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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032938

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Dyspnea is one of the most frequent symptoms among post-COVID-19 patients. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is key to a differential diagnosis of dyspnea. This study aimed to describe and classify patterns of cardiopulmonary dysfunction in post-COVID-19 patients, using CPET. (2) Methods: A total of 143 symptomatic post-COVID-19 patients were included in the study. All patients underwent CPET, including oxygen consumption, slope of minute ventilation to CO2 production, and capillary blood gas testing, and were evaluated for signs of limitation by two experienced examiners. In total, 120 patients reached a satisfactory level of exertion and were included in further analyses. (3) Results: Using CPET, cardiovascular diseases such as venous thromboembolism or ischemic and nonischemic heart disease were identified as either cardiac (4.2%) or pulmonary vascular (5.8%) limitations. Some patients also exhibited dysfunctional states, such as deconditioning (15.8%) or pulmonary mechanical limitation (9.2%), mostly resulting from dysfunctional breathing patterns. Most (65%) patients showed no signs of limitation. (4) Conclusions: CPET can identify patients with distinct limitation patterns, and potentially guide further therapy and rehabilitation. Dysfunctional breathing and deconditioning are crucial factors for the evaluation of post-COVID-19 patients, as they can differentiate these dysfunctional syndromes from organic diseases. This highlights the importance of dynamic (as opposed to static) investigations in the post-COVID-19 context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Test , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carbon Dioxide , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test/methods , Humans , Oxygen Consumption
2.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 323(3): H569-H576, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001931

ABSTRACT

The post-acute phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often marked by several persistent symptoms and exertional intolerance, which compromise survivors' exercise capacity. This was a cross-sectional study aiming to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on oxygen uptake (V̇o2) kinetics and cardiopulmonary function in survivors of severe COVID-19 about 3-6 mo after intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization. Thirty-five COVID-19 survivors previously admitted to ICU (5 ± 1 mo after hospital discharge) and 18 controls matched for sex, age, comorbidities, and physical activity level with no prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited. Subjects were submitted to a maximum-graded cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) with an initial 3-min period of a constant, moderate-intensity walk (i.e., below ventilatory threshold, VT). V̇o2 kinetics was remarkably impaired in COVID-19 survivors as evidenced at the on-transient by an 85% (P = 0.008) and 28% (P = 0.001) greater oxygen deficit and mean response time (MRT), respectively. Furthermore, COVID-19 survivors showed an 11% longer (P = 0.046) half-time of recovery of V̇o2 (T1/2V̇o2) at the off-transient. CPX also revealed cardiopulmonary impairments following COVID-19. Peak oxygen uptake (V̇o2peak), percent-predicted V̇o2peak, and V̇o2 at the ventilatory threshold (V̇o2VT) were reduced by 17%, 17%, and 12% in COVID-19 survivors, respectively (all P < 0.05). None of the ventilatory parameters differed between groups (all P > 0.05). In addition, COVID-19 survivors also presented with blunted chronotropic responses (i.e., chronotropic index, maximum heart rate, and heart rate recovery; all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that COVID-19 negatively affects central (chronotropic) and peripheral (metabolic) factors that impair the rate at which V̇o2 is adjusted to changes in energy demands.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our findings provide novel data regarding the impact of COVID-19 on submaximal and maximal cardiopulmonary responses to exercise. We showed that V̇o2 kinetics is significantly impaired at both the onset (on-transient) and the recovery phase (off-transient) of exercise in these patients. Furthermore, our results suggest that survivors of severe COVID-19 may have a higher metabolic demand at a walking pace. These findings may partly explain the exertional intolerance frequently observed following COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxygen Consumption , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Humans , Kinetics , Oxygen/metabolism , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994050

ABSTRACT

The assessment of functional abilities reflects the ability to perform everyday life activities that require specific endurance and physical fitness. The Fullerton functional fitness test (FFFT) seems to be the most appropriate for assessing physical fitness in heart failure (HF) patients. The study group consisted of 30 consecutive patients hospitalized for the routine assessment of HF with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). They formed the study group, and 24 healthy subjects formed the control group. Each patient underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), transthoracic echocardiography and FFFT modified by adding the measurement of the handgrip force of the dominant limb with the digital dynamometer. The HF patients had significantly lower peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2), maximal minute ventilation, and higher ventilatory equivalent (VE/VCO2). The concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) were significantly higher in the study group. The results of all the FFFT items were significantly worse in the study group. FFFT parameters, together with the assessment of the strength of the handgrip, strongly correlated with the results of standard tests in HF. FFFT is an effective and safe tool for the functional evaluation of patients with HFrEF. Simple muscle strength measurement with a hand-held dynamometer can become a convenient and practical indicator of muscle strength in HF patients.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Exercise Test/methods , Hand Strength , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Stroke Volume/physiology
5.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 62(6): 851-858, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) impairs metabolic, cardiovascular, and pulmonary functions in human metabolism, and wearing face masks is recommended for the prevention of contracting or exposing others to cardio-respiratory infections. Since the effect of wearing a surgical face mask (SFM) on cardiopulmonary exercise capacity has not been systematically reported we aimed to determine the effects of wearing SFM during an incremental walking test on metabolic, cardiovascular, and pulmonary gas exchange responses in sedentary individuals. METHODS: The evaluations were performed using a repeated measures study design. Seven sedentary males (age: 40 years, height: 178 cm, weight: 88 kg, BMI: 28 kg/m2, VO2max: 32.7±3.9 mL/kg/min) and 7 sedentary female participants (age: 34 years, height: 169 cm, weight: 62 kg, BMI: 22 kg/m2, VO2max: 32.1±6.8 mL/kg/min) volunteered to participate in the current study. Anthropometric parameters were measured using a Bioelectrical impedance analysis prior to each testing session. The measures of lung function assessed by spirometry, breathing pattern, maximal exercise capacity with-and-without mask were measured with a breath-by-breath automated exercise metabolic system during incremental Bruce protocol on a treadmill with two consecutive sessions with 48-h intervals. Blood pressure values (systolic and diastolic pressure) of the individuals were taken and recorded within 1 minute at the end of every ten minutes, without speed changes. RESULTS: VO2, VCO2, and VE were significantly lower during exercise performed with SFM (P<0.001). Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also found significantly higher during exercise performed with SFM (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Wearing a SFM during incremental walking predispose a decrease in oxygen delivery while increasing pulmonary ventilation in sedentary individuals. Thus, it could be speculated that surgical face masks have a negative impact on oxygen delivery during exercise which results in decreased exercise performance due to the restricted ventilatory conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Adult , Exercise/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Female , Humans , Lung , Male , Oxygen , Oxygen Consumption/physiology
6.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 133(3): 622-628, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973940

ABSTRACT

Physical activity was reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially when lockdowns were mandated; however, little is known about the impact of these lifestyle changes on objective measures of cardiorespiratory fitness. To address this knowledge gap, we evaluated the cardiorespiratory fitness of 14 young healthy adults (4 women, age: 27 ± 6 yr) just before the pandemic and after ∼1 yr of public health measures being in place. During fitness assessments, participants performed submaximal pseudorandom cycling exercise to assess cardiorespiratory kinetics, and a 25 W·min-1 ramp-incremental cycling test to determine peak oxygen uptake (V̇o2). Cluster analysis identified two subgroups of participants: those who had reduced peak V̇o2 at the 1-yr follow-up (-0.50 ± 0.17 L·min-1) and those whose peak V̇o2 was maintained (0.00 ± 0.10 L·min-1). Participants with reduced peak V̇o2 also exhibited slower heart rate kinetics (interaction: P = 0.01), reduced peak O2 pulse (interaction: P < 0.001), and lower peak work rate (interaction: P < 0.001) after 1 yr of the pandemic, whereas these variables were unchanged in the group of participants who maintained peak V̇o2. Regardless of changes in peak V̇o2, both subgroups of participants gained body mass (main effect: P = 0.002), which was negatively correlated with participants' level of self-reported physical activity level at the follow-up assessment (mass: ρ = -0.59, P = 0.03) These findings suggest that some young healthy individuals lost cardiorespiratory fitness during the pandemic, whereas others gained weight, but both changes could potentially increase the risk of adverse health outcomes and disease later in life if left unaddressed.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Some young healthy adults experienced cardiovascular deconditioning during the COVID-19 pandemic, with measurable reductions in cardiorespiratory fitness, whereas others experienced no change in fitness but gained body mass, which was related to self-reported physical activity during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise Test , Female , Humans , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Pandemics , Physical Fitness/physiology , Young Adult
7.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 159(1): 6-11, 2022 07 08.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Several reports have shown the persistence of long term symptoms after the initial COVID-19 infection (post-COVID-19 syndrome). The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) performed in patients with a history of COVID-19, comparing subjects according to the presence of post-COVID-19 syndrome. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed. Consecutive patients >18 years with history of SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by polymerase chain reaction test and a CPET performed between 45 and 120 days after the viral episode were included. The association between variables related to CPET and post-COVID-19 syndrome was assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: A total of 200 patients (mean age 48.8±14.3 years, 51% men) were included. Patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome showed significantly lower main peak VO2 (25.8±8.1mL/min/kg vs. 28.8±9.6mL/min/kg, p=0.017) as compared to asymptomatic subjects. Moreover, patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome developed symptoms more frequently during CPET (52.7% vs. 13.7%, p<0.001) and were less likely to reach the anaerobic threshold (50.9% vs. 72.7%, p=0.002) when compared to asymptomatic subjects. These findings were not modified when adjusting for confounders. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that post-COVID-19 syndrome was associated with less peak VO2, a lower probability of achieving the anaerobic threshold and a higher probability of presenting symptoms during the CPET. Future studies are needed to determine if these abnormalities during CPET would have prognostic value.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 55: e12118, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951676

ABSTRACT

The goal of the present study was to compare pulmonary function test (PFT) and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) performance in COVID-19 survivors with a control group (CG). This was a cross-sectional study. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19, without severe signs and symptoms, were evaluated one month after the infection. Healthy volunteers matched for sex and age constituted the control group. All volunteers underwent the following assessments: i) clinical evaluation, ii) PTF; and iii) CPET on a cycle ergometer. Metabolic variables were measured by the CareFusion Oxycon Mobile device. In addition, heart rate responses, peak systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and perceived exertion were recorded. Twenty-nine patients with COVID-19 and 18 healthy control subjects were evaluated. Surviving patients of COVID-19 had a mean age of 40 years and had higher body mass index and persistent symptoms compared to the CG (P<0.05), but patients with COVID-19 had more comorbidities, number of medications, and greater impairment of lung function (P<0.05). Regarding CPET, patients surviving COVID-19 had reduced peak workload, oxygen uptake (V̇O2), carbon dioxide output (V̇CO2), circulatory power (CP), and end-tidal pressure for carbon dioxide (PETCO2) (P<0.05). Additionally, survivors had depressed chronotropic and ventilatory responses, low peak oxygen saturation, and greater muscle fatigue (P<0.05) compared to CG. Despite not showing signs and symptoms of severe disease during infection, adult survivors had losses of lung function and cardiorespiratory capacity one month after recovery from COVID-19. In addition, cardiovascular, ventilatory, and lower limb fatigue responses were the main exercise limitations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Adult , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise Test , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11850, 2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931491

ABSTRACT

This investigation aimed to assess the aerobic capacity of professional soccer players pre-and post-COVID-19 infection. Twenty-one division-1 elite soccer players (age 24.24 ± 5.75 years, height 178.21 ± 5.44 cm, weight 74.12 ± 5.21 kg) participated in this study. This observational study compared the same players' aerobic capacity pre-, and 60-days post COVID-19 recovery. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the infected players had significantly lower VO2max values [t(20) = 5.17, p < 0.01, d = 0.613 (medium effect)], and significantly lower VO2 values at respiratory compensation point (RC) [t(20) = 2.97, p < 0.05, d = 0.39 (small effect)] after recovery. Furthermore, results indicated a significantly lower running time (RT) on the treadmill [t(20) = 4.84, p < 0.01, d = 0.46 (small effect)] when compared to the results that were obtained before they got infected. In addition, velocity at VO2max (VVO2max) was significantly lower [t(20) = 2.34, p < 0.05, d = 0.41 (small effect)] and the heart rate values at ventilatory threshold (VT) [t(20) = -2.79, p < 0.01, d = 0.55 (medium effect)] and RC [t(20) = -3.72, p < 0.01, d = 0.52 (medium effect)] were significantly higher post-recovery. The aforementioned findings indicate that post COVID-19 soccer players may not reach full recovery at two months. Therefore, our results highlight that further adaptations and improvements are needed with regard to aerobic capacity before soccer players return to professional games.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance , COVID-19 , Running , Soccer , Adolescent , Adult , Athletic Performance/physiology , Exercise Test , Humans , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Running/physiology , Soccer/physiology , Young Adult
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884133

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 causes cardiovascular and lung problems that can be aggravated by confinement, but the practice of physical activity (PA) could lessen these effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of maximum oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) with vaccination and PCR tests in apparently healthy Chilean adults. An observational and cross-sectional study was performed, in which 557 people from south-central Chile participated, who answered an online questionnaire on the control of COVID-19, demographic data, lifestyles, and diagnosis of non-communicable diseases. V˙O2max was estimated with an abbreviated method. With respect to the unvaccinated, those who received the first (OR:0.52 [CI:0.29;0.95], p = 0.019) and second vaccine (OR:0.33 [CI:0.18;0.59], p = 0.0001) were less likely to have an increased V˙O2max. The first vaccine was inversely associated with V˙O2max (mL/kg/min) (ß:-1.68 [CI:-3.06; -0.3], p = 0.017), adjusted for BMI (ß:-1.37 [CI:-2.71; -0.03], p = 0.044) and by demographic variables (ß:-1.82 [CI:-3.18; -0.46], p = 0.009); similarly occur for the second vaccine (ß: between -2.54 and -3.44, p < 0.001) on models with and without adjustment. Having taken a PCR test was not significantly associated with V˙O2max (mL/kg/min). It is concluded that vaccination significantly decreased V˙O2max, although it did not indicate cause and effect. There is little evidence of this interaction, although the results suggest an association, since V˙ O2max could prevent and attenuate the contagion symptoms and effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise Test/methods , Humans , Life Style , Morbidity , Oxygen Consumption , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vaccination
11.
Future Cardiol ; 18(7): 577-584, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879382

ABSTRACT

Aim: To analyze the impact of obesity on cardiopulmonary response to exercise in people with chronic post-COVID-19 syndrome. Patients & methods: Consecutive subjects with chronic post-COVID syndrome 6 months after nonsevere acute infection were included. All patients received a complete clinical evaluation, lung function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. A total of 51 consecutive patients diagnosed with chronic post-COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. Results: More than half of patients with chronic post-COVID-19 had a significant alteration in aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak) 6 months after hospital discharge. Obese long-COVID-19 patients also displayed a marked reduction of oxygen pulse (O2pulse). Conclusion: Obese patients were more prone to have pathological pulmonary limitation and pulmonary gas exchange impairment to exercise compared with nonobese COVID-19 patients.


In this study, the cardiopulmonary response to exercise in people with chronic post-COVID-19 syndrome was analyzed. More than half of patients diagnosed with chronic post-COVID-19 had reduced exercise capacity 6 months after hospital discharge. In addition, patients with chronic post-COVID-19 syndrome who were overweight or obese displayed exaggerated hyperventilation along with an impairment of oxygenation at peak exercise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Exercise/physiology , Exercise Test , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Humans , Obesity/complications , Oxygen Consumption/physiology
12.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 132(6): 1525-1535, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861687

ABSTRACT

A failure to fully recover following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have a profound impact on high-functioning populations ranging from frontline emergency services to professional or amateur/recreational athletes. The aim of the study is to describe the medium-term cardiopulmonary exercise profiles of individuals with "persistent symptoms" and individuals who feel "recovered" after hospitalization or mild-moderate community infection following COVID-19 to an age, sex, and job-role matched control group. A total of 113 participants underwent cardiopulmonary functional tests at a mean of 159 ± 7 days (∼5 mo) following acute illness; 27 hospitalized with persistent symptoms (hospitalized-symptomatic), 8 hospitalized and now recovered (hospitalized-recovered); 34 community managed with persistent symptoms (community-symptomatic); 18 community managed and now recovered (community-recovered); and 26 controls. Hospitalized groups had the least favorable body composition (body mass, body mass index, and waist circumference) compared with controls. Hospitalized-symptomatic and community-symptomatic individuals had a lower oxygen uptake (V̇o2) at peak exercise (hospitalized-symptomatic, 29.9 ± 5.0 mL/kg/min; community-symptomatic, 34.4 ± 7.2 mL/kg/min; vs. control 43.9 ± 3.1 mL/kg/min, both P < 0.001). Hospitalized-symptomatic individuals had a steeper V̇e/V̇co2 slope (lower ventilatory efficiency) (30.5 ± 5.3 vs. 25.5 ± 2.6, P = 0.003) versus. controls. Hospitalized-recovered had a significantly lower oxygen uptake at peak (32.6 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min vs. 43.9 ± 13.1 mL/kg/min, P = 0.015) compared with controls. No significant differences were reported between community-recovered individuals and controls in any cardiopulmonary parameter. In conclusion, medium-term findings suggest that community-recovered individuals did not differ in cardiopulmonary fitness from physically active healthy controls. This suggests their readiness to return to higher levels of physical activity. However, the hospitalized-recovered group and both groups with persistent symptoms had enduring functional limitations, warranting further monitoring, rehabilitation, and recovery.NEW & NOTEWORTHY At 5 mo postinfection, community-treated individuals who feel recovered have comparable cardiopulmonary exercise profiles to the physically trained and active controls, suggesting a readiness to return to higher intensity/volumes of exercise. However, both symptomatic groups and the hospital-recovered group have persistent functional limitations when compared with active controls, supporting the requirement for ongoing monitoring, rehabilitation, and recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Adult , Exercise Test , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Oxygen , Oxygen Consumption
13.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 54(1): 58-62, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818388

ABSTRACT

The decline in human performance with age at 5000 m, an athletic event requiring high VO2 max, is remarkably precise, and unavoidable, and related to entropy, even at an individual level. Women and men show an identical age-related decline, up to ~100 years old. The precision of the decline shows the limitations for therapy of aging. Mortality incidence for COVID-19 shows a similar relationship. We propose that initial VO2 max has a critical role in COVID sensitivity because of the direct relationship of disease severity with oxygen use, and the parallel decline in aging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sports , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Entropy , Female , Humans , Male , Oxygen Consumption
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(9): e024207, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807754

ABSTRACT

Background Ongoing exercise intolerance of unclear cause following COVID-19 infection is well recognized but poorly understood. We investigated exercise capacity in patients previously hospitalized with COVID-19 with and without self-reported exercise intolerance using magnetic resonance-augmented cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Methods and Results Sixty subjects were enrolled in this single-center prospective observational case-control study, split into 3 equally sized groups: 2 groups of age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched previously hospitalized patients following COVID-19 without clearly identifiable postviral complications and with either self-reported reduced (COVIDreduced) or fully recovered (COVIDnormal) exercise capacity; a group of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The COVIDreducedgroup had the lowest peak workload (79W [Interquartile range (IQR), 65-100] versus controls 104W [IQR, 86-148]; P=0.01) and shortest exercise duration (13.3±2.8 minutes versus controls 16.6±3.5 minutes; P=0.008), with no differences in these parameters between COVIDnormal patients and controls. The COVIDreduced group had: (1) the lowest peak indexed oxygen uptake (14.9 mL/minper kg [IQR, 13.1-16.2]) versus controls (22.3 mL/min per kg [IQR, 16.9-27.6]; P=0.003) and COVIDnormal patients (19.1 mL/min per kg [IQR, 15.4-23.7]; P=0.04); (2) the lowest peak indexed cardiac output (4.7±1.2 L/min per m2) versus controls (6.0±1.2 L/min per m2; P=0.004) and COVIDnormal patients (5.7±1.5 L/min per m2; P=0.02), associated with lower indexed stroke volume (SVi:COVIDreduced 39±10 mL/min per m2 versus COVIDnormal 43±7 mL/min per m2 versus controls 48±10 mL/min per m2; P=0.02). There were no differences in peak tissue oxygen extraction or biventricular ejection fractions between groups. There were no associations between COVID-19 illness severity and peak magnetic resonance-augmented cardiopulmonary exercise testing metrics. Peak indexed oxygen uptake, indexed cardiac output, and indexed stroke volume all correlated with duration from discharge to magnetic resonance-augmented cardiopulmonary exercise testing (P<0.05). Conclusions Magnetic resonance-augmented cardiopulmonary exercise testing suggests failure to augment stroke volume as a potential mechanism of exercise intolerance in previously hospitalized patients with COVID-19. This is unrelated to disease severity and, reassuringly, improves with time from acute illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Case-Control Studies , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Oxygen , Oxygen Consumption , Stroke Volume
15.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 42(4): 286-291, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807056

ABSTRACT

The importance of using masks during exercise has increased since the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the effects of using surgical masks on gas exchange and exercise responses in maximal exercise. Twenty-six participants were included. Participants performed the maximal exercise tests twice, masked, and unmasked. Gas exchange parameters (at maximal exercise and anaerobic threshold [AT]) and hemodynamic responses were measured. In the hemodynamic responses measured at rest, only the saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2 ) was lower in the masked (mean: 97.23 ± 1.33%) measurement than in the unmasked (mean: 97.96 ± 1.07%) measurement (p = 0.006). Test duration was lower in the masked test (unmasked: 10.32 ± 1.36 min vs. masked: 10.03 ± 1.42 min, p = 0.030). Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak ) (unmasked: 31.23 ± 5.37 vs. masked: 27.03 ± 6.46 ml/kg/min), minute ventilation (VE ) l/min, and energy expenditure (EE) kcal/hour were higher in unmasked tests (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the gas exchange parameters measured at the AT in the masked and unmasked tests (p > 0.05). Respiratory gas exchange parameters were affected in peak exercise due to increased respiratory workload, but not at the AT. There was no change in hemodynamic responses because vascular control may not be affected by mask usage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Exercise/physiology , Exercise Test , Hemodynamics , Humans , Oxygen Consumption , Pulmonary Gas Exchange
16.
JAMA ; 327(13): 1284-1285, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801952
17.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793615

ABSTRACT

Particulate generation occurs during exercise-induced exhalation, and research on this topic is scarce. Moreover, infection-control measures are inadequately implemented to avoid particulate generation. A laminar airflow ventilation system (LFVS) was developed to remove respiratory droplets released during treadmill exercise. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the number of aerosols during training on a treadmill and exercise intensity and to elucidate the effect of the LFVS on aerosol removal during anaerobic exercise. In this single-center observational study, the exercise tests were performed on a treadmill at Running Science Lab in Japan on 20 healthy subjects (age: 29±12 years, men: 80%). The subjects had a broad spectrum of aerobic capacities and fitness levels, including athletes, and had no comorbidities. All of them received no medication. The exercise intensity was increased by 1-km/h increments until the heart rate reached 85% of the expected maximum rate and then maintained for 10 min. The first 10 subjects were analyzed to examine whether exercise increased the concentration of airborne particulates in the exhaled air. For the remaining 10 subjects, the LFVS was activated during constant-load exercise to compare the number of respiratory droplets before and after LFVS use. During exercise, a steady amount of particulates before the lactate threshold (LT) was followed by a significant and gradual increase in respiratory droplets after the LT, particularly during anaerobic exercise. Furthermore, respiratory droplets ≥0.3 µm significantly decreased after using LFVS (2120800±759700 vs. 560 ± 170, p<0.001). The amount of respiratory droplets significantly increased after LT. The LFVS enabled a significant decrease in respiratory droplets during anaerobic exercise in healthy subjects. This study's findings will aid in exercising safely during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Conditioning/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Particulate Matter/chemistry , Adult , Aerosols/chemistry , Air Filters , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Exercise Test/methods , Exhalation/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Japan , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Male , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiration , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Running/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilation/methods
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785648

ABSTRACT

Postprandial hyperglycemia can be corrected by exercise; however, the effect of home-based high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), a new time-efficient exercise, on glycemic control is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of home-based HIIE on postprandial hyperglycemia. Twelve young adult males (mean age: 24.3 ± 2.3 y) with postprandial hyperglycemia that had not yet led to diabetes completed home-based HIIE, moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE), and control conditions on separate days, randomly. The intervention began 30 min after the start of a standardized meal intake, with 11 min of HIIE completed at maximal effort in the home-based HIIE condition, 30 min of running performed at 50% maximum oxygen uptake in the MICE condition, or 30 min of sitting at rest completed in the control condition. The participants sat at rest after each intervention for up to 120 min. Interstitial fluid glucose concentrations were measured using a continuous glucose monitoring system that scanned every 15 min for up to 2 h after the meal. The glucose concentrations after the meal were significantly lower in the home-based HIIE and MICE conditions than in the control condition (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the glucose concentrations between the home-based HIIE and MICE conditions. In conclusion, home-based HIIE was able to correct postprandial hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
Glucose , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Humans , Hyperglycemia/prevention & control , Male , Oxygen , Oxygen Consumption , Young Adult
19.
J Phys Act Health ; 19(5): 351-357, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of mobility restrictions (MRs) during the COVID-19 epidemic on physical activity, body composition, and exercise tolerance in patients with obesity. METHODS: We analyzed data of obesity patients participating in a 6-month weight loss program in February 2020, and after, when the epidemic was considered to have had some effect on outdoor activity in Osaka, Japan (MR group). MR group patients were compared to patients with obesity attending the program in 2018 and 2019 (non-MR group) who had a similar number of months as MR group. Changes in physical activity, body composition, and exercise tolerance (O2 consumption; VO2) owing to the weight loss program were analyzed between both groups using analysis of covariance and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Decreases in body fat were significantly higher in MR group than in non-MR group. However, increases in physical activity, VO2 at anaerobic threshold, and peak VO2 were significantly lower in MR group; however, increases in peak VO2 owing to the weight loss program were less likely to be achieved in MR group (odds ratio, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.81). CONCLUSION: MR during the COVID-19 epidemic may have affected the exercise tolerance of patients with obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Tolerance , Body Composition , Exercise , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Oxygen Consumption , Retrospective Studies
20.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 42(5): 352-358, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778960

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) are widely used to guide exercise intensity in cardiac rehabilitation (CR), it is unclear whether target heart rate ranges (THRRs) can be implemented in CR programs that predominantly use RPE and what impact this has on changes in exercise capacity. METHODS: We conducted a three-group pilot randomized control trial (#NCT03925493) comparing RPE of 3-4 on the 10-point modified Borg scale, 60-80% of heart rate reserve (HRR) with heart rate (HR) monitored by telemetry, or 60-80% of HRR with a personal HR monitor (HRM) for high-fidelity adherence to THRR. Primary outcomes were protocol fidelity and feasibility. Secondary outcomes included exercise HR, RPE, and changes in functional exercise capacity. RESULTS: Of 48 participants randomized, four patients dropped out, 20 stopped prematurely (COVID-19 pandemic), and 24 completed the protocol. Adherence to THRR was high regardless of HRM, and patients attended a median (IQR) of 33 (23, 36) sessions with no difference between groups. After randomization, HR increased by 1 ± 6, 6 ± 5, and 10 ± 9 bpm ( P = .02); RPE (average score 3.0 ± 0.05) was unchanged, and functional exercise capacity increased by 1.0 ± 1.0, 1.9 ± 1.5, 2.0 ± 1.3 workload METs (effect size between groups, ηp2 = 0.11, P = .20) for the RPE, THRR, and THRR + HRM groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully implemented THRR in an all-RPE CR program without needing an HRM. Patients randomized to THRR had higher exercise HR but similar RPE ratings. The THRR may be preferable to RPE in CR populations for cardiorespiratory fitness gains, but this needs confirmation in an adequately powered trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Pandemics , Physical Exertion/physiology , Pilot Projects , Prescriptions
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