to December 2021). We also investigated the effect of pet ownership on stress and loneliness, by considering a set of a priori causal assumptions. In addition, we hypothesized that the differences in the levels of stress and loneliness between dog and cat ownerships were mediated by the owner-pet relationship. A total of 4,237 participants (657 non-pet owners, 1,761 dog owners, and 1,819 cat owners) completed between one and six surveys. Overall, the closeness in the relationship between owners and their pets increased with time during the study period. We also observed that dog owners consistently showed larger decreases in the levels of stress and loneliness than cat and non-pet owners. However, after adjusting for confounders, the findings did not support a mitigating effect of pet ownership. Pet ownership did not alleviate stress, social loneliness resulting from a lack of friendships or workplace relationships, or emotional loneliness due to deficiencies in family relationships. Pet owners, however, reported a lower degree of emotional loneliness caused by deficits in romantic relationships than non-pet owners. Our results also indicated that the differences in stress and loneliness levels between dog and cat ownerships were partially explained by the owner-pet relationship, and once this was accounted for, the differences between them reduced. In summary, this study highlights the dynamic effects of COVID-19 on owner-pet relationship and mental health. It also shows the complexity of the association between pet ownership and mental health, partially mediated by owner-pet relationships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Humans , Dogs , Cats , Mental Health , Loneliness/psychology , Pets/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ownership , Communicable Disease Control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Longitudinal Studies
3.
CMAJ Open ; 11(2): E267-E273, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term care (LTC) in Canada is delivered by a mix of government-, for-profit- and nonprofit-owned facilities that receive public funding to provide care, and were sites of major outbreaks during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to assess whether facility ownership was associated with COVID-19 outbreaks among LTC facilities in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study in which we linked LTC facility data, collected annually by the Office of the Seniors Advocate BC, with public health data on outbreaks. A facility outbreak was recorded when 1 or more residents tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between Mar. 1, 2020, and Jan. 31, 2021. We used the Cox proportional hazards method to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of the association between risk of COVID-19 outbreak and facility ownership, controlling for community incidence of COVID-19 and other facility characteristics. RESULTS: Overall, 94 outbreaks involved residents in 80 of 293 facilities. Compared with health authority-owned facilities, for-profit and nonprofit facilities had higher risks of COVID-19 outbreaks (adjusted HR 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-3.52 and adjusted HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.00-3.36, respectively). The model adjusted for community incidence of infection (adjusted HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07-1.17), total nursing hours per resident-day (adjusted HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.33-2.14), facility age (adjusted HR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), number of facility beds (adjusted HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.30) and facilities with beds in shared rooms (adjusted HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.73-1.85). INTERPRETATION: Findings suggest that ownership of LTC facilities by health authorities in BC offered some protection against COVID-19 outbreaks. Further study is needed to unpack the underlying pathways behind this observed association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long-Term Care , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , British Columbia/epidemiology , Ownership , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMJ Open ; 13(2): e064745, 2023 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261907

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The number of Canadians 75 years and older is expected to double over the next 20 years, putting continuing care systems such as long-term care (LTC) homes under increasing pressure. Health information technology (IT) has been found to improve the quality, safety and efficiency of care in numerous clinical settings and could help optimise LTC for residents. However, the level of health IT adoption in Ontario's LTC homes is unknown and, as a result, requires an accurate assessment to provide a baseline understanding for future planning. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use a cross-sectional design to investigate the level of IT maturity in Ontario's LTC homes. IT maturity will be assessed with the LTC IT Maturity Instrument, a validated survey examining IT capabilities, the extent of IT use and degree of internal/external IT integration across the domains of resident care, clinical support and administrative activities. All LTC homes in Ontario will be invited to participate. The Director of Care for each home will be directly contacted for recruitment. The survey will be distributed online (or by paper, if preferred) to LTC homes and completed by a staff member designated by the LTC to be knowledgeable about its IT systems. Analyses will consist of descriptive statistics characterising IT maturity across LTC homes and inferential statistics to examine the association between key facility-level characteristics (size, ownership, rurality) and IT maturity. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was reviewed by the Ottawa Health Science Network Research Ethics Board and was exempt from full ethics review. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication and presentations to the scientific community and stakeholders. Dissemination of our findings will not only inform provincial planning for harnessing the potential of technology in LTC but may also enable quality improvement initiatives in individual LTC homes.


Subject(s)
Information Technology , Long-Term Care , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ontario , Ownership
5.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0282313, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269875

ABSTRACT

We use information on management practices in 1,183 hospitals in 7 different countries, collected in 2010 within the "World Management Survey" initiative, to estimate the role of public ownership on different management dimensions, such as monitoring performance, setting targets and incentivizing employees. A significant variation in management practices both between countries and, within countries, across hospitals is found. We show that managers in public sector hospitals tend to underperform, relative to private hospitals, in all the countries considered. Larger hospitals appear to be better managed, while there is no difference between teaching and other type of hospitals. Publicly owned hospitals appear less efficient in the provision of incentive schemes to promote and reward highly motivated employees, or remove poor performers. Overall, public ownership is associated with a reduction of about 10% in management score, which corresponds approximately to a half-standard deviation.


Subject(s)
Hospitals, Private , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Ownership , Public Sector , Motivation
6.
J Law Med Ethics ; 50(4): 738-744, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269021

ABSTRACT

In their article "The Civil Rights of Health," Harris and Pamukcu offer a framework connecting civil rights law to unjust health disparities with the aims of creating broader awareness of subordination as a root cause of health inequities and inviting policymakers to create new legal tools for dismantling it. They close with a call to action. Here, we take up their call and propose cooperative enterprises as a health justice intervention. To illustrate this conceptualization, we focus on childcare as a system with robust connections to social, economic, and health equity for children, workers, and families.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Child , Humans , Child Care , Ownership , Civil Rights
7.
Prev Vet Med ; 213: 105882, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279454

ABSTRACT

Global companion animal population has been increasing as well as the number of dogs and cats being considered as a family member. However, it is unclear whether this close relationship could be associated with higher preventive healthcare in companion animals. Using data from 7,048 questionnaires of dogs and 3,271 of cats from the First National Study on Responsible Companion Animal Ownership, we estimated the proportion of preventive healthcare in companion animals of Chile. We also conducted a general linear mixed-effect regression model to identify socioeconomic factors and indicators of the emotional owners-companion animal bond that could influence owners' practices related to vaccination, parasite control, and veterinary visits. Based on the owner's answers, Chile has a satisfactory overall rates of parasite control (71%) and annual veterinary visits (65%) but a low vaccination coverage of both dogs (39%) and cats (25%). 'Purebred', 'live in urban areas', 'acquired by monetary compensation', and 'dog species' were associated with a higher probability of preventive healthcare in companion animals. Conversely, this probability was lower among senior animals compared to adults, males, and those owned by the Silent Generation or Baby Boomers (i.e., owners born before 1964). 'Sleeping inside', 'acquired for an emotional reason' (e.g., companionship), and 'considered a family member' were positively associated with at least one of assessed preventive measures. Our findings suggest that emotional owner-companion animal bonds could positively impact the frequency and quality of preventive healthcare in dogs and cats. However, owners who totally disagreed that a companion animal is a "family member" were also associated with a higher likelihood of vaccination uptake and veterinary visits for their animals. This highlights that owner's compliance with veterinary preventive healthcare is multifactorial. Chile has a high prevalence of infectious diseases circulating among dogs and cats and increasingly close contacts between owners and companion animals due to emotional bonds. Thus, our study calls for One Health approaches to reduce the risks of cross-species disease transmission. Specifically, increasing vaccination coverage of companion animals in Chile is the most urgent preventive measure needed, especially among cats, males, and older animals. Expand preventive healthcare among dogs and cats will promote public and animal health, including local wildlife that is susceptible to infectious diseases circulating in companion animals.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Male , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Pets , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/prevention & control , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Chile/epidemiology , Object Attachment , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Delivery of Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ownership
8.
Psychol Serv ; 20(1): 1-5, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230804

ABSTRACT

At our unique juncture in history, challenged by a global pandemic, the impact of climate change, and a polarized political landscape, more and more people are seeking mental health assistance (Mochari-Greenberger & Pande, 2021), and a larger proportion of those who seek help are describing existential or spiritual concerns (Chirico, 2021; Kondrath, 2022). Many psychologists may be experiencing themselves as insufficiently prepared to help with spiritual concerns (Vogel et al., 2013); the mission of this special section is to facilitate discourse and dissemination of resources among chaplains and psychologists to explore the interdisciplinary dynamics of spiritual care and to establish a foundation for the expansion of ethically appropriate, spiritually integrated care where needed. All of the articles presented in this special section were reviewed by both chaplains and psychologists, and often by professionals cross-trained in both fields. Our hope is that this special section will serve to increase interdisciplinary collaboration so that both chaplains and psychologists can provide appropriate services to rise to the present constellation of crises. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Ownership , Spiritual Therapies , Humans , Spirituality , Clergy/psychology , Mental Health
9.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 70(4): 327-340, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229809

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 can infect pets under natural conditions, which raises questions about the risk factors related to the susceptibility of these animals to infection. The status of pet infection by SARS-CoV-2 in Mexico is not well-understood. We aimed to estimate the frequency of positive household cats and dogs to viral RNA and antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 during the second wave of human infections in Mexico, and to recognize the major risk factors related to host and pet ownership behaviour. We evaluated two study groups, cats and dogs from COVID-19-infected/-suspected households (n = 44) and those admitted for veterinary care for any reason at several veterinary hospitals in Puebla City, Mexico (n = 91). Using RT-PCR, we identified the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in swabs of four dogs (18.18%) and zero cats in COVID-19-infected/-suspected households; within this group, 31.82% of dogs and 27.27% of cats were tested IgG ELISA-positive; and neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (4.55%) and two cats (9.09%). In the random group (pets evaluated at private clinics and veterinary teaching hospital), 25.00% of dogs and 43.59% of cats were ELISA-positive and only one cat showed neutralizing antibodies (2.56%). Older than 4-year-old, other pets at home, and daily cleaning of pet dish, were each associated with an increase in SARS-CoV-2 infection (p < 0.05). Allowing face lick, sharing bed/food with pets and owner tested positive or suspected COVID-19 were not significant risk factors, but more than 4 h the owner spent away from home during the lockdown for COVID-19 (OR = 0.37, p = 0.01), and outdoor pet food tray (OR = 0.32, p = 0.01) significantly decreased the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets, suggesting that time the owner spends with their pet is an important risk factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Cats , Humans , Dogs , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Ownership , Mexico/epidemiology , Hospitals, Animal , RNA, Viral , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals, Teaching , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Risk Factors , Pets , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280269, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214794

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to establish pre-/post Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis/treatment symptoms, ownership/utilisation of face masks (FMs), as well as vaccine hesitancy (VH) amongst patients recovering from COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from April - October 2021. Data was collected with structured self-administered questionnaires. Multinomial regression was used to determine associations between ownership/utilisation of FMs with respondents' characteristics. RESULTS: Unproductive cough and fatigue were prevalent before and after treatment. Pre-/Post COVID-19 symptoms severity ranged from mild to moderate. There was a COVID-19 VH rate of 492 (74%). The prevalence of FM ownership and utilisation were, respectively, 613 (92.2%) and 271 (40.8%). One main factor was associated with FM ownership; respondent's sex (p; 5.5x10-2, OR; 0.5, 95%C.I; 0.3 - 1.0). The main reasons for irregular utilisation were; inability to be consistent, only used outdoors, and boredom. CONCLUSION: The treatment of COVID-19 does not mean immediate recovery as mild to moderate grade severity still persists. Face mask availability and ownership does not mean appreciable utilisation. This study advocates for an intensification of COVID-19 preventive practices, as well as elaborate education on the importance of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Masks , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cameroon , Ownership , Vaccination
11.
Prev Med ; 165(Pt A): 107220, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184536

ABSTRACT

Out-of-home storage of personal firearms is one recommended option for individuals at risk of suicide, and statewide online maps of storage locations have been created in multiple states, including Colorado and Washington. We sought to examine both the extent to which firearm retailers and ranges offer temporary, voluntary firearm storage and the perceived barriers to providing this service. We invited all firearm retailers and ranges in Colorado and Washington to complete an online or mailed survey; eligible sites had to have a physical location where they could provide storage. Between June-July 2021, 137 retailers/ranges completed the survey (response rate = 25.1%). Nearly half (44.5%) of responding firearm retailers/ranges in Colorado and Washington State indicated they had ever provided firearm storage. Among those who had ever offered storage, 80.3% currently offered storage while 19.7% no longer did. The majority (68.6%) of participants had not heard of the Colorado/Washington gun storage maps and 82.5% did not believe they were currently listed on the maps. Respondents indicated liability waivers would most influence their decision about whether to start or continue providing temporary, voluntary storage of firearms. Understanding current practices, barriers, and concerns about providing out-of-home storage by retailers and ranges may support development of more feasible approaches for out-of-home firearm storage during times of suicide risk.


Subject(s)
Firearms , Suicide , Humans , United States , Surveys and Questionnaires , Washington , Colorado , Ownership
12.
Prev Med ; 165(Pt A): 107314, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132708

ABSTRACT

Gun-related deaths and gun purchases were at record highs in 2020. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, public protests against police violence, and a tense political environment, which may influence policy preferences, we aimed to understand the current state of support for gun policies in the U.S. We fielded a national public opinion survey in January 2019 and January 2021 using an online panel to measure support for 34 gun policies among U.S. adults. We compared support over time, by gun ownership status, and by political party affiliation. Most respondents supported 33 of the 34 gun regulations studied. Support for seven restrictive policies declined from 2019 to 2021, driven by reduced support among non-gun owners. Support declined for three permissive policies: allowing legal gun carriers to bring guns onto college campuses or K-12 schools and stand your ground laws. Public support for gun-related policies decreased from 2019 to 2021, driven by decreased support among Republicans and non-gun owners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Policy , Ownership
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140629

ABSTRACT

Pet ownership is an integral part of a modern-day family. It provides a wide range of benefits to humans. However, data on pet ownership are relatively limited from rural regions, Southern Asia and low-middle-income countries. We aim to report the prevalence and associated factors for pet ownership and veterinary visits in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine significant associations between variables of interest and pet ownership (p < 0.05). Out of the 532 households, 57% currently owned a pet. The most common pet was the dog owned by 41% of the households and the cat was the second most owned by 17%. Security (69% - 152/220) was the most common role for dogs at home while it was companionship for cats (31% - 27/88) and hobby for both birds (64% - 18/28) and fish (54% - 14/26). Most dogs (54% - 118/220) had one veterinary visit within the last year. Households with >1 adult female [p = 0.02; OR = 1.61 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.36)], participants living alone [p = 0.03; OR = 0.24 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.86)] and Buddhists [p = 0.02; OR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.16 to 5.63)] were significantly associated with pet ownership. Pet ownership is common among people in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, with a few demographic factors having a significant association with pet ownership. Dogs are the most common type of pet and highlight the opportunity for research related to canine companionship and human health. Future research on such topics should consider the above-mentioned socio-demographic predictors as potential confounders.


Subject(s)
Family Characteristics , Ownership , Adult , Dogs , Humans , Animals , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sri Lanka , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276301, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140589

ABSTRACT

Using bargaining agreement data from the Federal Mediation Conciliation Services, we found that the median national resident COVID-19 mortality percentage (as of April 24, 2022) of unionized nursing homes and that of nonunionized ones were not statically different (10.2% vs. 10.7%; P = 0.32). The median nursing home resident COVID-19 mortality percentage varied from 0% in Hawaii to above 16% in Rhode Island (16.6%). Unionized nursing homes had a statistically significant lower median mortality percentage than nonunionized nursing homes (P < 0.1) in Missouri, and had a higher median mortality percentage than nonunionized nursing homes (P < 0.05) in Alabama and Tennessee. Higher average resident age, lower percentage of Medicare residents, small size, for-profit ownership, and chain organization affiliation were associated with higher resident COVID-19 mortality percentage. Overall, no evidence was found that nursing home resident COVID-19 mortality percentage differed between unionized nursing homes and nonunionized nursing homes in the U.S.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicare , Aged , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nursing Homes , Health Facilities, Proprietary , Ownership
15.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 260(15): 1971-1978, 2022 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974567

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the effects of practice ownership on wellbeing of US private practice veterinarians. Sample: 1,217 practice owners and 1,414 associate veterinarians (ie, nonowners) who participated in the 2021 AVMA Census of Veterinarians and Practice Owners Survey. Procedures: A professional quality of life instrument was used to measure compassion satisfaction (CS; a positive attribute), burnout (BO), and secondary traumatic stress (STS) in practice owners and nonowners both as scores and as score categories (low, moderate, and high CS, BO, and STS). For hypothesis tests, propensity score matching was used, with owners (n = 595) matched to nonowners (595) on several demographic and employment factors. Results: Owners had significantly (P < .001) higher CS scores (mean ± SE, 34.1 ± 0.3) and lower BO scores (26.1 ± 0.3) than nonowners (32.8 ± 0.3 and 26.9 ± 0.3, respectively), but STS scores were comparable between groups (27.4 ± 0.3 and 27.5 ± 0.3; P = .55). The prevalence of low CS scores and high BO scores was significantly (P < .001) higher for nonowners versus owners (53.8% vs 42.7% and 51.6% vs 46.4%, respectively). Both owners and nonowners had a high prevalence of high STS scores (81.8% and 83.2%, respectively; P = .53). Clinical Relevance: Results suggested that practice ownership confers a benefit to private practice veterinarians in terms of CS and BO, but not STS. The prevalence of poor CS, BO, and STS scores was higher than reported previously for 2016 to 2018, suggesting an impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The high prevalence of high STS scores in both groups warrants attention and action to protect the welfare of the veterinary workforce and support optimal patient care.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Compassion Fatigue , Veterinarians , Animals , Humans , Quality of Life , Ownership , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/veterinary , Compassion Fatigue/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Private Practice
16.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 260(12): 1482-1488, 2022 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assess US veterinarians' perceptions regarding vaccine concerns (their own and owners') and the association between owners' vaccine concerns and COVID-19 antivaccination sentiments. SAMPLE: Members of the Veterinary Information Network. PROCEDURES: An electronic survey distributed via the Veterinary Information Network data collection portal. RESULTS: 1,341 US veterinarians completed the survey. Top veterinarian concerns for vaccinating a healthy adult dog were anaphylaxis, soreness at injection site, and lethargy; for cats, these concerns included vaccine-associated sarcoma, lethargy, and soreness at injection site. Veterinarians reported that the most common concerns mentioned by owners included that the pet does not go outside, that vaccinations are unnecessary, that vaccinations can lead to chronic or severe illness, and cost. Veterinarians reported an increased number of dog and cat owners reluctant about or resistant to the idea of rabies vaccines and core vaccines since the time that COVID-19 vaccines became widely available. There was an association between veterinarians' perceptions of local COVID-19 antivaccination sentiments and the increase in the number of vaccine-resistant or -concerned clients. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: There appears to be little overlap between veterinarians' primary concerns related to vaccinations and their perception of dog and cat owners' primary concerns. The fact that the number of resistant clients is positively associated with the presence of veterinarians' perceptions of a local COVID-19 antivaccination sentiment suggests that human antivaccination sentiments impact pet owners' views of companion animal vaccinations. A better understanding of the cognitive biases that impact owners' vaccine decisions can help veterinarians better communicate with vaccine-reluctant clients and increase vaccination compliance rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Veterinarians , Veterinary Medicine , Humans , Cats , Dogs , Animals , Veterinarians/psychology , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19 Vaccines , Lethargy/veterinary , Ownership , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/veterinary
17.
Vet Rec ; 191(5): e1738, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been increasing provision of veterinary telemedicine consultations, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, little evidence currently exists examining these remote consultations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore veterinary and cat owner experiences of telemedicine consultations during the pandemic. METHODS: Two questionnaires, one aimed at veterinary professionals and one at cat owners, were launched in September 2020. Questions explored the type of consultation conducted remotely, the perceived advantages and disadvantages of telemedicine, and the role of telemedicine in the future of veterinary practice. RESULTS: Responses were received from 242 veterinary professionals and 98 owners with experience of telemedicine. Monitoring and advice consultations were felt to be most suited to telemedicine. Reduced stress for owners/cats was seen as an advantage of telemedicine, while lack of clinical examination and risk of misdiagnosis were viewed as disadvantages. Most respondents (85.7% [n = 84/98] of owners; 67.4% [n = 163/242] of veterinary professionals) felt practices should continue to offer telemedicine consultations. CONCLUSION: With increasing pet ownership and practice workload, telemedicine may play a crucial role in the future of veterinary practice. Future work should focus on a strategic approach to feline telemedicine, integrating it alongside face-to-face visits and developing technologies to maximise its advantages.


Subject(s)
Animal Technicians , COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Surgeons , Telemedicine , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Ownership , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855727

ABSTRACT

The economic and health crises related to the COVID-19 pandemic raised considerable concern about child and family diet, especially among small-holder farming households in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In rural Nepal, 309 families (including 368 children aged 6-66 months) were enrolled pre-COVID-19 in a prospective study of a nutrition education intervention and family milk consumption. The intervention could not be implemented due to COVID-19; however, child and family diet was assessed in three household surveys (one before and two during the pandemic). Over time, after adjusting for child and household factors, child and family diet quality declined (reduced diet diversity, consumption of milk and animal-source-foods (ASF)). However, in dairy-animal-owning (vs. non-dairy-animal-owning) households, both children and family were more likely to consume milk (aOR respectively 2.88× (p < 0.05), 5.81× (p < 0.001)). Similarly, in households producing >3.5 L/d milk (vs. ≤3.5 L/d), children and family members were more likely to consume milk (respectively 7.45× and 11.88× (both p < 0.001)). Thus, the overall decline in child and family diet quality, especially related to milk consumption, was buffered independently by household ownership of ≥1 dairy animals (cow or buffalo) and by milk production >3.5 L/day. A better understanding of these protective factors might facilitate the development of interventions to promote resilience in future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ownership , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cattle , Diet , Female , Humans , Milk , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
19.
Inj Prev ; 28(5): 434-439, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854381

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Research surrounding firearm ownership is often contextualised within the perspectives of older white men. We expand this description using the perceptions of a diverse group of firearm-owning stakeholders. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews from October 2020 to May 2021 with Colorado/Washington State stakeholders representing (1) firearm ranges/retailers; (2) law enforcement agencies or (3) relevant state/national firearm organisations. Data were analysed using standard qualitative techniques and included 25 participants, representing varied sociocultural groups including racial and ethnic minorities, political minorities and sexual minorities. RESULTS: Participants for this analysis were of different self-identified sociocultural groups including racial and ethnic minorities (African American, Hispanic and Asian), political minorities (liberal) and sexual minorities, defined as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT). Perspectives on firearm ownership included an idea of gun culture as a component of (1) personal identity, (2) an expression of full citizenship and (3) necessary for self-protection. A strong subtheme was the intersection of minority group and firearm owner identities, creating a need for divergent social communities because of ideas on traditional gun culture. These communities are a safe place for individuals belonging to minority groups to escape negative external and internal group associations with firearms. CONCLUSION: Perspectives on firearms and firearm ownership in the secondary analysis were heterogeneous and related to personal experiences, external and internal group pressures that influence individual behaviour. Understanding the breadth of perspectives on firearm ownership is imperative to engaging individuals for risk reduction. This study adds to the literature by expanding an understanding of the motivation for firearm ownership among diverse communities.


Subject(s)
Firearms , Black or African American , Female , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Male , Ownership , Qualitative Research
20.
BMJ ; 377: o977, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832400
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