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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793615

ABSTRACT

Particulate generation occurs during exercise-induced exhalation, and research on this topic is scarce. Moreover, infection-control measures are inadequately implemented to avoid particulate generation. A laminar airflow ventilation system (LFVS) was developed to remove respiratory droplets released during treadmill exercise. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the number of aerosols during training on a treadmill and exercise intensity and to elucidate the effect of the LFVS on aerosol removal during anaerobic exercise. In this single-center observational study, the exercise tests were performed on a treadmill at Running Science Lab in Japan on 20 healthy subjects (age: 29±12 years, men: 80%). The subjects had a broad spectrum of aerobic capacities and fitness levels, including athletes, and had no comorbidities. All of them received no medication. The exercise intensity was increased by 1-km/h increments until the heart rate reached 85% of the expected maximum rate and then maintained for 10 min. The first 10 subjects were analyzed to examine whether exercise increased the concentration of airborne particulates in the exhaled air. For the remaining 10 subjects, the LFVS was activated during constant-load exercise to compare the number of respiratory droplets before and after LFVS use. During exercise, a steady amount of particulates before the lactate threshold (LT) was followed by a significant and gradual increase in respiratory droplets after the LT, particularly during anaerobic exercise. Furthermore, respiratory droplets ≥0.3 µm significantly decreased after using LFVS (2120800±759700 vs. 560 ± 170, p<0.001). The amount of respiratory droplets significantly increased after LT. The LFVS enabled a significant decrease in respiratory droplets during anaerobic exercise in healthy subjects. This study's findings will aid in exercising safely during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Conditioning/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Particulate Matter/chemistry , Adult , Aerosols/chemistry , Air Filters , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Exercise Test/methods , Exhalation/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Japan , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Male , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiration , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Running/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilation/methods
2.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 298: 103844, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Use of high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and prone positioning is common in patients with COVID-19-induced acute respiratory failure. Few data clarify the hemodynamic effects of these interventions in this specific condition. We performed a physiologic study to assess the hemodynamic effects of PEEP and prone position during COVID-19 respiratory failure. METHODS: Nine adult patients mechanically ventilated due to COVID-19 infection and fulfilling moderate-to-severe ARDS criteria were studied. Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, cardiac output, oxygen consumption, systemic and pulmonary pressures were recorded through pulmonary arterial catheterization at PEEP of 15 and 5 cmH2O, and after prone positioning. Recruitability was assessed through the recruitment-to-inflation ratio. RESULTS: High PEEP improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio in all patients (p = 0.004), and significantly decreased pulmonary shunt fraction (p = 0.012), regardless of lung recruitability. PEEP-induced increases in PaO2/FiO2 changes were strictly correlated with shunt fraction reduction (rho=-0.82, p = 0.01). From low to high PEEP, cardiac output decreased by 18 % (p = 0.05) and central venous pressure increased by 17 % (p = 0.015). As compared to supine position with low PEEP, prone positioning significantly decreased pulmonary shunt fraction (p = 0.03), increased PaO2/FiO2 (p = 0.03) and mixed venous oxygen saturation (p = 0.016), without affecting cardiac output. PaO2/FiO2 was improved by prone position also when compared to high PEEP (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS due to COVID-19, PEEP and prone position improve arterial oxygenation. Changes in cardiac output contribute to the effects of PEEP but not of prone position, which appears the most effective intervention to improve oxygenation with no hemodynamic side effects.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Rate/physiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prone Position , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prone Position/physiology
3.
Chest ; 161(1): 54-63, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some patients with COVID-19 who have recovered from the acute infection after experiencing only mild symptoms continue to exhibit persistent exertional limitation that often is unexplained by conventional investigative studies. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the pathophysiologic mechanism of exercise intolerance that underlies the post-COVID-19 long-haul syndrome in patients without cardiopulmonary disease? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study examined the systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, ventilation, and gas exchange in 10 patients who recovered from COVID-19 and were without cardiopulmonary disease during invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (iCPET) and compared the results with those from 10 age- and sex-matched control participants. These data then were used to define potential reasons for exertional limitation in the cohort of patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: The patients who had recovered from COVID-19 exhibited markedly reduced peak exercise aerobic capacity (oxygen consumption [VO2]) compared with control participants (70 ± 11% predicted vs 131 ± 45% predicted; P < .0001). This reduction in peak VO2 was associated with impaired systemic oxygen extraction (ie, narrow arterial-mixed venous oxygen content difference to arterial oxygen content ratio) compared with control participants (0.49 ± 0.1 vs 0.78 ± 0.1; P < .0001), despite a preserved peak cardiac index (7.8 ± 3.1 L/min vs 8.4±2.3 L/min; P > .05). Additionally, patients who had recovered from COVID-19 demonstrated greater ventilatory inefficiency (ie, abnormal ventilatory efficiency [VE/VCO2] slope: 35 ± 5 vs 27 ± 5; P = .01) compared with control participants without an increase in dead space ventilation. INTERPRETATION: Patients who have recovered from COVID-19 without cardiopulmonary disease demonstrate a marked reduction in peak VO2 from a peripheral rather than a central cardiac limit, along with an exaggerated hyperventilatory response during exercise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Tolerance , COVID-19/physiopathology , Connecticut , Female , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology
4.
Heart Rhythm ; 19(4): 613-620, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals who contract coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can suffer with persistent and debilitating symptoms long after the initial acute illness. Heart rate (HR) profiles determined during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and delivered as part of a post-COVID recovery service may provide insight into the presence and impact of dysautonomia on functional ability. OBJECTIVE: Using an active, working-age, post-COVID-19 population, the purpose of this study was to (1) determine and characterize any association between subjective symptoms and dysautonomia; and (2) identify objective exercise capacity differences between patients classified "with" and those "without" dysautonomia. METHODS: Patients referred to a post-COVID-19 service underwent comprehensive clinical assessment, including self-reported symptoms, CPET, and secondary care investigations when indicated. Resting HR >75 bpm, HR increase with exercise <89 bpm, and HR recovery <25 bpm 1 minute after exercise were used to define dysautonomia. Anonymized data were analyzed and associations with symptoms, and CPET outcomes were determined. RESULTS: Fifty-one of the 205 patients (25%) reviewed as part of this service evaluation had dysautonomia. There were no associations between symptoms or perceived functional limitation and dysautonomia (P >.05). Patients with dysautonomia demonstrated objective functional limitations with significantly reduced work rate (219 ± 37 W vs 253 ± 52 W; P <.001) and peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2: 30.6 ± 5.5 mL/kg/min vs 35.8 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min; P <.001); and a steeper (less efficient) V̇e/V̇co2 slope (29.9 ± 4.9 vs 27.7 ± 4.7; P = .005). CONCLUSION: Dysautonomia is associated with objective functional limitations but is not associated with subjective symptoms or limitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Primary Dysautonomias , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Exercise , Exercise Test , Humans , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Primary Dysautonomias/diagnosis , Primary Dysautonomias/etiology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511814

ABSTRACT

Particulate generation occurs during exercise-induced exhalation, and research on this topic is scarce. Moreover, infection-control measures are inadequately implemented to avoid particulate generation. A laminar airflow ventilation system (LFVS) was developed to remove respiratory droplets released during treadmill exercise. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the number of aerosols during training on a treadmill and exercise intensity and to elucidate the effect of the LFVS on aerosol removal during anaerobic exercise. In this single-center observational study, the exercise tests were performed on a treadmill at Running Science Lab in Japan on 20 healthy subjects (age: 29±12 years, men: 80%). The subjects had a broad spectrum of aerobic capacities and fitness levels, including athletes, and had no comorbidities. All of them received no medication. The exercise intensity was increased by 1-km/h increments until the heart rate reached 85% of the expected maximum rate and then maintained for 10 min. The first 10 subjects were analyzed to examine whether exercise increased the concentration of airborne particulates in the exhaled air. For the remaining 10 subjects, the LFVS was activated during constant-load exercise to compare the number of respiratory droplets before and after LFVS use. During exercise, a steady amount of particulates before the lactate threshold (LT) was followed by a significant and gradual increase in respiratory droplets after the LT, particularly during anaerobic exercise. Furthermore, respiratory droplets ≥0.3 µm significantly decreased after using LFVS (2120800±759700 vs. 560 ± 170, p<0.001). The amount of respiratory droplets significantly increased after LT. The LFVS enabled a significant decrease in respiratory droplets during anaerobic exercise in healthy subjects. This study's findings will aid in exercising safely during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Conditioning/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Particulate Matter/chemistry , Adult , Aerosols/chemistry , Air Filters , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Exercise Test/methods , Exhalation/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Japan , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Male , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiration , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Running/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilation/methods
6.
J Artif Organs ; 23(3): 292-295, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453765

ABSTRACT

A 71-year-old man undergoing hemodialysis (HD) was admitted to our hospital with congestive heart failure (CHF) and pneumonia. After admission, ultrafiltration with HD was urgently performed because of a lack of respiratory improvement despite the use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. During HD, cerebral regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2) was monitored by INVOS 5100c oxygen saturation monitor (Covidien Japan, Japan) to evaluate changes in tissue oxygenation. At HD initiation, cerebral rSO2 was very low at 34% under the fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) of 0.4. Ultrafiltration was performed at the rate of 0.5 L/h thereafter, cerebral rSO2 gradually improved even as inhaling oxygen concentration decreased. At the end of HD, cerebral rSO2 improved at 40% under a FiO2 of 0.28 as excess body fluid was removed. After pneumonia and CHF improved, he was discharged. Reports of the association between cerebral oxygenation and acute CHF status in patients undergoing HD are limited; therefore, in our experience with this case, cerebral oxygenation deteriorated with the CHF status but was improved by adequate body-fluid management during HD.


Subject(s)
Brain/metabolism , Heart Failure/complications , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Renal Insufficiency/metabolism
8.
J Breath Res ; 15(4)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380991

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the cardiopulmonary function and impairment of exercise endurance in patients with COVID-19 after 3 months of the second wave of the pandemic in Turkey. A total of 51 consecutive COVID-19 survivors, mostly healthcare providers, still working in the emergency room and intensive care units of the hospital after the second wave of Covid 19 pandemia were included in this study. Cardiopulmonary exercise stress test was performed. The median of the exercise time of the COVID-19 survivors, was 10 (4.5-13) minutes and the mean 6.8 ± 1.3 Mets was achieved. The VO2max of the COVID-19 survivors was 24 ± 4.6 ml kg-1min-1which corresponds the 85 ± 10% of the predicted VO2max value. The VO2WRs value which was reported about 8.5-11 ml min-1per watt in healthy individuals as normal was found lower in Covid 19 survivors (5.6 ± 1.4). The percentage of the maximum peak VO2calculated according to the predictable peak VO2of the COVID-19 survivors, was found significantly lower in male patients (92 ± 9.5% vs 80 ± 8.5%,p: 0.000). Also, there was a positive correlation between the percentage of the maximum predicted VO2measurements and age (r: 0.320,p: 0000). The peak VO2values of COVID-19 survivors decreased, and simultaneously, their exercise performance decreased due to peripheral muscle involvement. We believe that COVID-19 significantly affects men and young patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test , Muscle Strength , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Breath Tests , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Lung , Male , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Respir Med ; 187: 106577, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: current data on the impact of acute illness severity on exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency of COVID-19 survivors, evaluated at cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), are limited. METHODS: in this post-hoc analysis of our previous observational, prospective, cohort study on mechanisms of exercise intolerance in COVID-19 survivors, we aimed at evaluating the impact of acute COVID-19 severity on exercise capacity, pulmonary function testing (PFT) and chest computed tomography (CT) outcomes. RESULTS: we enrolled 75 patients (18 with mild-to-moderate disease, 18 with severe disease, and 39 with critical disease). Mean (standard deviation - SD) follow-up time was 97 (26) days. Groups showed a similar PFT and CT residual involvement, featuring a mildly reduced exercise capacity with comparable mean (SD) values of peak oxygen consumption as percentage of predicted (83 (17) vs 82 (16) vs 84 (15), p = 0.895) among groups, as well as the median (interquartile range - IQR) alveolar-arterial gradient for O2 in mmHg at exercise peak (20 (15-28) vs 27 (18-31) vs 26 (21-21), p = 0.154), which was in the limit of normal. In addition, these patients featured a preserved mean ventilatory efficiency evaluated through the slope of the relation between ventilation and carbon dioxide output during exercise (27.1 (2.6) vs 29.8 (3.9) vs 28.3 (2.6), p = 0.028), without a clinically relevant difference. CONCLUSIONS: Disease severity does not impact on exercise capacity in COVID-19 survivors at 3 months after discharge, including a ventilatory response still in the limit of normal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Exercise Test , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Recovery of Function/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
10.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 222, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344107

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant acute morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is now a growing recognition of the longer-term sequelae of this infection, termed "long COVID". However, little is known about this condition. Here, we describe a distinct phenotype seen in a subset of patients with long COVID who have reduced exercise tolerance as measured by the 6 min walk test. They are associated with significant exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life and poor functional status. However, surprisingly, they do not appear to have any major pulmonary function abnormalities or increased burden of neurologic, musculoskeletal or fatigue symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Lung/physiology , Phenotype , Physical Exertion/physiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Walk Test/methods
11.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(4): 1056-1063, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the muscular dysfunction, despite the generalized weakness and fatigue that patients report after overcoming the acute phase of the infection. This study aimed to detect impaired muscle efficiency by evaluating delta efficiency (DE) in patients with COVID-19 compared with subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and control group (CG). METHODS: A total of 60 participants were assigned to four experimental groups: COVID-19, COPD, IHD, and CG (n = 15 each group). Incremental exercise tests in a cycle ergometer were performed to obtain peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). DE was obtained from the end of the first workload to the power output where the respiratory exchange ratio was 1. RESULTS: A lower DE was detected in patients with COVID-19 and COPD compared with those in CG (P ≤ 0.033). However, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups with diseases (P > 0.05). Lower VO2 peak, peak ventilation, peak power output, and total exercise time were observed in the groups with diseases than in the CG (P < 0.05). A higher VO2 , ventilation, and power output were detected in the CG compared with those in the groups with diseases at the first and second ventilatory threshold (P < 0.05). A higher power output was detected in the IHD group compared with those in the COVID-19 and COPD groups (P < 0.05) at the first and second ventilatory thresholds and when the respiratory exchange ratio was 1. A significant correlation (P < 0.001) was found between the VO2 peak and DE and between the peak power output and DE (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 showed marked mechanical inefficiency similar to that observed in COPD and IHD patients. Patients with COVID-19 and COPD showed a significant decrease in power output compared to IHD during pedalling despite having similar response in VO2 at each intensity. Resistance training should be considered during the early phase of rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise/physiology , Lung/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Ischemia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Resistance Training/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
12.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247381

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Participating in singing is considered to have a range of social and psychological benefits. However, the physiological demands of singing and its intensity as a physical activity are not well understood. METHODS: We compared cardiorespiratory parameters while completing components of Singing for Lung Health sessions, with treadmill walking at differing speeds (2, 4 and 6 km/hour). RESULTS: Eight healthy adults were included, none of whom reported regular participation in formal singing activities. Singing induced acute physiological responses that were consistent with moderate intensity activity (metabolic equivalents: median 4.12, IQR 2.72-4.78), with oxygen consumption, heart rate and volume per breath above those seen walking at 4 km/hour. Minute ventilation was higher during singing (median 22.42 L/min, IQR 16.83-30.54) than at rest (11 L/min, 9-13), lower than 6 km/hour walking (30.35 L/min, 26.94-41.11), but not statistically different from 2 km/hour (18.77 L/min, 16.89-21.35) or 4 km/hour (23.27 L/min, 20.09-26.37) walking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the acute metabolic demands of singing are comparable with walking at a moderately brisk pace, hence, physical effects may contribute to the health and well-being benefits attributed to singing participation. However, if physical training benefits result remains uncertain. Further research including different singing styles, singers and physical performance impacts when used as a training modality is encouraged. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov registry (NCT04121351).


Subject(s)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Lung/physiology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Singing/physiology , Walking/physiology , Adult , Exercise Test , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Metabolic Flux Analysis/methods , Music , Physical Exertion/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Warm-Up Exercise
13.
Phys Ther ; 101(6)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140007

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study was to assess physical fitness and its relationship with functional dyspnea in survivors of COVID-19 6 months after their discharge from the hospital. METHODS: Data collected routinely from people referred for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) following hospitalization for COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed. Persistent dyspnea was assessed using the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale. RESULTS: Twenty-three people with persistent symptoms were referred for CPET. Mean modified Medical Research Council dyspnea score was 1 (SD = 1) and was significantly associated with peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak; %) (rho = -0.49). At 6 months, those hospitalized in the general ward had a relatively preserved VO2peak (87% [SD = 20]), whereas those who had been in the intensive care unit had a moderately reduced VO2peak (77% [SD = 15]). Of note, the results of the CPET revealed that, in all individuals, respiratory equivalents were high, power-to-weight ratios were low, and those who had been in the intensive care unit had a relatively low ventilatory efficiency (mean VE/VCO2 slope = 34 [SD = 5]). Analysis of each individual showed that none had a breathing reserve <15% or 11 L/min, all had a normal exercise electrocardiogram, and 4 had a heart rate >90%. CONCLUSION: At 6 months, persistent dyspnea was associated with reduced physical fitness. This study offers initial insights into the mid-term physical fitness of people who required hospitalization for COVID-19. It also provides novel pathophysiological clues about the underlaying mechanism of the physical limitations associated with persistent dyspnea. Those with persistent dyspnea should be offered a tailored rehabilitation intervention, which should probably include muscle reconditioning, breathing retraining, and perhaps respiratory muscle training. IMPACT: This study is the first, to our knowledge, to show that a persistent breathing disorder (in addition to muscle deconditioning) can explain persistent symptoms 6 months after hospitalization for COVID-19 infection and suggests that a specific rehabilitation intervention is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Physical Fitness/physiology , Dyspnea/virology , Exercise Test , Fatigue/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Respir Med ; 179: 106312, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081264

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Efforts to meet increased oxygen demands in COVID-19 patients are a priority in averting mechanical ventilation (MV), associated with high mortality approaching 76.4-97.2%. Novel methods of oxygen delivery could mitigate that risk. Oxygen hoods/helmets may improve: O2-saturation (SaO2), reduce in-hospital mechanical ventilation and mortality rates, and reduce length of hospitalization in hypoxic Covid-19 patients failing on conventional high-flow oxygen delivery systems. METHODS: DesignProspective Controlled Cohort Study. SettingSingle Center. ParticipantsAll patients admitted with a diagnosis of COVID-19 were reviewed and 136/347 patients met inclusion criteria. Study period3/6/2020 to 5/1/2020. 136 participants completed the study with known status for all outcome measures. Intervention or exposureOxygen hoods/helmets as compared to conventional high-flow oxygen delivery systems. MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURE(S): 1) Pre and post change in oxygen saturation (SaO2). 2) In-hospital Mechanical Ventilation (MV). 3) In-hospital Mortality. 4) Length of hospitalization. RESULTS: 136 patients including 58-intervention and 78-control patients were studied. Age, gender, and other demographics/prognostic indicators were comparable between cohorts. Oxygen hoods averted imminent or immediate intubation/MV in all 58 COVID-19 patients failing on conventional high-flow oxygen delivery systems with a mean improvement in SaO2 of 8.8%, p < 0.001. MV rates were observed to be higher in the control 37/78 (47.4%) as compared to the intervention cohort 23/58 (39.7%), a difference of 7.7%, a 27% risk reduction, not statistically significant, OR 95%CI 0.73 (0.37-1.5). Mortality rates were observed higher in the control 54/78 (69.2%) as compared to the intervention cohort 36/58 (62.1%), a difference of 7.1%, a 27% risk reduction, not statistically significant OR 95%CI 0.73 (0.36-1.5). CONCLUSION: Oxygen hoods demonstrate improvement in SaO2 for patients failing on conventional high-flow oxygen-delivery systems and prevented imminent mechanical ventilation. In-hospital mechanical ventilation and mortality rates were reduced with the use of oxygen hoods but not found to be statistically significant. The oxygen hood is a safe, effective oxygen-delivery system which may reduce intubation/MV and mortality rates. Their use should be considered in treating hypoxic COVID-19 patients. Further research is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04407260.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment Failure , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends , Treatment Failure , United States/epidemiology
15.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(1): 33-43, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of corticosteroids on inflammatory and respiratory parameters of patients with COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective, observational study conducted in an ICU of a second level hospital. Adult patients with COVID-19 were included. Baseline characteristics, data on SARS-CoV-2 infection, treatment received, evolution of respiratory and inflammatory parameters, and ICU and hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 27 patients were included, 63% men, median age: 68.4 (51.8, 72.2) years. All patients met ARDS criteria and received MV and corticosteroids. After corticosteroids treatment we observed a reduction in the O2 A-a gradient [day 0: 322 (249, 425); day 3: 169 (129.5, 239.5) p<0.001; day 5: 144 (127.5, 228.0) p<0.001; day 7: 192 (120, 261) p=0.002] and an increase in the pO2/FiO2 ratio on days 3 and 5, but not on day 7 [day 0: 129 (100, 168); day 3: 193 (140, 236) p=0.002; day 5: 183 (141, 255) p=0.004; day 7: 170 (116, 251) p=0.057]. CRP also decreased on days 3 and 5 and increased again on day 7 [day 0: 16 (8.6, 24); day 3: 3.4 (1.7, 10.2) p<0.001; day 5: 4.1 (1.4, 10.2) p<0.001; day 7: 13.5 (6.8, 17.3) p=0.063]. Persistence of moderate ARDS on day 7 was related to a greater risk of poor outcome (OR 6.417 [1.091-37.735], p=0.040). CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids appears to reduce the inflammation and temporarily improve the oxygenation in COVID-19 and ARDS patients. Persistence of ARDS after 7 days treatment is a predictor of poor outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Secondary Care Centers , Spain , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 69(2): 103276, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the spectrum and course of biological responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have important therapeutic implications. We sought to characterise biological responses among patients hospitalised with severe COVID-19 based on serial, routinely collected, physiological and blood biomarker values. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1335 patients hospitalised with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (median age 70 years, 56 % male), between 1st March and 30th April 2020. Latent profile analysis was performed on serial physiological and blood biomarkers. Patient characteristics, comorbidities and rates of death and admission to intensive care, were compared between the latent classes. A five class solution provided the best fit. Class 1 "Typical response" exhibited a moderately elevated and rising C-reactive protein (CRP), stable lymphopaenia, and the lowest rates of 14-day adverse outcomes. Class 2 "Rapid hyperinflammatory response" comprised older patients, with higher admission white cell and neutrophil counts, which declined over time, accompanied by a very high and rising CRP and platelet count, and exibited the highest mortality risk. Class 3 "Progressive inflammatory response" was similar to the typical response except for a higher and rising CRP, though similar mortality rate. Class 4 "Inflammatory response with kidney injury" had prominent lymphopaenia, moderately elevated (and rising) CRP, and severe renal failure. Class 5 "Hyperinflammatory response with kidney injury" comprised older patients, with a very high and rising CRP, and severe renal failure that attenuated over time. Physiological measures did not substantially vary between classes at baseline or early admission. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our identification of five distinct classes of biomarker profiles provides empirical evidence for heterogeneous biological responses to COVID-19. Early hyperinflammatory responses and kidney injury may signify unique pathophysiology that requires targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biological Variation, Individual , Body Temperature , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 42(3): 554-559, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006342

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating direct consequences on the health of affected patients. It has also had a significant impact on the ability of unaffected children to be physically active. We evaluated the effect of deconditioning from social distancing and school shutdowns implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic on the cardiovascular fitness of healthy unaffected children. This is a single-center, retrospective case-control study performed in an urban tertiary referral center. A cohort of 10 healthy children that underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing after COVID-19 hospital restrictions were lifted was compared to a matched cohort before COVID-19-related shutdowns on school and after-school activities. Comparisons of oxygen uptake (VO2) max and VO2 at anaerobic threshold between the pre- and post-COVID-19 cohorts were done. The VO2 max in the post-COVID cohort was significantly lower than in the pre-COVID cohort (39.1 vs. 44.7, p = 0.031). Only one out of ten patients had a higher VO2 max when compared to their matched pre-COVID control and was also the only patient with a documented history of participation in varsity-type athletics. The percentile of predicted VO2 was significantly lower in the post-COVID cohort (95% vs. 105%, p = 0.042). This study for the first time documented a significant measurable decline in physical fitness of healthy children as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated restrictions. Measures need to be identified that encourage and facilitate regular exercise in children in a way that are not solely dependent on school and organized after-school activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise/physiology , Health Status , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Pandemics , Physical Fitness/physiology , Schools , Adolescent , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , New York/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(1): 33-43, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of corticosteroids on inflammatory and respiratory parameters of patients with COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective, observational study conducted in an ICU of a second level hospital. Adult patients with COVID-19 were included. Baseline characteristics, data on SARS-CoV-2 infection, treatment received, evolution of respiratory and inflammatory parameters, and ICU and hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 27 patients were included, 63% men, median age: 68.4 (51.8, 72.2) years. All patients met ARDS criteria and received MV and corticosteroids. After corticosteroids treatment we observed a reduction in the O2 A-a gradient [day 0: 322 (249, 425); day 3: 169 (129.5, 239.5) p<0.001; day 5: 144 (127.5, 228.0) p<0.001; day 7: 192 (120, 261) p=0.002] and an increase in the pO2/FiO2 ratio on days 3 and 5, but not on day 7 [day 0: 129 (100, 168); day 3: 193 (140, 236) p=0.002; day 5: 183 (141, 255) p=0.004; day 7: 170 (116, 251) p=0.057]. CRP also decreased on days 3 and 5 and increased again on day 7 [day 0: 16 (8.6, 24); day 3: 3.4 (1.7, 10.2) p<0.001; day 5: 4.1 (1.4, 10.2) p<0.001; day 7: 13.5 (6.8, 17.3) p=0.063]. Persistence of moderate ARDS on day 7 was related to a greater risk of poor outcome (OR 6.417 [1.091-37.735], p=0.040). CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids appears to reduce the inflammation and temporarily improve the oxygenation in COVID-19 and ARDS patients. Persistence of ARDS after 7 days treatment is a predictor of poor outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Secondary Care Centers , Spain , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
J Card Fail ; 27(1): 105-108, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exercise testing plays an important role in evaluating heart failure prognosis and selecting patients for advanced therapeutic interventions. However, concern for severe acute respiratory syndrome novel coronavirus-2 transmission during exercise testing has markedly curtailed performance of exercise testing during the novel coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. METHODS AND RESULTS: To examine the feasibility to conducting exercise testing with an in-line filter, 2 healthy volunteer subjects each completed 2 incremental exercise tests, one with discrete stages of increasing resistance and one with a continuous ramp. Each subject performed 1 test with an electrostatic filter in-line with the system measuring gas exchange and air flow, and 1 test without the filter in place. Oxygen uptake and minute ventilation were highly consistent when evaluated with and without use of an electrostatic filter with a >99.9% viral efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Deployment of a commercially available in-line electrostatic viral filter during cardiopulmonary exercise testing is feasible and provides consistent data compared with testing without a filter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise Test/standards , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , Exercise Test/methods , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Male , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Pandemics , Pulmonary Gas Exchange/physiology , Reproducibility of Results
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