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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1558-1565, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718402

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, causative pathogen of the known COVID-19 pandemic is not well clarified. In this regard oxidative stress is one of the topics that need to be investigated. Therefore, the present research was performed to explore the relationship between the oxidant/antioxidant system and COVID-19 exacerbation. Sera were collected from 120 patients with COVID-19 infection and 60 healthy volunteers as the control group. The patient group consisted of 60 cases with mild disease and 60 severely ill patients. Serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as serum activities of the two main antioxidant defense enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were measured. TAC levels were considerably lower in patients compared with healthy individuals (p < 0.05) and also between patients with mild and severe diseases (p < 0.05). A rather decreasing trend was also found in NO concentration as well as SOD and CAT activity, though, the observed differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that COVID-19 patients may be susceptible to depleted total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, showing such variations in blood samples of infected individuals could be considered as a predictive marker of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Catalase/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nitric Oxide/blood , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Severity of Illness Index , Superoxide Dismutase/blood
2.
J Immunol ; 208(2): 321-327, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708204

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have demonstrated that 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) exerted key roles in various pulmonary diseases, but the evidence for its role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was lacking. The goal of this research was to evaluate the correlations of serum 8-OHdG with the severity and prognosis among patients with CAP through a prospective cohort study. A total of 239 patients with CAP and 239 healthy participants were enrolled. Fasting blood samples were collected. 8-OHdG and inflammatory cytokines were measured by ELISA. On admission, serum 8-OHdG was significantly increased in patients with CAP compared with control subjects. Besides, serum 8-OHdG was incrementally increased in line with CAP severity scores. Pearson correlative analysis found that serum 8-OHdG was correlated with clinical characteristics and inflammatory cytokines in patients with CAP. Linear and logistic regression analysis showed that serum 8-OHdG was positively associated with CAP severity scores. Furthermore, the prognostic outcomes were tracked. Higher serum 8-OHdG on admission increased the risks for intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, vasoactive agent usage, death, and longer hospital stay among patients with CAP. Serum 8-OHdG combination with confusion, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age ≥65 y or pneumonia severity index had stronger predictive powers for death than single 8-OHdG, CAP severity scores, or several inflammatory cytokines in patients with CAP. These results indicated that serum 8-OHdG is positively associated with the severity and poor prognosis in patients with CAP, demonstrating that 8-OHdG may be involved in the pathophysiology process of CAP.


Subject(s)
8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/pathology , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Cytokines/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Pneumonia/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
3.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(3): 166321, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670191

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) also in pregnant women. Infection in pregnancy leads to maternal and placental functional alterations. Pregnant women with vascular defects such as preeclampsia show high susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection by undefined mechanisms. Pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 show higher rates of preterm birth and caesarean delivery, and their placentas show signs of vasculopathy and inflammation. It is still unclear whether the foetus is affected by the maternal infection with this virus and whether maternal infection associates with postnatal affections. The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes oxidative stress and activation of the immune system leading to cytokine storm and next tissue damage as seen in the lung. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 expression is determinant for these alterations in the lung. Since this enzyme is expressed in the human placenta, SARS-CoV-2 could infect the placenta tissue, although reported to be of low frequency compared with maternal lung tissue. Early-onset preeclampsia (eoPE) shows higher expression of ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17) causing an imbalanced renin-angiotensin system and endothelial dysfunction. A similar mechanism seems to potentially account for SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review highlights the potentially common characteristics of pregnant women with eoPE with those with COVID-19. A better understanding of the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its impact on the placenta function is determinant since eoPE/COVID-19 association may result in maternal metabolic alterations that might lead to a potential worsening of the foetal programming of diseases in the neonate, young, and adult.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Pre-Eclampsia/physiopathology , Pre-Eclampsia/virology , Animals , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 799558, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662582

ABSTRACT

The poor outcome of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is associated with systemic hyperinflammatory response and immunopathology. Although inflammasome and oxidative stress have independently been implicated in COVID-19, it is poorly understood whether these two pathways cooperatively contribute to disease severity. Herein, we found an enrichment of CD14highCD16- monocytes displaying inflammasome activation evidenced by caspase-1/ASC-speck formation in severe COVID-19 patients when compared to mild ones and healthy controls, respectively. Those cells also showed aberrant levels of mitochondrial superoxide and lipid peroxidation, both hallmarks of the oxidative stress response, which strongly correlated with caspase-1 activity. In addition, we found that NLRP3 inflammasome-derived IL-1ß secretion by SARS-CoV-2-exposed monocytes in vitro was partially dependent on lipid peroxidation. Importantly, altered inflammasome and stress responses persisted after short-term patient recovery. Collectively, our findings suggest oxidative stress/NLRP3 signaling pathway as a potential target for host-directed therapy to mitigate early COVID-19 hyperinflammation and also its long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Caspase 1/metabolism , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Monocytes/pathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662662

ABSTRACT

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is a transcriptional activator of the cell protection gene that binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE). Therefore, Nrf2 protects cells and tissues from oxidative stress. Normally, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) inhibits the activation of Nrf2 by binding to Nrf2 and contributes to Nrf2 break down by ubiquitin proteasomes. In moderate oxidative stress, Keap1 is inhibited, allowing Nrf2 to be translocated to the nucleus, which acts as an antioxidant. However, under unusually severe oxidative stress, the Keap1-Nrf2 mechanism becomes disrupted and results in cell and tissue damage. Oxide-containing atmospheric environment generally contributes to the development of respiratory diseases, possibly leading to the failure of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway. Until now, several studies have identified changes in Keap1-Nrf2 signaling in models of respiratory diseases, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)/acute lung injury (ALI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and asthma. These studies have confirmed that several Nrf2 activators can alleviate symptoms of respiratory diseases. Thus, this review describes how the expression of Keap1-Nrf2 functions in different respiratory diseases and explains the protective effects of reversing this expression.


Subject(s)
NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Diseases/metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Humans , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology
6.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(3): 283-287, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611428

ABSTRACT

We studied laboratory parameters of patients with COVID-19 against the background of chronic pathologies (cardiovascular pathologies, obesity, type 2 diabetes melitus, and cardiovascular pathologies with allergy to statins). A decrease in pH and a shift in the electrolyte balance of blood plasma were revealed in all studied groups and were most pronounced in patients with cardiovascular pathologies with allergy to statin. It was found that low pH promotes destruction of lipid components of the erythrocyte membranes in patients with chronic pathologies, which was seen from a decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase activity and significant hyponatrenemia. In patients with cardiovascular pathologies and allergy to statins, erythrocyte membranes were most sensitive to a decrease in pH, while erythrocyte membranes of obese patients showed the greatest resistance to low pH and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hypoxia/complications , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Drug Hypersensitivity/complications , Drug Hypersensitivity/metabolism , Drug Hypersensitivity/virology , Erythrocyte Membrane/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Female , Fluid Shifts/physiology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hyponatremia/metabolism , Hyponatremia/virology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/virology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sodium/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/physiology
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580688

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) triggered the pandemic Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), causing millions of deaths. The elderly and those already living with comorbidity are likely to die after SARS-CoV-2 infection. People suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) have a higher risk of becoming infected, because they cannot easily follow health roles. Additionally, those suffering from dementia have a 40% higher risk of dying from COVID-19. Herein, we collected from Gene Expression Omnibus repository the brain samples of AD patients who died of COVID-19 (AD+COVID-19), AD without COVID-19 (AD), COVID-19 without AD (COVID-19) and control individuals. We inspected the transcriptomic and interactomic profiles by comparing the COVID-19 cohort against the control cohort and the AD cohort against the AD+COVID-19 cohort. SARS-CoV-2 in patients without AD mainly activated processes related to immune response and cell cycle. Conversely, 21 key nodes in the interactome are deregulated in AD. Interestingly, some of them are linked to beta-amyloid production and clearance. Thus, we inspected their role, along with their interactors, using the gene ontologies of the biological process that reveals their contribution in brain organization, immune response, oxidative stress and viral replication. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 worsens the AD condition by increasing neurotoxicity, due to higher levels of beta-amyloid, inflammation and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/virology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Brain/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity/trends , Databases, Factual , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transcriptome/genetics
8.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(5): 1347-1355, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557643

ABSTRACT

The natural pathway of antioxidant production is mediated through Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with Cap and collar homology [ECH]-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) system. Keap1 maintains a low level of Nrf2 by holding it in its protein complex. Also, Keap1 facilitates the degradation of Nrf2 by ubiquitination. In other words, Keap1 is a down-regulator of Nrf2. To boost the production of biological antioxidants, Keap1 has to be inhibited and Nrf2 has to be released. Liberated Nrf2 is in an unbound state, so it travels to the nucleus to stimulate the antioxidant response element (ARE) present on the antioxidant genes. AREs activate biosynthesis of biological antioxidants through genes responsible for the production of antioxidants. In some cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is an enormous release of cytokines. The antioxidant defense mechanism in the body helps in counteracting symptoms induced by the cytokine storm in COVID-19. So, boosting the production of antioxidants is highly desirable in such a condition. In this review article, we have compiled the role of Keap1-Nrf2 system in antioxidant production. We further propose its potential therapeutic use in managing cytokine storm in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Disease Management , Humans , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/agonists , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21633, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503836

ABSTRACT

Although the serum lipidome is markedly affected by COVID-19, two unresolved issues remain: how the severity of the disease affects the level and the composition of serum lipids and whether serum lipidome analysis may identify specific lipids impairment linked to the patients' outcome. Sera from 49 COVID-19 patients were analyzed by untargeted lipidomics. Patients were clustered according to: inflammation (C-reactive protein), hypoxia (Horowitz Index), coagulation state (D-dimer), kidney function (creatinine) and age. COVID-19 patients exhibited remarkable and distinctive dyslipidemia for each prognostic factor associated with reduced defense against oxidative stress. When patients were clustered by outcome (7 days), a peculiar lipidome signature was detected with an overall increase of 29 lipid species, including-among others-four ceramide and three sulfatide species, univocally related to this analysis. Considering the lipids that were affected by all the prognostic factors, we found one sphingomyelin related to inflammation and viral infection of the respiratory tract and two sphingomyelins, that are independently related to patients' age, and they appear as candidate biomarkers to monitor disease progression and severity. Although preliminary and needing validation, this report pioneers the translation of lipidome signatures to link the effects of five critical clinical prognostic factors with the patients' outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Lipids/blood , Serum/chemistry , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Female , Humans , Italy , Lipidomics/methods , Lipids/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sphingomyelins/blood
10.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(1 Suppl 3): E34-E45, 2021 Mar.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464079
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(2): 523-530, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459395

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (COVID-19) has emerged as a human catastrophe worldwide, and it has impacted human life more detrimentally than the combined effect of World Wars I and II. Various research studies reported that the disease is not confined to the respiratory system but also leads to neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders suggesting that the virus is potent to affect the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, the damage to CNS may continue to rise even after the COVID-19 infection subsides which may further induce a long-term impact on the brain, resulting in cognitive impairment. Neuroimaging techniques is the ideal platform to detect and quantify pathological manifestations in the brain of COVID-19 survivors. In this context, a scheme based on structural, spectroscopic, and behavioral studies could be executed to monitor the gradual changes in the brain non-invasively due to COVID-19 which may further help in quantifying the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of the survivors. Extensive research is required in this direction for identifying the mechanism and implications of COVID-19 in the brain. Cohort studies are urgently required for monitoring the effects of this pandemic on individuals of various subtypes longitudinally.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Brain/pathology , Brain Mapping/methods , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
12.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(5): 1347-1355, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349298

ABSTRACT

The natural pathway of antioxidant production is mediated through Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with Cap and collar homology [ECH]-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) system. Keap1 maintains a low level of Nrf2 by holding it in its protein complex. Also, Keap1 facilitates the degradation of Nrf2 by ubiquitination. In other words, Keap1 is a down-regulator of Nrf2. To boost the production of biological antioxidants, Keap1 has to be inhibited and Nrf2 has to be released. Liberated Nrf2 is in an unbound state, so it travels to the nucleus to stimulate the antioxidant response element (ARE) present on the antioxidant genes. AREs activate biosynthesis of biological antioxidants through genes responsible for the production of antioxidants. In some cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is an enormous release of cytokines. The antioxidant defense mechanism in the body helps in counteracting symptoms induced by the cytokine storm in COVID-19. So, boosting the production of antioxidants is highly desirable in such a condition. In this review article, we have compiled the role of Keap1-Nrf2 system in antioxidant production. We further propose its potential therapeutic use in managing cytokine storm in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Disease Management , Humans , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/agonists , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 344: 109501, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309181

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 stimulates significant efforts and approaches to understand its global spread. Although the recent introduction of the vaccine is a crucial prophylactic step, the effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2 is still undiscovered. An in-depth analysis of symptoms and clinical parameters, as well as molecular changes, is necessary to comprehend COVID-19 and propose a remedy for affected people to fight that disease. The analysis of available clinical data and SARS-CoV-2 infection markers underlined the main pathogenic process in COVID-19 is cytokine storm and inflammation. That led us to suggest that the most important pathogenic feature of SARS-CoV-2 leading to COVID-19 is oxidative stress and cellular damage stimulated by iron, a source of Fenton reaction and its product hydroxyl radical (•OH), the most reactive ROS with t1/2-10-9s. Therefore we suggest some scavenging agents are a reasonable choice for overcoming its toxic effect and can be regarded as a treatment for the disease on the molecular level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Hydroxyl Radical/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Iron/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 141: 111922, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309164

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19) pandemic is devastating the public health: it is urgent to find a viable therapy to reduce the multiorgan damage of the disease. A validated therapeutic protocol is still missing. The most severe forms of the disease are related to an exaggerated inflammatory response. The pivotal role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the amplification of inflammation makes the antioxidants a potential therapy, but clinical trials are needed. The lecitinized superoxide dismutase (PC-SOD) could represent a possibility because of bioaviability, safety, and its modulatory effect on the innate immune response in reducing the harmful consequences of oxidative stress. In this review we summarize the evidence on lecitinized superoxide dismutase in animal and human studies, to highlight the rationale for using the PC-SOD to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phosphatidylcholines/therapeutic use , Superoxide Dismutase/therapeutic use , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/drug therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Pandemics , Phosphatidylcholines/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/antagonists & inhibitors , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/pharmacology
15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(2): 523-530, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305620

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (COVID-19) has emerged as a human catastrophe worldwide, and it has impacted human life more detrimentally than the combined effect of World Wars I and II. Various research studies reported that the disease is not confined to the respiratory system but also leads to neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders suggesting that the virus is potent to affect the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, the damage to CNS may continue to rise even after the COVID-19 infection subsides which may further induce a long-term impact on the brain, resulting in cognitive impairment. Neuroimaging techniques is the ideal platform to detect and quantify pathological manifestations in the brain of COVID-19 survivors. In this context, a scheme based on structural, spectroscopic, and behavioral studies could be executed to monitor the gradual changes in the brain non-invasively due to COVID-19 which may further help in quantifying the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of the survivors. Extensive research is required in this direction for identifying the mechanism and implications of COVID-19 in the brain. Cohort studies are urgently required for monitoring the effects of this pandemic on individuals of various subtypes longitudinally.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Brain/pathology , Brain Mapping/methods , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 141: 111823, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272313

ABSTRACT

Here, we demonstrate that the two distinct formulations of our anti-sepsis drug candidate Rejuveinix (RJX), have a very favorable safety profile in Wistar Albino rats at dose levels comparable to the projected clinical dose levels. 14-day treatment with RJX-P (RJX PPP.18.1051) or RJX-B (RJX-B200702-CLN) similarly elevated the day 15 tissue levels of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as ascorbic acid in both the lungs and liver in a dose-dependent fashion. The activity of SOD and ascorbic acid levels were significantly higher in tissues of RJX-P or RJX-B treated rats than vehicle-treated control rats (p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference between tissue SOD activity or ascorbic acid levels of rats treated with RJX-P vs. rats treated with RJX-B (p > 0.05). The observed elevations of the SOD and ascorbic acid levels were transient and were no longer detectable on day 28 following a 14-day recovery period. These results demonstrate that RJX-P and RJX-B are bioequivalent relative to their pharmacodynamic effects on tissue SOD and ascorbic acid levels. Furthermore, both formulations showed profound protective activity in a mouse model of sepsis. In agreement with the PD evaluations in rats and their proposed mechanism of action, both RJX-P and RJX-B exhibited near-identical potent and dose-dependent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in the LPS-GalN model of ARDS and multi-organ failure in mice.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Magnesium Sulfate/chemistry , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Niacinamide/chemistry , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Pantothenic Acid/chemistry , Pantothenic Acid/therapeutic use , Pyridoxine/chemistry , Pyridoxine/therapeutic use , Riboflavin/chemistry , Riboflavin/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/metabolism , Thiamine/chemistry , Thiamine/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Dogs , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Combinations , Drug Compounding , Female , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Magnesium Sulfate/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Pantothenic Acid/pharmacology , Pyridoxine/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar , Riboflavin/pharmacology , Sepsis/pathology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Thiamine/pharmacology
17.
Apoptosis ; 26(7-8): 415-430, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252148

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the incidence of apoptosis within the testes of patients who died from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) complications, testis tissue was collected from autopsies of COVID-19 positive (n = 6) and negative men (n = 6). They were then taken for histopathological experiments, and RNA extraction, to examine the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2), BAX, BCL2 and Caspase3 genes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutathione disulfide (GSH) activity were also thoroughly examined. Autopsied testicular specimens of COVID-19 showed that COVID-19 infection significantly decreased the seminiferous tubule length, interstitial tissue and seminiferous tubule volume, as well as the number of testicular cells. An analysis of the results showed that the Johnsen expressed a reduction in the COVID-19 group when compared to the control group. Our data showed that the expression of ACE2, BAX and Caspase3 were remarkably increased as well as a decrease in the expression of BCL2 in COVID-19 cases. Although, no significant difference was found for TMPRSS2. Furthermore, the results signified an increase in the formation of ROS and suppression of the GSH activity as oxidative stress biomarkers. The results of immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay showed that the expression of ACE2 and the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased in the COVID-19 group. Overall, this study suggests that COVID-19 infection causes spermatogenesis disruption, probably through the oxidative stress pathway and subsequently induces apoptosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spermatogenesis/physiology , Testis/virology , Apoptosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Testis/metabolism
18.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(6): 826-832, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207109

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged as a health problem worldwide. It seems that COVID-19 is more lethal for Iranian veterans with a history of exposure to mustard gas. There are some similarities in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and mustard gas in immune system disruption and pulmonary infection. SARS-CoV-2 and mustard gas inducing oxidative stress, immune system dysregulation, cytokine storm, and overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptor in lungs that act as functional entry receptors for SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, Iranian survivors of mustard gas exposure are more susceptible and vulnerable to COVID-19. It is suggested that the principles of COVID-19 infection prevention and control be adhered to more stringently in Iranian survivors of mustard gas exposure than others who have not been exposed to mustard gas. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the different pathologic aspects of lung injury caused by mustard gas and also the relationship between this damage and the increased susceptibility of Iranian mustard gas exposed survivors to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Mustard Gas/toxicity , Survivors , Veterans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Lung/physiopathology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 354(4): e2000378, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162498

ABSTRACT

Many diseases as well as acute conditions can lead to fatigue, which can be either temporary or chronic in nature. Acute fatigue develops frequently after physical exercise or after alcohol hangover, whereas microbial infections such as influenza or COVID-19 and chronic diseases like Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis are often associated with chronic fatigue. Oxidative stress and a resulting disturbance of mitochondrial function are likely to be common denominators for many forms of fatigue, and antioxidant treatments have been shown to be effective in alleviating the symptoms of fatigue. In this study, we review the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in fatigue and the antioxidant effects of the intake of molecular hydrogen. We propose that molecular hydrogen is well suited for the treatment of temporary and chronic forms of oxidative stress-associated fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue , Hydrogen , Oxidative Stress , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/metabolism , Fatigue/therapy , Humans , Hydrogen/metabolism , Hydrogen/pharmacology , Nitrogen , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Reactive Oxygen Species , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(7): 3347-3361, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120777

ABSTRACT

The severity of COVID-19 infection is surging day by day. With the cases increasing daily, it is becoming more and more essential to understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the severity of the disease. It is now well known that the infection manifests itself primarily as respiratory, but the involvement of the other organ systems has now been documented in many studies. SARS-CoV-2 can invade the nervous system by a multitude of proposed mechanisms that have been discussed in this review. NF-κB and Nrf2 are transcription factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammatory and anti-oxidant response respectively. Specific focus in this review has been given to NF-κB and Nrf2 pathways that are involved in the cytokine storm and oxidative stress that are the hallmarks of COVID-19. As the immune injury is an important mechanism of neuro-invasion and neuroinflammation, there is the possible involvement of these two pathways in the neurological complications. The crosstalk mechanisms of these signaling pathways have also been discussed. Immuno-modulators both synthetic and natural are promising candidates in catering to the pathologies targeted in the aforementioned pathways.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/virology , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Brain Diseases/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Signal Transduction/physiology
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