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2.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1023-1037, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343648

ABSTRACT

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is a key enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine synthesis and it is suggested as a target for COVID19 treatment due to high pyrimidine demand by the virus replication in the infected host cells as well as its proven effect of blocking of cytokine release by the immune cells to prevent inflammation leading to acute respiratory distress. There are a number of clinical trials underway for COVID19 treatment using DHODH inhibitors; however, there are only a small number of known DHODH antagonists available for testing. Here, we have applied a methodology to identify DHODH antagonist candidates, and compared them using in silico target prediction tools. A large set of 7900 FDA-approved and clinical stage drugs obtained from DrugBank were docked against 20 different structures DHODH available in PDB. Drugs were eliminated according to their predicted affinities by Autodock Vina. About 28 FDA-approved and 79 clinical trial ongoing drugs remained. The mode of interaction of these molecules was analyzed by repeating docking using Autodock 4 and DS Visualiser. Finally, the target region predictions of 28 FDA-approved drugs were determined through PASS and SwissTargetPrediction tools. Interestingly, the analysis of in silico target predictions revealed that serotonin-dopamine receptor antagonists could also be potential DHODH inhibitors. Our candidates shared a common attribute, a possible interaction with serotonin-dopamine receptors as well as other oxidoreductases, like DHODH. Moreover, the Bruton Tyrosine Kinase-inhibitor acalabrutunib and serotonin-dopamine receptor inhibitor drugs on our list have been found in the literature that have shown to be effective against Sars-CoV-2, while the path of activity is yet to be identified. Identifying an effective drug that can suppress both inflammation and virus proliferation will play a crucial role in the treatment of COVID. Therefore, we suggest experimental investigation of the 28 FDA-approved drugs on DHODH activity and Sars-CoV-2 virus proliferation. Those who are found experimentally effective can play an important role in COVID19 treatment. Moreover, we suggest investigating COVID19 case conditions in patients using schizophrenia and depression drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Dopamine/drug effects , Receptors, Serotonin/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 906: 174233, 2021 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260717

ABSTRACT

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of pyrimidone which catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotate to orotate. Orotate is utilized in the biosynthesis of uridine-monophosphate. DHODH inhibitors have shown promise as antiviral agent against Cytomegalovirus, Ebola, Influenza, Epstein Barr and Picornavirus. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 action of DHODH inhibitors are also coming up. In this review, we have reviewed the safety and efficacy of approved DHODH inhibitors (leflunomide and teriflunomide) against COVID-19. In target-centered in silico studies, leflunomide showed favorable binding to active site of MPro and spike: ACE2 interface. In artificial-intelligence/machine-learning based studies, leflunomide was among the top 50 ligands targeting spike: ACE2 interaction. Leflunomide is also found to interact with differentially regulated pathways [identified by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) and reactome pathway analysis of host transcriptome data] in cogena based drug-repurposing studies. Based on GSEA (gene set enrichment analysis), leflunomide was found to target pathways enriched in COVID-19. In vitro, both leflunomide (EC50 41.49 ± 8.8 µmol/L) and teriflunomide (EC50 26 µmol/L) showed SARS-CoV-2 inhibition. In clinical studies, leflunomide showed significant benefit in terms of decreasing the duration of viral shredding, duration of hospital stay and severity of infection. However, no advantage was seen while combining leflunomide and IFN alpha-2a among patients with prolonged post symptomatic viral shredding. Common adverse effects of leflunomide were hyperlipidemia, leucopenia, neutropenia and liver-function alteration. Leflunomide/teriflunomide may serve as an agent of importance to achieve faster virological clearance in COVID-19, however, findings needs to be validated in bigger sized placebo controlled studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Crotonates/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxybutyrates/pharmacology , Leflunomide/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/antagonists & inhibitors , Toluidines/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Crotonates/adverse effects , Crotonates/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxybutyrates/adverse effects , Hydroxybutyrates/therapeutic use , Leflunomide/adverse effects , Leflunomide/therapeutic use , Nitriles/adverse effects , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Toluidines/adverse effects , Toluidines/therapeutic use
4.
Virus Res ; 292: 198246, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974719

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created an urgent need for therapeutics that inhibit the SARS-COV-2 virus and suppress the fulminant inflammation characteristic of advanced illness. Here, we describe the anti-COVID-19 potential of PTC299, an orally bioavailable compound that is a potent inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. In tissue culture, PTC299 manifests robust, dose-dependent, and DHODH-dependent inhibition of SARS-COV-2 replication (EC50 range, 2.0-31.6 nM) with a selectivity index >3,800. PTC299 also blocked replication of other RNA viruses, including Ebola virus. Consistent with known DHODH requirements for immunomodulatory cytokine production, PTC299 inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A (also called IL-17), IL-17 F, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tissue culture models. The combination of anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, cytokine inhibitory activity, and previously established favorable pharmacokinetic and human safety profiles render PTC299 a promising therapeutic for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/immunology , HeLa Cells , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/virology , Vero Cells
5.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966929

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) demands skillful strategies for novel drug development, drug repurposing and cotreatments, in particular focusing on existing candidates of host-directed antivirals (HDAs). The developmental drug IMU-838, currently being investigated in a phase 2b trial in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases, represents an inhibitor of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) with a recently proven antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo. Here, we established an analysis system for assessing the antiviral potency of IMU-838 and DHODH-directed back-up drugs in cultured cell-based infection models. By the use of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunofluorescence, Western blot, in-cell ELISA, viral yield reduction and RT-qPCR methods, we demonstrated the following: (i) IMU-838 and back-ups show anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity at several levels of viral replication, i.e., protein production, double-strand RNA synthesis, and release of infectious virus; (ii) antiviral efficacy in Vero cells was demonstrated in a micromolar range (IMU-838 half-maximal effective concentration, EC50, of 7.6 ± 5.8 µM); (iii) anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity was distinct from cytotoxic effects (half-cytotoxic concentration, CC50, >100 µM); (iv) the drug in vitro potency was confirmed using several Vero lineages and human cells; (v) combination with remdesivir showed enhanced anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity; (vi) vidofludimus, the active determinant of IMU-838, exerted a broad-spectrum activity against a selection of major human pathogenic viruses. These findings strongly suggest that developmental DHODH inhibitors represent promising candidates for use as anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase , Drug Discovery , Drug Synergism , Humans , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
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