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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20775, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20232559

ABSTRACT

Abstract Up to today, there is no specific treatment against SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 infection; there the necessity to search for alternatives that help patients with COVID-19. The objective of this study was to review the use of ozone therapy as adjunct treatment for SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 infection, highlighting the mechanisms of action, forms of application and current clinical evidence. A systematic review was conducted in electronic databases, searching the terminology Ozone "or" Ozone therapy "and" SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 or Coronavirus. Results: nineteen studies were included; ten were editorials, comments, brief reports or reviews, and nine clinical studies. We found that ozone therapy could be favorable for treating patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19, through a direct antiviral effect, regulation of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and improvement of oxygen metabolism. Patients who were treated with ozone therapy responded favorably; therefore, ozone therapy appears to be a promising treatment for patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19. Its mechanism of action justifies its use as an adjuvant therapy; however, scientific evidence is based on case series and clinical trials are necessary to corroborate its effectiveness and safety.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/classification , COVID-19/pathology , Ozone Therapy , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Patients/classification , Oxidative Stress , Research Report , Infections/classification
2.
Molecules ; 28(11)2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232674

ABSTRACT

Ultraviolet C (UVC) devices are an effective means of disinfecting surfaces and protecting medical tools against various microbes, including coronavirus. Overexposure to UVC can induce oxidative stress, damage the genetic material, and harm biological systems. This study investigated the prophylactic efficacy of vitamin C and B12 against hepatotoxicity in UVC-intoxicated rats. Rats were irradiated with UVC (725.76, 967.68, and 1048.36 J/cm2) for 2 weeks. The rats were pretreated with the aforementioned antioxidants for two months before UVC irradiation. The prophylactic effect of vitamins against UVC hepatotoxicity was evaluated by monitoring the alteration of liver enzyme activities, antioxidant status, apoptotic and inflammatory markers, DNA fragmentation, and histological and ultrastructural alterations. Rats exposed to UVC showed a significant increase in liver enzymes, oxidant-antioxidant balance disruption, and increased hepatic inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1ß, iNOS, and IDO-1). Additionally, obvious over-expression of activated caspase-3 protein and DNA fragmentation were detected. Histological and ultrastructural examinations verified the biochemical findings. Co-treatment with vitamins ameliorated the deviated parameters to variable degrees. In conclusion, vitamin C could alleviate UVC-induced hepatotoxicity more than vitamin B12 by diminishing oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage. This study could provide a reference for the clinical practice of vitamin C and B12 as radioprotective for workers in UVC disinfectant areas.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Rats , Male , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Vitamin B 12/metabolism , Vitamins/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Vitamin A/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Liver
3.
Neurotoxicology ; 97: 101-108, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232294

ABSTRACT

Anxiety-related disorders are among the most important risks for global health, especially in recent years due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Benzodiazepines like diazepam are generally used to treat anxiety disorders, but the overall outcome is not always satisfactory. This is why psychiatrists encourage patients with anxiety to change their lifestyle habits to decrease the risk of anxiety recurrence. However, the effect of diazepam and exercise in combination is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of diazepam alone or in combination with swimming exercise on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of mice. Mice were exposed to diazepam and swimming exercise alone or in combination with each other and then received LPS. We assessed anxiety-like behavior using open field and light-dark box and measured oxidative markers including glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The findings showed that LPS increased anxiety-related symptoms and oxidative stress by decreasing GSH and increasing MDA and GSSG levels in the prefrontal cortex but not in the hippocampus. Although diazepam alone did not reduce anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress, it in combination with exercise significantly decreased anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex of LPS-treated mice. This drug and exercise combination also displayed a more effective effect in comparison with exercise alone. Overall, this study suggests that diazepam in combination with swimming exercise has higher efficacy on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress than when they are used alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice , Animals , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Glutathione Disulfide , Diazepam/pharmacology , Pandemics , Oxidative Stress , Anxiety/chemically induced , Anxiety/prevention & control , Prefrontal Cortex , Glutathione/metabolism , Hippocampus
4.
Microvasc Res ; 149: 104557, 2023 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction, assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), is related to poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (CP). In this study, we explored the interplay among FMD, NADPH oxidase type 2 (NOX-2) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in hospitalised patients with CP, community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and controls (CT). METHODS: We enrolled 20 consecutive patients with CP, 20 hospitalised patients with CAP and 20 CT matched for sex, age, and main cardiovascular risk factors. In all subjects we performed FMD and collected blood samples to analyse markers of oxidative stress (soluble Nox2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp), hydrogen peroxide breakdown activity (HBA), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)), inflammation (TNF-α and IL-6), LPS and zonulin levels. RESULTS: Compared with controls, CP had significant higher values of LPS, sNOX-2-dp, H2O2,TNF-α, IL-6 and zonulin; conversely FMD, HBA and NO bioavailability were significantly lower in CP. Compared to CAP patients, CP had significantly higher levels of sNOX2-dp, H2O2, TNF-α, IL-6, LPS, zonulin and lower HBA. Simple linear regression analysis showed that FMD inversely correlated with sNOX2-dp, H2O2, TNF-α, IL-6, LPS and zonulin; conversely FMD was directly correlated with NO bioavailability and HBA. Multiple linear regression analysis highlighted LPS as the only predictor of FMD. CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients with COVID-19 have low-grade endotoxemia that could activate NOX-2, generating increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endotoxemia , Pneumonia , Vascular Diseases , Humans , Endotoxemia/diagnosis , Lipopolysaccharides , Hydrogen Peroxide , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , COVID-19/diagnosis , Oxidative Stress
5.
Mol Biol Rep ; 50(7): 5827-5836, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is thought to play a significant role in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19. Additionally, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression may predict the severity and clinical course of COVID-19. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of oxidative stress and ACE2 expression with the clinical severity in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study comprised 40 patients with COVID-19 and 40 matched healthy controls, recruited between September 2021 and March 2022. ACE 2 expression levels were measured using Hera plus SYBR Green qPCR kits with GAPDH used as an internal control. Serum melatonin (MLT) levels, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were estimated using ELISA. The correlations between the levels of the studied markers and clinical indicators of disease severity were evaluated. Significantly, lower expression of ACE2 was observed in COVID-19 patients compared to controls. Patients with COVID-19 had lower serum levels of TAC and MLT but higher serum levels of MDA compared to normal controls. Serum MDA levels were correlated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores, and serum potassium levels. Serum MLT levels were positively correlated with DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory rate, and serum potassium levels. TAC was correlated with GCS, mean platelet volume, and serum creatinine levels. Serum MLT levels were significantly lower in patients treated with remdesivir and inotropes. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrates that all markers had utility in discriminating COVID-19 patients from healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Increased oxidative stress and increased ACE2 expression were correlated with disease severity and poor outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the present study. Melatonin supplementation may provide a utility as an adjuvant therapy in decreasing disease severity and death in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Patient Acuity , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
6.
Phytother Res ; 37(4): 1590-1605, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319168

ABSTRACT

Usually, in aerobic metabolism, natural materials including nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids can experience auxiliary injury by oxidative responses. This damage produced by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species has been identified as "oxidative stress." As a natural polyphenol got from red wine and peanuts, resveratrol is one of the most eminent anti-aging mixtures. Based on many studies', resveratrol hinders destructive effects of inflammatory causes and reactive oxygen radicals in several tissues. The nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 is a factor related to transcription with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant possessions which is complicated by enzyme biotransformation and biosynthesis of lipids and carbohydrates. This review provides current understanding and information about the character of resveratrol against oxidative stress and regulation of inflammation via Nrf2 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Oxidative Stress , Humans , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Inflammation/drug therapy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Reactive Nitrogen Species , Lipids
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317257

ABSTRACT

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is insensitive to target therapy for non-TNBC and needs novel drug discovery. Extracts of the traditional herb Boesenbergia plant in Southern Asia exhibit anticancer effects and contain novel bioactive compounds but merely show cytotoxicity. We recently isolated a new compound from B. stenophylla, stenophyllol B (StenB), but the impact and mechanism of its proliferation-modulating function on TNBC cells remain uninvestigated. This study aimed to assess the antiproliferative responses of StenB in TNBC cells and examine the drug safety in normal cells. StenB effectively suppressed the proliferation of TNBC cells rather than normal cells in terms of an ATP assay. This preferential antiproliferative function was alleviated by pretreating inhibitors for oxidative stress (N-acetylcysteine (NAC)) and apoptosis (Z-VAD-FMK). Accordingly, the oxidative-stress-related mechanisms were further assessed. StenB caused subG1 and G2/M accumulation but reduced the G1 phase in TNBC cells, while normal cells remained unchanged between the control and StenB treatments. The apoptosis behavior of TNBC cells was suppressed by StenB, whereas that of normal cells was not suppressed according to an annexin V assay. StenB-modulated apoptosis signaling, such as for caspases 3, 8, and 9, was more significantly activated in TNBC than in normal cells. StenB also caused oxidative stress in TNBC cells but not in normal cells according to a flow cytometry assay monitoring reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial superoxide, and their membrane potential. StenB induced greater DNA damage responses (γH2AX and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine) in TNBC than in normal cells. All these StenB responses were alleviated by NAC pretreatment. Collectively, StenB modulated oxidative stress responses, leading to the antiproliferation of TNBC cells with little cytotoxicity in normal cells.


Subject(s)
Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Humans , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , DNA Damage , Cell Proliferation , Cell Line, Tumor , Oxidative Stress , Apoptosis , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315805

ABSTRACT

Obesity is on the rise worldwide, and consequently, obesity-related non-communicable diseases are as well. Nutritional overload induces metabolic adaptations in an attempt to restore the disturbed balance, and the byproducts of the mechanisms at hand include an increased generation of reactive species. Obesity-related oxidative stress causes damage to vulnerable systems and ultimately contributes to neoplastic transformation. Dysfunctional obese adipose tissue releases cytokines and induces changes in the cell microenvironment, promoting cell survival and progression of the transformed cancer cells. Other than the increased risk of cancer development, obese cancer patients experience higher mortality rates and reduced therapy efficiency as well. The fact that obesity is considered the second leading preventable cause of cancer prioritizes the research on the mechanisms connecting obesity to cancerogenesis and finding the solutions to break the link. Oxidative stress is integral at different stages of cancer development and advancement in obese patients. Hypocaloric, balanced nutrition, and structured physical activity are some tools for relieving this burden. However, the sensitivity of simultaneously treating cancer and obesity poses a challenge. Further research on the obesity-cancer liaison would offer new perspectives on prevention programs and treatment development.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Obesity , Humans , Obesity/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314935

ABSTRACT

We previously showed that SerpinA3K is present in urine from rats and humans with acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the specific role of SerpinA3K during renal pathophysiology is unknown. To begin to understand the role of SerpinA3K on AKI, SerpinA3K-deficient (KOSA3) mice were studied 24 h after inducing ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and compared to wild type (WT) mice. Four groups were studied: WT+S, WT+IR, KOSA3+S, and KOSA3+IR. As expected, I/R increased serum creatinine and BUN, with a GFR reduction in both genotypes; however, renal dysfunction was ameliorated in the KOSA3+IR group. Interestingly, the increase in UH2O2 induced by I/R was not equally seen in the KOSA3+IR group, an effect that was associated with the preservation of antioxidant enzymes' mRNA levels. Additionally, FOXO3 expression was initially greater in the KOSA3 than in the WT group. Moreover, the increase in BAX protein level and the decrease in Hif1a and Vegfa induced by I/R were not observed in the KOSA3+IR group, suggesting that these animals have better cellular responses to hypoxic injury. Our findings suggest that SerpinA3K is involved in the renal oxidant response, HIF1α/VEGF pathway, and cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Reperfusion Injury , Animals , Mice , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Apoptosis , Kidney/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism
10.
Pharm Biol ; 61(1): 755-766, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312315

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Vancomycin (VCM), an important antibiotic against refractory infections, has been used to treat secondary infections in severe COVID-19 patients. Regrettably, VCM treatment has been associated with nephrotoxicity. Vitamin D3 can prevent nephrotoxicity through its antioxidant effect. OBJECTIVE: This study tests the antioxidant effect of vitamin D3 in the prevention of VCM-induced nephrotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar Albino rats (21) were randomly divided into 3 groups: (A) control; (B) VCM 300 mg/kg daily for 1 week; and (C) VCM plus vitamin D3 500 IU/kg daily for 2 weeks. All the rats were sacrificed and serum was separated to determine kidney function parameters. Their kidneys were also dissected for histological examination and for oxidative stress markers. RESULTS: Lipid peroxidation, creatinine, and urea levels decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) in the vitamin D3-treated group (14.46, 84.11, 36.17%, respectively) compared to the VCM group that was given VCM (MIC<2 µg/mL) only. A significant increase was observed in superoxide dismutase levels in the vitamin D3-treated group (p < 0.05) compared to rats without treatment. Furthermore, kidney histopathology of the rats treated with vitamin D3 showed that dilatation, vacuolization and necrosis tubules decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared with those in the VCM group. Glomerular injury, hyaline dystrophy, and inflammation improved significantly in the vitamin D3 group (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, respectively) compared with the VCM group. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D3 can prevent VCM nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the appropriate dose of this vitamin must be determined, especially for those infected with COVID-19 and receiving VCM, to manage their secondary infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Animals , Rats , Vancomycin/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , Cholecalciferol/metabolism , Coinfection/metabolism , Coinfection/pathology , Rats, Wistar , COVID-19/metabolism , Kidney , Oxidative Stress
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(8)2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304262

ABSTRACT

In addition to the acute symptoms after infection, patients and society are also being challenged by the long-term effects of COVID-19, known as long COVID. Oxidative stress, as a pivotal point in the pathophysiology of COVID-19, could potentially be also involved in the development of the post-COVID syndrome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between changes in oxidative status and the persistence of long-COVID symptoms in workers with a previous mild COVID-19 infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 127 employees of an Italian university (80 with a previous COVID-19 infection, and 47 healthy subjects). The TBARS assay was used to detect malondialdehyde serum levels (MDA), while total hydroperoxide (TH) production was measured by a d-ROMs kit. A significant difference in mean serum MDA values was found between previously infected subjects and healthy controls and (4.9 µm vs. 2.8 µm, respectively). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed high specificity and good sensibility (78.7% and 67.5%, respectively) for MDA serum levels. A random forest classifier identified the hematocrit value, MDA serum levels, and IgG titer against SARS-CoV-2 as features with the highest predictive value in distinguishing 34 long-COVID from 46 asymptomatic post-COVID subjects. Oxidative damage persists in subjects with previous COVID-19 infection, suggesting a possible role of oxidative stress mediators in the pathogenesis of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Italy/epidemiology
12.
Molecules ; 28(7)2023 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301298

ABSTRACT

Elderberry is highly reputed for its health-improving effects. Multiple pieces of evidence indicate that the consumption of berries is linked to enhancing human health and preventing or delaying the onset of chronic medical conditions. Compared with other fruit, elderberry is a very rich source of anthocyanins (approximately 80% of the polyphenol content). These polyphenols are the principals that essentially contribute to the high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities and the health benefits of elderberry fruit extract. These health effects include attenuation of cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and inflammatory disorders, as well as anti-diabetic, anticancer, antiviral, and immuno-stimulatory effects. Sales of elderberry supplements skyrocketed to $320 million over the year 2020, according to an American Botanical Council (ABC) report, which is attributable to the purported immune-enhancing effects of elderberry. In the current review, the chemical composition of the polyphenolic content of the European elderberry (Sambucus nigra) and the American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis), as well as the analytical techniques employed to analyze, characterize, and ascertain the chemical consistency will be addressed. Further, the factors that influence the consistency of the polyphenolic chemical composition, and hence, the consistency of the health benefits of elderberry extracts will be presented. Additionally, adulteration and safety as factors contributing to consistency will be covered. The role of elderberry in enhancing human health alone with the pharmacological basis, the cellular pathways, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed health benefits of elderberry fruit extracts will be also reviewed.


Subject(s)
Sambucus , Humans , Sambucus/chemistry , Anthocyanins/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Oxidative Stress , Inflammation/drug therapy , Fruit/chemistry
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 880: 163269, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299251

ABSTRACT

While the multifaceted social, economic, and public health impacts associated with the COVID-19 pandemic are known, little is known about its effects on non-target aquatic ecosystems and organisms. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the potential ecotoxicity of SARS-CoV-2 lysate protein (SARS.CoV2/SP02.2020.HIAE.Br) in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) at predicted environmentally relevant concentrations (0.742 and 2.226 pg/L), by 30 days. Although our data did not show locomotor alterations or anxiety-like or/and anxiolytic-like behavior, we noticed that exposure to SARS-CoV-2 negatively affected habituation memory and social aggregation of animals in response to a potential aquatic predator (Geophagus brasiliensis). An increased frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities was also observed in animals exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, our data suggest that such changes were associated with a redox imbalance [↑ROS (reactive oxygen species), ↑H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), ↓SOD (superoxide dismutase), and ↓CAT (catalase)], cholinesterasic effect [↑AChE (acetylcholinesterase) activity], as well as the induction of an inflammatory immune response [↑NO (nitric oxide), ↑IFN-γ (interferon-gamma), and ↓IL-10 (interleukin-10)]. For some biomarkers, we noticed that the response of the animals to the treatments was not concentration-dependent. However, principal component analysis (PCA) and the "Integrated Biomarker Response" index (IBRv2) indicated a more prominent ecotoxicity of SARS-CoV-2 at 2.226 pg/L. Therefore, our study advances knowledge about the ecotoxicological potential of SARS-CoV-2 and reinforces the presumption that the COVID-19 pandemic has negative implications beyond its economic, social, and public health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , Humans , Zebrafish/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Oxidative Stress , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Ecosystem , Pandemics , Fresh Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
14.
Med Gas Res ; 13(4): 212-218, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298723

ABSTRACT

The medical use of molecular hydrogen, including hydrogen-rich water and hydrogen gas, has been extensively explored since 2007. This article aimed to demonstrate the trend in medical research on molecular hydrogen. A total of 1126 publications on hydrogen therapy were retrieved from the PubMed database until July 30, 2021. From 2007 to 2020, the number of publications in this field had been on an upward trend. Medical Gas Research, Scientific Report and Shock have contributed the largest number of publications on this topic. Researchers by the name of Xue-Jun Sun, Ke-Liang Xie and Yong-Hao Yu published the most studies in the field. Analysis of the co-occurrence of key words indicated that the key words "molecular hydrogen," "hydrogen-rich water," "oxidative stress," "hydrogen gas," and "inflammation" occurred most frequently in these articles. "Gut microbiota," "pyroptosis," and "COVID-19" occurred the most recently among the keywords. In summary, the therapeutic application of molecular hydrogen had attracted much attention in these years. The advance in this field could be caught up by subscribing to relevant journals or following experienced scholars. Oxidative stress and inflammation were the most important research directions currently, and gut microbiota, pyroptosis, and coronavirus disease 2019 might become hotspots in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Bibliometrics , Hydrogen/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress , Water
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275131

ABSTRACT

In all living organisms, there is a delicate balance between oxidation caused by reactive species (RS, also called free radicals) and antioxidant defence [...].


Subject(s)
Oxidative Stress , Pregnant Women , Humans , Child , Female , Pregnancy , Antioxidants/metabolism , Free Radicals , Fetus/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species
16.
Free Radic Res ; 56(11-12): 740-748, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254038

ABSTRACT

Oxidative Stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and in the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 causes injuries to tissues, leading to cytopathic hypoxia and ultimately multiple organ failure. The measurement of blood glutathione (GSH), H2O2, and catalase activity may help clarify the pathophysiology pathways of this disease. We developed and standardized a sensitive and specific chemiluminescence technique for H2O2 and GSH measurement in plasma and red blood cells of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Contrary to what was expected, the plasma concentration of H2O2 was substantially reduced (10-fold) in COVID-19 patients compared to the healthy control group. From the cohort of patients discharged from the hospital and those who were deceased, the former showed a 3.6-fold and the later 16-fold H2O2 reduction compared to the healthy control. There was a 4.4 reduction of H2O2 concentration in the deceased group compared to the discharged group. Interestingly, there was no variation in GSH levels between groups, and reduced catalase activity was found in discharged and deceased patients compared to control. These data represent strong evidence that H2O2 is converted into highly reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the worst prognosis and death outcome in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. Considering the difference in the levels of H2O2 between the control group and the deceased patients, it is proposed the quantification of plasma H2O2 as a marker of disease progression and the induction of the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes as a strategy to reduce the production of oxidative stress during severe COVID-19.HighlightsH2O2 plasma levels is dramatically reduced in patients who deceased compared to those discharged and to the control group.Plasmatic quantification of H2O2 can be possibly used as a predictor of disease progression.Catalase activity is reduced in COVID-19.GSH levels remain unchanged in COVID-19 compared to the control group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide , Catalase/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Antioxidants/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism
17.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 19: 139-144, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262714

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ascorbic acid and calcitriol were frequently utilized in conjunction as therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic, and individuals with minor symptoms had notable improvements. There have been a few studies, often with conflicting findings, that examine the use of them for endothelium restoration and numerous clinical trial studies that failed to establish the efficacy. The aim of this study was to find the efficacy of ascorbic acid compared to calcitriol on the inflammatory markers monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as protective agents which play an important role in the early stages of atherosclerosis formation. This study was an experimental in vivo study. Methods: The total of 24 male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, namely: control/normal group (N), atherosclerosis group (DL) given atherogenic diet, atherosclerosis group given atherogenic diet and ascorbic acid (DLC), and atherosclerosis group given atherogenic diet and calcitriol (DLD) treatment for 30 days. Results: Ascorbic acid and calcitriol treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05) in lowering expression of MCP-1 and increasing NO and SOD level. Calcitriol was superior to ascorbic acid in increasing SOD (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between ascorbic acid and calcitriol in decreasing MCP-1 and increasing NO (P>0.05). Discussion: Both treatments could reduce MCP-1, and increase NO and SOD by increasing antioxidants. In this study calcitriol was superior to ascorbic acid in increasing SOD, but not NO and decreasing MCP-1. According to the theory, it was found that calcitriol through nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) causes a direct increase in the amount of SOD. Nrf2 is an emerging regulator of cellular resistance to oxidants. Conclusion: Ascorbic acid and calcitriol treatment was able to reduce MCP-1 and increase NO and SOD in atherosclerosis rat. Calcitriol was significantly superior in increasing SOD levels compared to ascorbic acid.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Atherosclerosis , Calcitriol , Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Calcitriol/pharmacology , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 878: 163079, 2023 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260060

ABSTRACT

The use of wastewater-based epidemiology to evaluate the health and lifestyle of the population is a novel research interest. However, studies concerning the excretion of endogenous metabolites due to oxidative stress and the consumption of anabolic steroids have rarely been involved. In this study, we compared the effects of events such as final examination and sports meeting on the levels of four oxidative stress biomarkers (8-isoPGF2α, HNE-MA, 8-OHdG, and HCY) and four prohibited anabolic steroids (Testosterone, Androstenedione, Boldenone, and Metandienone) in sewage, using university students and urban populations as studying target. It was found that the per capita mass load of the four oxidative stress biomarkers 8-isoPGF2α, HNE-MA, 8-OHdG, and HCY in the sewage of Guangzhou urban area and university town were 256.6 ± 76.1, 9.4 ± 3.8, 1.1 ± 0.5, and 0.9 ± 0.4 mg/d/1000, respectively. The mean mass load of 8-isoPGF2α was significantly higher than that before the COVID-19 pandemic (74.9 ± 29.6 mg/d/1000 people, P < 0.05). The per capita load levels of oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly higher (P < 0.05) during the 2022 exam week relative to the pre-exam period, indicating that the exams caused transient stress to students. The per capita mass load of androgenic steroids was 77.7 mg/d/1000 people. There was an increase in the per capita load level of androgenic steroids during the provincial sports meeting. In this study, we quantified the concentration of oxidative stress biomarkers and androgenic steroids in the sewage and better realized the application of WBE on the health level and lifestyle of the population during special events.


Subject(s)
Anabolic Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Anabolic Androgenic Steroids , Sewage , Pandemics , 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine , Biomarkers , Oxidative Stress , Students
19.
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol ; 268: 109617, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249495

ABSTRACT

Chloroxylenol is an extensively consumed anti-microbial compound. Since its usage is on the rise due to the coronavirus pandemic and ban on other antimicrobial ingredients, recent studies have suggested the necessity of estimating its potential for ecotoxicity. The detrimental effect of chloroxylenol on zebrafish (Danio rerio) viability has been reported; however, research on the mechanisms underlying its toxicity is quite limited. Therefore, we applied the zebrafish model for elucidating responses against chloroxylenol to predict its toxicity toward human health and ecology. Zebrafish exposed to chloroxylenol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L) at the embryonic stage (from 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf) showed impaired viability and hatchability, and pathological phenotypes. To address these abnormalities, cellular responses such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were confirmed via in vivo imaging of a fluorescent dye or measurement of the transcriptional changes related to each response. In particular, developmental defects in the cardiovascular system of zebrafish exposed to 0, 0.5, 1, and 2.5 mg/L of chloroxylenol from 6 to 96 hpf were identified by structural analyses of the system in the flk1:eGFP transgenic line. Additional experiments were conducted using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to predict the adverse impacts of chloroxylenol on the human vascular system. Chloroxylenol impairs the viability and tube formation ability of HUVECs by modulating ERK signaling. The findings obtained using the zebrafish model provide evidence of the possible risks of chloroxylenol exposure and suggest the importance of more in-depth ecotoxicological studies.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular System , Zebrafish , Animals , Humans , Endothelial Cells , Embryo, Nonmammalian/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/metabolism , Apoptosis
20.
Cell Stress Chaperones ; 28(2): 191-199, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283804

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease, which spreads worldwide, is a disease characterized by widespread inflammation and affects many organs, especially the lungs. The resulting inflammation can lead to reactive oxygen radicals, leading to oxidative DNA damage. The pneumonia severity of 95 hospitalized patients with positive RT-PCR test was determined and divided into three groups: mild, moderate, and severe/critical. Inflammation markers (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, serum reactive protein, procalcitonin, etc.) were determined, and IL-10 and IFN-γ measurements were analyzed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. In evaluating oxidative damage, total thiol, native thiol, disulfide, and ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) levels were determined by measuring spectrophotometrically. The comet assay method's percentage of tail DNA obtained was used to determine oxidative DNA damage. As a result, when the mild and severe/critical groups were compared, we found that total thiol, native thiol, and disulfide levels decreased significantly in the severe/critical group due to the increase in inflammation markers and cytokine levels (p < 0.05). We could not detect any significance in IMA levels between the groups (p > 0.05). At the same time, we determined an increase in the tail DNA percent level, that is, DNA damage, due to the increased oxidative effect. As a result, we determined that inflammation and oxidative stress increased in patients with severe pneumonia, and there was DNA damage in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Biomarkers/metabolism , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Homeostasis , Oxidative Stress , Inflammation , Disulfides , Sulfhydryl Compounds , DNA Damage
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