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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 5589089, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736165

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused relatively high mortality in patients, especially in those with concomitant diseases (i.e., diabetes, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). In most of aforementioned comorbidities, the oxidative stress appears to be an important player in their pathogenesis. The direct cause of death in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is still far from being elucidated. Although some preliminary data suggests that the lung vasculature injury and the loss of the functioning part of pulmonary alveolar population are crucial, the precise mechanism is still unclear. On the other hand, at least two classes of medications used with some clinical benefits in COVID-19 treatment seem to have a major influence on ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) production. However, oxidative stress is one of the important mechanisms in the antiviral immune response and innate immunity. Therefore, it would be of interest to summarize the data regarding the oxidative stress in severe COVID-19. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative and antioxidant mechanisms in severe COVID-19 based on available studies. We also present the role of ROS and RNS in other viral infections in humans and in animal models. Although reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play an important role in the innate antiviral immune response, in some situations, they might have a deleterious effect, e.g., in some coronaviral infections. The understanding of the redox mechanisms in severe COVID-19 disease may have an impact on its treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reactive Nitrogen Species/immunology , Reactive Nitrogen Species/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715393

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of human mortality worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation are pathophysiological processes involved in the development of CVD. That is why bioactive food ingredients, including lycopene, are so important in their prevention, which seems to be a compound increasingly promoted in the diet of people with cardiovascular problems. Lycopene present in tomatoes and tomato products is responsible not only for their red color but also for health-promoting properties. It is characterized by a high antioxidant potential, the highest among carotenoid pigments. Mainly for this reason, epidemiological studies show a number of favorable properties between the consumption of lycopene in the diet and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. While there is also some controversy in research into its protective effects on the cardiovascular system, growing evidence supports its beneficial role for the heart, endothelium, blood vessels, and health. The mechanisms of action of lycopene are now being discovered and may explain some of the contradictions observed in the literature. This review aims to present the current knowledge in recent years on the preventive role of lycopene cardiovascular disorders.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Lycopene/pharmacology , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Humans , Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112767, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712467

ABSTRACT

With an increased transmissibility but milder form of disease of the omicron variant of COVID-19 and the newer antivirals often still out of reach of many populations, a refocus of the current treatment regimens is required. Safe, affordable, and available adjuvant treatments should also be considered and known drugs and substances need to be repurposed and tested. Resveratrol, a well-known antioxidant of natural origin, shown to act as an antiviral as well as playing a role in immune stimulation, down regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine release and reducing lung injury by reducing oxidative stress, is such an option. New initiatives and collaborations will however need to be found to unleash resveratrol's full potential in the pharmaceutical market.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Down-Regulation , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Oxidative Stress/drug effects
4.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(3): 2321-2324, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664478

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies demonstrate parallels between CVD, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and COVID-19 pathology, which accentuate pre-existing complications in patients infected with COVID-19 and potentially exacerbate the infection course. Antidiabetic drugs such as sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have garnered substantial attention recently due to their efficacy in reducing the severity of cardiorenal disease. The effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with COVID-19 remains unclear particularly since SGLT-2 inhibitors contribute to altering the RAAS cascade activity, which includes ACE-2, the major cell entry receptor for SARS-CoV2. A study, DARE-19, was carried out to unveil the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment on comorbid disease complications and concomitant COVID-19 outcomes and demonstrated no statistical significance. However, the need for further studies is essential to provide conclusive clinical findings.


Subject(s)
Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Drug Repositioning , Heart Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Mitochondria/drug effects , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/physiology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662694

ABSTRACT

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) induced immune responses were investigated in human bronchial epithelial (hBE) cells and mice. PEI rapidly induced ATP release from hBE cells and pretreatment with glutathione (GSH) blocked the response. PEI activated two conductive pathways, VDAC-1 and pannexin 1, which completely accounted for ATP efflux across the plasma membrane. Moreover, PEI increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which was reduced by the pannexin 1 inhibitor, 10Panx (50 µM), the VDAC-1 inhibitor, DIDS (100 µM), and was nearly abolished by pretreatment with GSH (5 mM). The increase in [Ca2+]i involved Ca2+ uptake through two pathways, one blocked by oxidized ATP (oATP, 300 µM) and another that was blocked by the TRPV-1 antagonist A784168 (100 nM). PEI stimulation also increased IL-33 mRNA expression and protein secretion. In vivo experiments showed that acute (4.5 h) PEI exposure stimulated secretion of Th2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) into bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Conjugation of PEI with ovalbumin also induced eosinophil recruitment and secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 into BAL fluid, which was inhibited in IL-33 receptor (ST2) deficient mice. In conclusion, PEI-induced oxidative stress stimulated type 2 immune responses by activating ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake leading to IL-33 secretion, similar to allergens derived from Alternaria.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/immunology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Immunity/drug effects , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Polyethyleneimine/pharmacology , Allergens/immunology , Animals , Calcium/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Oxidative Stress/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662665

ABSTRACT

Endometriosis, an estrogen-dependent chronic gynecological disease, is characterized by a systemic inflammation that affects circulating red blood cells (RBC), by reducing anti-oxidant defenses. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential beneficial effects of licorice intake to protect RBCs from dapsone hydroxylamine (DDS-NHOH), a harmful metabolite of dapsone, commonly used in the treatment of many diseases. A control group (CG, n = 12) and a patient group (PG, n = 18) were treated with licorice extract (25 mg/day), for a week. Blood samples before (T0) and after (T1) treatment were analyzed for: i) band 3 tyrosine phosphorylation and high molecular weight aggregates; and ii) glutathionylation and carbonic anhydrase activity, in the presence or absence of adjunctive oxidative stress induced by DDS-NHOH. Results were correlated with plasma glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) concentrations, measured by HPLC-MS. Results showed that licorice intake decreased the level of DDS-NHOH-related oxidative alterations in RBCs, and the reduction was directly correlated with plasma GA concentration. In conclusion, in PG, the inability to counteract oxidative stress is a serious concern in the evaluation of therapeutic approaches. GA, by protecting RBC from oxidative assault, as in dapsone therapy, might be considered as a new potential tool for preventing further switching into severe endometriosis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Dapsone/adverse effects , Endometriosis/chemically induced , Glycyrrhiza , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Adult , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Endometriosis/prevention & control , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Female , Glycyrrhiza/chemistry , Humans , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Young Adult
7.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(2): 363-371, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638608

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with a greater risk of COVID-19 and an increased mortality when the disease is contracted. Metformin use in patients with DM is associated with less COVID-19-related mortality, but the underlying mechanism behind this association remains unclear. Our aim was to explore the effects of metformin on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypercoagulability, and on clinical outcomes. Patients with DM on metformin (n = 34) and metformin naïve (n = 41), and patients without DM (n = 73) were enrolled within 48 h of hospital admission for COVID-19. Patients on metformin compared to naïve patients had a lower white blood cell count (p = 0.02), d-dimer (p = 0.04), urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 (p = 0.01) and urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein (p = 0.03) levels and had lower sequential organ failure assessment score (p = 0.002), and intubation rate (p = 0.03), fewer hospitalized days (p = 0.13), lower in-hospital mortality (p = 0.12) and lower mortality plus nonfatal thrombotic event occurrences (p = 0.10). Patients on metformin had similar clinical outcomes compared to patients without DM. In a multiple regression analysis, metformin use was associated with less days in hospital and lower intubation rate. In conclusion, metformin treatment in COVID-19 patients with DM was associated with lower markers of inflammation, renal ischemia, and thrombosis, and fewer hospitalized days and intubation requirement. Further focused studies are required to support these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypoglycemic Agents , Metformin , Thrombosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Metformin/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/drug therapy
8.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625635

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 virus causes novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with other comorbidities such as diabetes. Diabetes is the most common cause of diabetic nephropathy, which is attributed to hyperglycemia. COVID-19 produces severe complications in people with diabetes mellitus. This article explains how SARS-CoV-2 causes more significant kidney damage in diabetic patients. Importantly, COVID-19 and diabetes share inflammatory pathways of disease progression. SARS-CoV-2 binding with ACE-2 causes depletion of ACE-2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) from blood vessels, and subsequently, angiotensin-II interacts with angiotensin receptor-1 from vascular membranes that produce NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate) oxidase, oxidative stress, and constriction of blood vessels. Since diabetes and COVID-19 can create oxidative stress, we hypothesize that COVID-19 with comorbidities such as diabetes can synergistically increase oxidative stress leading to end-stage renal failure and death. Antioxidants may therefore prevent renal damage-induced death by inhibiting oxidative damage and thus can help protect people from COVID-19 related comorbidities. A few clinical trials indicated how effective the antioxidant therapy is against improving COVID-19 symptoms, based on a limited number of patients who experienced COVID-19. In this review, we tried to understand how effective antioxidants (such as vitamin D and flavonoids) can act as food supplements or therapeutics against COVID-19 with diabetes as comorbidity based on recently available clinical, preclinical, or in silico studies.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Humans , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Metab Brain Dis ; 37(3): 711-728, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606836

ABSTRACT

The overload cytosolic free Ca2+ (cCa2+) influx-mediated excessive generation of oxidative stress in the pathophysiological conditions induces neuronal and cellular injury via the activation of cation channels. TRPM2 and TRPV4 channels are activated by oxidative stress, and their specific antagonists have not been discovered yet. The antioxidant and anti-Covid-19 properties of carvacrol (CARV) were recently reported. Hence, I suspected possible antagonist properties of CARV against oxidative stress (OS)/ADP-ribose (ADPR)-induced TRPM2 and GSK1016790A (GSK)-mediated TRPV4 activations in neuronal and kidney cells. I investigated the antagonist role of CARV on the activations of TRPM2 and TRPV4 in SH-SY5Y neuronal, BV-2 microglial, and HEK293 cells. The OS/ADPR and GSK in the cells caused to increase of TRPM2/TRPV4 current densities and overload cytosolic free Ca2+ (cCa2+) influx with an increase of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic (cROS), and mitochondrial (mROS) ROS. The changes were not observed in the absence of TRPM2 and TRPV4 or the presence of Ca2+ free extracellular buffer and PARP-1 inhibitors (PJ34 and DPQ). When OS-induced TRPM2 and GSK-induced TRPV4 activations were inhibited by the treatment of CARV, the increase of cROS, mROS, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, cell death, cCa2+ concentration, caspase -3, and caspase -9 levels were restored via upregulation of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. In conclusion, the treatment of CARV modulated the TRPM2 and TRPV4-mediated overload Ca2+ influx and may provide an avenue for protecting TRPM2 and TRPV4-mediated neurodegenerative diseases associated with the increase of mROS and cCa2+. The possible TRPM2 and TRPV4 blocker action of carvacrol (CARV) via the modulation oxidative stress and apoptosis in the SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. TRPM2 is activated by DNA damage-induced (via PARP-1 activation) ADP-ribose (ADPR) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2), although it is inhibited by nonspecific inhibitors (ACA and 2-APB). TRPV4 is activated by the treatments of GSK1016790A (GSK), although it is inhibited by a nonspecific inhibitor (ruthenium red, RuRe). The treatment of GSK induces excessive generation of ROS. The accumulation of free cytosolic Ca2+ (cCa2+) via the activations of TRPM2 and TRPV4 in the mitochondria causes the increase of mitochondrial membrane depolarization (ΔΨm). In turn, the increase of ΔΨm causes the excessive generation of ROS. The TRPM2 and TRPV4-induced the excessive generations of ROS result in the increase of apoptosis and cell death via the activations of caspase -3 (Casp-3) and caspase -9 (Casp-9) in the neuronal cells, although their oxidant actions decrease the glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) levels. The oxidant and apoptotic adverse actions of TRPM2 and TRPV4 are modulated by the treatment of CARV.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cymenes/pharmacology , TRPM Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , TRPV Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , Apoptosis/drug effects , Calcium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Microglia/drug effects , Microglia/metabolism , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species
10.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(5): 1347-1355, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557643

ABSTRACT

The natural pathway of antioxidant production is mediated through Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with Cap and collar homology [ECH]-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) system. Keap1 maintains a low level of Nrf2 by holding it in its protein complex. Also, Keap1 facilitates the degradation of Nrf2 by ubiquitination. In other words, Keap1 is a down-regulator of Nrf2. To boost the production of biological antioxidants, Keap1 has to be inhibited and Nrf2 has to be released. Liberated Nrf2 is in an unbound state, so it travels to the nucleus to stimulate the antioxidant response element (ARE) present on the antioxidant genes. AREs activate biosynthesis of biological antioxidants through genes responsible for the production of antioxidants. In some cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is an enormous release of cytokines. The antioxidant defense mechanism in the body helps in counteracting symptoms induced by the cytokine storm in COVID-19. So, boosting the production of antioxidants is highly desirable in such a condition. In this review article, we have compiled the role of Keap1-Nrf2 system in antioxidant production. We further propose its potential therapeutic use in managing cytokine storm in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Disease Management , Humans , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/agonists , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology
11.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542691

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on how nutrition may help prevent and/or assist with recovery from the harmful effects of strenuous acute exercise and physical training (decreased immunity, organ injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fatigue), with a focus on nutritional supplements. First, the effects of ketogenic diets on metabolism and inflammation are considered. Second, the effects of various supplements on immune function are discussed, including antioxidant defense modulators (vitamin C, sulforaphane, taheebo), and inflammation reducers (colostrum and hyperimmunized milk). Third, how 3-hydroxy-3-methyl butyrate monohydrate (HMB) may offset muscle damage is reviewed. Fourth and finally, the relationship between exercise, nutrition and COVID-19 infection is briefly mentioned. While additional verification of the safety and efficacy of these supplements is still necessary, current evidence suggests that these supplements have potential applications for health promotion and disease prevention among athletes and more diverse populations.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Athletes , Dietary Supplements , Exercise/immunology , Oxidative Stress , Physical Endurance , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/immunology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Physical Endurance/drug effects , Physical Endurance/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sports Nutritional Sciences
12.
Food Funct ; 12(20): 9607-9619, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500759

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the COVID-19 virus spread worldwide, infecting millions of people. Infectious diseases induced by pathogenic microorganisms such as the influenza virus, hepatitis virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also a major threat to public health. The high mortality caused by infectious pathogenic microorganisms is due to their strong virulence, which leads to the excessive counterattack by the host immune system and severe inflammatory damage of the immune system. This paper reviews the efficacy, mechanism and related immune regulation of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as an anti-pathogenic microorganism drug. EGCG mainly shows both direct and indirect anti-infection effects. EGCG directly inhibits early infection by interfering with the adsorption on host cells, inhibiting virus replication and reducing bacterial biofilm formation and toxin release; EGCG indirectly inhibits infection by regulating immune inflammation and antioxidation. At the same time, we reviewed the bioavailability and safety of EGCG in vivo. At present, the bioavailability of EGCG can be improved to some extent using nanostructured drug delivery systems and molecular modification technology in combination with other drugs. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of EGCG as an adjuvant drug for anti-pathogenic microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Hepatitis Viruses/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
13.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 199: 111551, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492370

ABSTRACT

Polyphenols are chemopreventive through the induction of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated proteins and anti-inflammatory pathways. These pathways, encoding cytoprotective vitagenes, include heat shock proteins, such as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), as well as glutathione redox system to protect against cancer initiation and progression. Phytochemicals exhibit biphasic dose responses on cancer cells, activating at low dose, signaling pathways resulting in upregulation of vitagenes, as in the case of the Nrf2 pathway upregulated by hydroxytyrosol (HT) or curcumin and NAD/NADH-sirtuin-1 activated by resveratrol. Here, the importance of vitagenes in redox stress response and autophagy mechanisms, as well as the potential use of dietary antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of multiple types of cancer are discussed. We also discuss the possible relationship between SARS-CoV-2, inflammation and cancer, exploiting innovative therapeutic approaches with HT-rich aqueous olive pulp extract (Hidrox®), a natural polyphenolic formulation, as well as the rationale of Vitamin D supplementation. Finally, we describe innovative approaches with organoids technology to study human carcinogenesis in preclinical models from basic cancer research to clinical practice, suggesting patient-derived organoids as an innovative tool to test drug toxicity and drive personalized therapy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Drug Development , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Organoids/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology , Organoids/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress/genetics
14.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(6): 1769-1776, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is seen in COVID-19 patients, and reducing malnutrition with appropriate therapies may improve these patients' health. This case-control study aimed to assess and compare serum levels of some inflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and appetite in COVID-19 patients with respiratory infections that receive glutamine treatment with a control group. METHODS: In this study, patients who consented to use glutamine were considered as the case group and other patients who did not use glutamine were considered as a control group. Two hundred twenty-two COVID-19 patients (51.2 ± 6.7) using L-Glutamine and 230 COVID-19 patients (51.3 ± 8.2) with similar age, gender, and clinical status, as the control group, were included in the study. For 5 days, the case group consumed 10 g of glutamine supplement three times per day. At the end of the 5 days, blood samples were taken again to test for serum levels of IL1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity, then all data were analyzed. RESULTS: Serum levels of ß-1 interleukin, tumor necrosis factor-α and hs-CRP were significantly reduced with five days of glutamine supplementation (p < 0.05), and patients' appetite during 5 days of glutamine supplementation compared with the control group had a significant increase (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Glutamine supplementation in COVID-19 patients with respiratory infection significantly reduces serum levels of interleukin-1 ß, hs-CRP, and tumor necrosis factor-α and significantly increases appetite, so glutamine supplementation may be useful for COVID-19 patients in the hospital.


Subject(s)
Appetite/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glutamine/therapeutic use , Inflammation/prevention & control , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Malondialdehyde/blood , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status
15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5513868, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467753

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a widespread global pandemic with nearly 185 million confirmed cases and about four million deaths. It is caused by an infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which primarily affects the alveolar type II pneumocytes. The infection induces pathological responses including increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. This situation results in impaired gas exchange, hypoxia, and other sequelae that lead to multisystem organ failure and death. As summarized in this article, many interventions and therapeutics have been proposed and investigated to combat the viral infection-induced inflammation and oxidative stress that contributes to the etiology and pathogenesis of COVID-19. However, these methods have not significantly improved treatment outcomes. This may partly be attributable to their inability at restoring redox and inflammatory homeostasis, for which molecular hydrogen (H2), an emerging novel medical gas, may complement. Herein, we systematically review the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic mechanisms of H2. Its small molecular size and nonpolarity allow H2 to rapidly diffuse through cell membranes and penetrate cellular organelles. H2 has been demonstrated to suppress NF-κB inflammatory signaling and induce the Nrf2/Keap1 antioxidant pathway, as well as to improve mitochondrial function and enhance cellular bioenergetics. Many preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of H2 in varying diseases, including COVID-19. However, the exact mechanisms, primary modes of action, and its true clinical effects remain to be delineated and verified. Accordingly, additional mechanistic and clinical research into this novel medical gas to combat COVID-19 complications is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrogen/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 728896, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456291

ABSTRACT

A purified spike (S) glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coronavirus was used to study its effects on THP-1 macrophages, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and HUVEC cells. The S protein mediates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells through binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. We measured the viability, intracellular cytokine release, oxidative stress, proinflammatory markers, and THP-1-like macrophage polarization. We observed an increase in apoptosis, ROS generation, MCP-1, and intracellular calcium expression in the THP-1 macrophages. Stimulation with the S protein polarizes the THP-1 macrophages towards proinflammatory futures with an increase in the TNFα and MHC-II M1-like phenotype markers. Treating the cells with an ACE inhibitor, perindopril, at 100 µM reduced apoptosis, ROS, and MHC-II expression induced by S protein. We analyzed the sensitivity of the HUVEC cells after the exposure to a conditioned media (CM) of THP-1 macrophages stimulated with the S protein. The CM induced endothelial cell apoptosis and MCP-1 expression. Treatment with perindopril reduced these effects. However, the direct stimulation of the HUVEC cells with the S protein, slightly increased HIF1α and MCP-1 expression, which was significantly increased by the ACE inhibitor treatment. The S protein stimulation induced ROS generation and changed the mitogenic responses of the PBMCs through the upregulation of TNFα and interleukin (IL)-17 cytokine expression. These effects were reduced by the perindopril (100 µM) treatment. Proteomic analysis of the S protein stimulated THP-1 macrophages with or without perindopril (100 µM) exposed more than 400 differentially regulated proteins. Our results provide a mechanistic analysis suggesting that the blood and vascular components could be activated directly through S protein systemically present in the circulation and that the activation of the local renin angiotensin system may be partially involved in this process. Graphical: Suggested pathways that might be involved at least in part in S protein inducing activation of inflammatory markers (red narrow) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) modulation of this process (green narrow).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Perindopril/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Humans , Macrophages/drug effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pyroptosis/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
17.
Protein Sci ; 30(11): 2206-2220, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437079

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a pathogenic coronavirus causing COVID-19 infection. The interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, both of which contain several cysteine residues, is impacted by the disulfide-thiol balance in the host cell. The host cell redox status is affected by oxidative stress due to the imbalance between the reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and antioxidants. Recent studies have shown that Vitamin D supplementation could reduce oxidative stress. It has also been proposed that vitamin D at physiological concentration has preventive effects on many viral infections, including COVID-19. However, the molecular-level picture of the interplay of vitamin D deficiency, oxidative stress, and the severity of COVID-19 has remained unclear. Herein, we present a thorough review focusing on the possible molecular mechanism by which vitamin D could alter host cell redox status and block viral entry, thereby preventing COVID-19 infection or reducing the severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Reactive Nitrogen Species/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
18.
Food Funct ; 12(20): 9607-9619, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434159

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the COVID-19 virus spread worldwide, infecting millions of people. Infectious diseases induced by pathogenic microorganisms such as the influenza virus, hepatitis virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also a major threat to public health. The high mortality caused by infectious pathogenic microorganisms is due to their strong virulence, which leads to the excessive counterattack by the host immune system and severe inflammatory damage of the immune system. This paper reviews the efficacy, mechanism and related immune regulation of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as an anti-pathogenic microorganism drug. EGCG mainly shows both direct and indirect anti-infection effects. EGCG directly inhibits early infection by interfering with the adsorption on host cells, inhibiting virus replication and reducing bacterial biofilm formation and toxin release; EGCG indirectly inhibits infection by regulating immune inflammation and antioxidation. At the same time, we reviewed the bioavailability and safety of EGCG in vivo. At present, the bioavailability of EGCG can be improved to some extent using nanostructured drug delivery systems and molecular modification technology in combination with other drugs. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of EGCG as an adjuvant drug for anti-pathogenic microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Hepatitis Viruses/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114540, 2022 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401608

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers (Menispermaceae) is a Mediterranean herb, used in Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani, and folk medicines. The herb is also used in conventional medicine to treat oxidative stress-related diseases and conditions, including inflammation, pain, diarrhea, asthma, respiratory infections, cancer, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The taxonomy, botanical classification, geographical distribution, and ethnobotanical uses of T. cordifolia, as well as the phytochemical compounds found in the herb, the toxicology of and pharmacological and clinical studies on the effects of T. cordifolia are all covered in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To gather information on T. cordifolia, we used a variety of scientific databases, including Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct. The information discussed focuses on biologically active compounds found in T. cordifolia, and common applications and pharmacological activity of the herb, as well as toxicological and clinical studies on its properties. RESULTS: The findings of this study reveal a connection between the use of T. cordifolia in conventional medicine and its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, and other biological effects. The entire plant, stem, leaves, root, and extracts of T. cordifolia have been shown to have a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective impact. Toxicological testing demonstrated that this plant may have medicinal applications. T. cordifolia contains a variety of biologically active compounds from various chemical classes, including alkaloids, terpenoids, sitosterols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Based on the reports researched for this review, we believe that chemicals in T. cordifolia may activate Nrf2, which leads to the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, GPx, GST, and GR, and thereby induces the adaptive response to oxidative stress. T. cordifolia is also able to reduce NF-κB signalling by inhibiting PI3K/Akt, activating AMPK and sirtuins, and downregulating PI3K/Akt. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the pharmacological properties displayed by T. cordifolia back up its conventional uses. Antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antidiabetic, nephroprotective, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective activities were all demonstrated in T. cordifolia stem extracts. To validate pharmacodynamic targets, further research is needed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of the known compounds against gastrointestinal diseases, inflammatory processes, and microbial infections, as immunostimulants, and in chemotherapy. The T. cordifolia safety profile was confirmed in a toxicological analysis, which prompted pharmacokinetic assessment testing to confirm its bioavailability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Traditional , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plants, Medicinal , SARS-CoV-2 , Tinospora/chemistry , Humans , Phytotherapy
20.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2214-2227, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398027

ABSTRACT

An oral antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 that also attenuates inflammatory instigators of severe COVID-19 is not available to date. Herein, we show that the apoA-I mimetic peptide 4 F inhibits Spike mediated viral entry and has antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in human lung epithelial Calu3 and Vero-E6 cells. In SARS-CoV-2 infected Calu3 cells, 4 F upregulated inducers of the interferon pathway such as MX-1 and Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and downregulated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mito-ROS) and CD147, a host protein that mediates viral entry. 4 F also reduced associated cellular apoptosis and secretion of IL-6 in both SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero-E6 and Calu3 cells. Thus, 4 F attenuates in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication, associated apoptosis in epithelial cells and secretion of IL-6, a major cytokine related to COVID-19 morbidity. Given established safety of 4 F in humans, clinical studies are warranted to establish 4 F as therapy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Basigin/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Epithelial Cells , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Interferons/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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