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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2124766, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473777

ABSTRACT

Importance: Triplet chemotherapy with fluorouracil, folinic acid, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan plus bevacizumab (FOLFOXIRI-B) is an effective first-line treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the degree of implementation of FOLFOXIRI-B in daily practice is unknown. Objectives: To evaluate the current adoption rate of FOLFOXIRI-B in patients with mCRC and investigate the perspectives of medical oncologists toward this treatment option. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 1-week, multicenter, cross-sectional study in the Netherlands used a flash mob design, which facilitates ultrafast data generation (flash) through the engagement of numerous researchers (mob). During the study week (March 1-5, 2021), patient data were retrieved from electronic health records of 47 hospitals on patients with mCRC who were referred to a medical oncologist between November 1, 2020, and January 31, 2021. Interviews were simultaneously conducted with 101 medical oncologists from 52 hospitals who regularly treat patients with mCRC. Exposure: First-line systemic treatment as determined by the treating physician. Main Outcomes and Measures: The FOLFOXIRI-B prescription rate was the main outcome. Current practice was compared with prescription rates in 2015 to 2018. Eligibility for treatment with FOLFOXIRI-B was estimated. An exploratory outcome was medical oncologists' reported perspectives on FOLFOXIRI-B. Results: A total of 5948 patients in the Netherlands (median age [interquartile range], 66 [57-73] years; 3503 [59%] male; and 3712 [62%] with left-sided or rectal tumor) were treated with first-line systemic therapy for synchronous mCRC. A total of 282 patients with mCRC underwent systemic therapy during the study period (2021). Of these 282 patients, 199 (71%) were treated with intensive first-line therapy other than FOLFOXIRI-B, of whom 184 (65%) were treated with oxaliplatin doublets with or without bevacizumab; 14 (5%) with irinotecan doublets with or without bevacizumab, panitumumab, or cetuximab; and 1 (0.4%) with irinotecan with bevacizumab. Fifty-four patients (19%) were treated with fluoropyrimidine monotherapy with or without bevacizumab, 1 patient (0.4%) with panitumumab monotherapy, and 3 (1%) with immune checkpoint inhibitors. In total, 25 patients (9%; 95% CI, 6%-12%) were treated with first-line FOLFOXIRI-B compared with 142 (2%; 95% CI, 2%-3%) in 2015 to 2018. During the study period, 21 of 157 eligible patients (13.4%) in the Netherlands were treated with FOLFOXIRI-B. A total of 87 medical oncologists (86%) reported discussing FOLFOXIRI-B as a treatment option with eligible patients. A total of 47 of 85 (55%) generally communicated a preference for a chemotherapy doublet to patients. These oncologists reported a significantly lower awareness of guidelines and trial results. Toxic effects were the most reported reason to prefer an alternative regimen. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that FOLFOXIRI-B prescription rates have marginally increased in the last 5 years. Considering that most medical oncologists discuss this treatment option, the prescription rate found in this study was below expectations. Awareness of guidelines and trial data seems to contribute to the discussion of available treatment options by medical oncologists, and the findings of this study suggest a need for repeated and continuing medical education.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Bevacizumab/administration & dosage , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Medical Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Humans , Leucovorin/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Oxaliplatin/administration & dosage , Research Design
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(16): 5310-5317, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the treatment of cancer patients, with particular regard to the management of both chemotherapy and side effects. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are amongst the most troublesome side effects that impair patients' adherence to treatments and their quality of life (QoL). NEPA (Akynzeo®), is an oral fixed-dose combination of netupitant [a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1RA), 300 mg] and palonosetron [(5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin or 5HT) type3 receptor antagonist (5HT3RA), 0.5 mg] which has been shown to be effective in preventing CINV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study started before the outbreak of COVID-19 and was carried out during the pandemic period. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single oral dose NEPA plus 12 mg of dexamethasone (DEX) in patients treated with Folfoxiri plus Bevacizumab and Folfirinox. The patients were diagnosed with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) or advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). They were divided into two groups: naïve patients and patients previously treated with serotonin receptor antagonists (5HT3-RA) and neurokin-1 receptor antagonists (NK1-RA). RESULTS: During the overall phase, the complete response (CR) rate was 96.8% in naïve patients treated with Folfoxiri plus Bevacizumab, and 94.6% in patients treated with Folfirinox. During the acute and delayed phases, the CR rate was 92.8% and 94.2%, with Folfoxiri and Bevacizumab, as well as 96.2% and 94.6%, with Folfirinox. There was no adequate control of CINV events in patients on antiemetic prophylaxis with 5HT3-RA or NK1-RA associated with cortisone. During the overall phase, the CR rate was 74.6% with Folfoxiri plus Bevacizumab and 75.8% with Folfirinox. During the acute and delayed phases, the CR rate was 72.5% and 74.8% with Folfoxiri plus Bevacizumab, as well as 75.2% and 74.6% with Folfirinox. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown the therapeutic benefits of NEPA in the management and prophylaxis of CINV events, both in naive patients and patients previously treated with 5HT3-RA and NK1-RA. In addition, NEPA has been shown to be safe, both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiemetics/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Palonosetron/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Aged , Antiemetics/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Bevacizumab/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Female , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Humans , Irinotecan/administration & dosage , Irinotecan/therapeutic use , Leucovorin/administration & dosage , Leucovorin/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/prevention & control , Oxaliplatin/administration & dosage , Oxaliplatin/therapeutic use , Palonosetron/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Vomiting/prevention & control
3.
Cancer Sci ; 112(7): 2915-2920, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294969

ABSTRACT

Adjuvant chemotherapy has reduced the risk of tumor recurrence and improved survival in patients with resected colorectal cancer. Potential utility of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) prior to and post surgery has been reported across various solid tumors. We initiated a new type of adaptive platform trials to evaluate the clinical benefits of ctDNA analysis and refine precision adjuvant therapy for resectable colorectal cancer, named CIRCULATE-Japan including three clinical trials. The GALAXY study is a prospectively conducted large-scale registry designed to monitor ctDNA for patients with clinical stage II to IV or recurrent colorectal cancer who can undergo complete surgical resection. The VEGA trial is a randomized phase III study designed to test whether postoperative surgery alone is noninferior to the standard therapy with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin for 3 months in patients with high-risk stage II or low-risk stage III colon cancer if ctDNA status is negative at week 4 after curative surgery in the GALAXY study. The ALTAIR trial is a double-blind, phase III study designed to establish the superiority of trifluridine/tipiracil as compared with placebo in patients with resected colorectal cancer who show circulating tumor-positive status in the GALAXY study. Therefore, CIRCULATE-Japan encompasses both "de-escalation" and "escalation" trials for ctDNA-negative and -positive patients, respectively, and helps to answer whether measuring ctDNA postoperatively has prognostic and/or predictive value. Our ctDNA-guided adaptive platform trials will accelerate clinical development toward further precision oncology in the field of adjuvant therapy. Analysis of ctDNA status could be utilized as a predictor of risk stratification for recurrence and to monitor the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy. ctDNA is a promising, noninvasive tumor biomarker that can aid in tumor monitoring throughout disease management.


Subject(s)
Circulating Tumor DNA/blood , Colorectal Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/blood , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Capecitabine/administration & dosage , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colonic Neoplasms/blood , Colonic Neoplasms/genetics , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Japan , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/genetics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/therapy , Oxaliplatin/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Pyrrolidines/administration & dosage , Thymine/administration & dosage , Trifluridine/administration & dosage
4.
Oncoimmunology ; 9(1): 1789284, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066080

ABSTRACT

Amid controversial reports that COVID-19 can be treated with a combination of the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and the antibiotic azithromycin (AZI), a clinical trial (ONCOCOVID, NCT04341207) was launched at Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus to investigate the utility of this combination therapy in cancer patients. In this preclinical study, we investigated whether the combination of HCQ+AZI would be compatible with the therapeutic induction of anticancer immune responses. For this, we used doses of HCQ and AZI that affect whole-body physiology (as indicated by a partial blockade in cardiac and hepatic autophagic flux for HCQ and a reduction in body weight for AZI), showing that their combined administration did not interfere with tumor growth control induced by the immunogenic cell death inducer oxaliplatin. Moreover, the HCQ+AZI combination did not affect the capacity of a curative regimen (cisplatin + crizotinib + PD-1 blockade) to eradicate established orthotopic lung cancers in mice. In conclusion, it appears that HCQ+AZI does not interfere with the therapeutic induction of therapeutic anticancer immune responses.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Animals , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/pharmacokinetics , Azithromycin/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Cisplatin/pharmacokinetics , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Crizotinib/administration & dosage , Crizotinib/pharmacokinetics , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Interactions , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , France , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Mice , Neoplasms/immunology , Oxaliplatin/administration & dosage , Oxaliplatin/pharmacokinetics , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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