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Nursing ; 51(10): 18-29, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440656


ABSTRACT: The second of a two-part series, this article describes eight recently approved drugs, including the first drug approved for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, a first-in-class HIV attachment inhibitor, and a new intravenous injection indicated for the treatment of acute pain in adults for whom other treatments are ineffective.

Drug Approval , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amisulpride/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamates/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Chlorophenols/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Fumarates/therapeutic use , Humans , Indans/therapeutic use , Organophosphates/therapeutic use , Oxadiazoles/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Spiro Compounds/therapeutic use , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Thiophenes/therapeutic use , Tromethamine/therapeutic use , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
Mol Divers ; 25(3): 1839-1854, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002132


Designing anticoronavirus disease 2019 (anti-COVID-19) agents is the primary concern of medicinal chemists/drug designers nowadays. Repurposing of known active compounds against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new effective and time-saving trend in anti-COVID-19 drug discovery. Thorough inhibition of the coronaviral-2 proteins (i.e., multitarget inhibition) is a possible powerful favorable strategy for developing effectively potent drugs for COVID-19. In this new research study, I succeeded to repurpose the two antioxidant polyhydroxy-1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds CoViTris2020 and ChloViD2020 as the first multitarget coronaviral protein blockers with extremely higher potencies (reach about 65 and 304 times, for CoViTris2020, and 20 and 93 times, for ChloViD2020, more potent than remdesivir and favipiravir, respectively). These two 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles were computationally studied (through molecular docking in almost all SARS-CoV-2 proteins) and biologically assessed (through a newly established robust in vitro anti-COVID-19 assay) for their anticoronaviral-2 bioactivities. The data obtained from the docking investigation showed that both ligands promisingly exhibited very strong inhibitory binding affinities with almost all docked enzymes (e.g., they displayed extremely lower binding energies of - 12.00 and - 9.60 kcal/mol, respectively, with the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase "RdRp"). The results of the biological assay revealed that CoViTris2020 and ChloViD2020 significantly displayed very high anti-COVID-19 activities (anti-SARS-CoV-2 EC50 = 0.31 and 1.01 µM, respectively). Further in vivo/clinical studies for the development of CoViTris2020 and ChloViD2020 as anti-COVID-19 medications are required. In brief, the ascent of CoViTris2020 and ChloViD2020 as the two lead members of the novel family of anti-COVID-19 polyphenolic 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives represents a promising hope in COVID-19 therapy. CoViTris2020 and ChloViD2020 inhibit SARS-CoV-2 life cycle with surprising EC50 values of 0.31 and 1.01 µM, respectively. CoViTris2020 strongly inhibits coronaviral-2 RdRp with exceptionally lower inhibitory binding energy of - 12.00 kcal/mol.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Oxadiazoles/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Oxadiazoles/chemistry , Oxadiazoles/therapeutic use
Front Immunol ; 11: 1102, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-477856


With the sudden outbreak of COVID-19 patient worldwide and associated mortality, it is critical to come up with an effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2. Studies suggest that mortality due to COVID 19 is mainly attributed to the hyper inflammatory response leading to cytokine storm and ARDS in infected patients. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) analogs, AAL-R and RP-002, have earlier provided in-vivo protection from the pathophysiological response during H1N1 influenza infection and improved mortality. Recently, it was shown that the treatment with sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 analog, CYM5442, resulted in the significant dampening of the immune response upon H1N1 challenge in mice and improved survival of H1N1 infected mice in combination with an antiviral drug, oseltamivir. Hence, here we suggest to investigate the possible utility of using S1P analogs to treat COVID-19.

Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Indans/therapeutic use , Lysophospholipids/agonists , Oxadiazoles/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors/metabolism , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sphingosine/agonists