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2.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 64(1): E3-E8, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236267

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by a new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) throughout the pandemic period has been characterised by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, courses, and outcomes. In particular, most patients with severe or critical symptoms re-quired hospitalization. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients upon admission to the hospital, as well as pre-existing medical conditions, seem to have affected the clinical out-come. Predictive factors of inauspicious outcome in non-Intensive Care Unit hospitalized patients were investigated. Methods: A retrospective, single-centre, observational study of 239 patients with confirmed COVID-19 disease admitted during the first waves of the pandemic to the Infectious Disease Operative Unit of a hospital in Southern Italy was conducted. Demographic characteristics, under-lying diseases, and clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were collected from the patient's medical records. Information about in-hospital medications, days of admission, and out-come were also considered. Inferential statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the association between patients' characteristics upon hospital admission and during in-hospital length of stay and death. Results: Mean age was 67.8 ± 15.8 years; 137/239 (57.3%) patients were males, and 176 (73.6%) had at least one comorbidity. More than half of patients (55.3%) suffered from hypertension. The length of stay in hospital was 16.5 ± 9.9 days and mortality rate of 12.55%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, predictors of mortality of COVID-19 patients included age (OR, 1.09; CI, 1.04-1.15), Chronic Kidney Disease (OR, 4.04; CI, 1.38-11.85), and need of High Flow Oxygen therapy (OR, 18.23; CI, 5.06-65.64). Conclusions: Patients who died in the hospital had shorted length of stay than that of the surviving patients. Older age, pre-existent chronic renal disease and need of supplemental oxygen represented independent predictors of mortality in patients hospitalized in non-Intensive Care Unit with COVID-19. The determination of these factors allows retrospectively a greater understanding of the disease also in comparison with the successive epidemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Risk Factors , Oxygen , Intensive Care Units
3.
Respiration ; 102(6): 426-438, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to compare characteristics and outcomes in patients with acute respiratory failure related to COVID-19 during first, second, and third waves. METHODS: We included consecutive adults admitted to the intensive care unit between March 2020 and July 2021. We compared three groups defined by the epidemic intake phase: waves 1 (W1), 2 (W2), and 3 (W3). RESULTS: We included 289 patients. Two hundred and eight (72%) patients were men with a median age of 63 years (IQR: 54-72), of whom 68 (23.6%) died in hospital. High-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) was inversely associated with the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) in multivariate analysis (p = 0.003) but not dexamethasone (p = 0.25). The day-90 mortality rate did not vary from W1 (27.4%) to W2 (23.9%) and W3 (22%), p = 0.67. By multivariate analysis, older age (odds ratio [OR]: 0.94/year, p < 0.001), immunodeficiency (OR: 0.33, p = 0.04), acute kidney injury (OR: 0.26, p < 0.001), and invasive MV (OR: 0.13, p < 0.001) were inversely associated with higher day-90 survival as opposed to the use of intermediate heparin thromboprophylaxis dose (OR: 3.21, p = 0.006). HFNO use and dexamethasone were not associated with higher day-90 survival (p = 0.24 and p = 0.56, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19, survival did not change between first, second, and third waves while the use of invasive MV decreased. HFNO or intravenous steroids were not associated with better outcomes, whereas the use of intermediate dose of heparin for thromboprophylaxis was associated with higher day-90 survival. Larger multicentric studies are needed to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Venous Thromboembolism , Male , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants , Critical Illness , Heparin/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/chemically induced
4.
Emerg Med J ; 40(6): 394-395, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244549

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , England , Oxygen
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(5)2023 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242764

ABSTRACT

Background: Colchicine has been proposed as a cytokine storm-blocking agent for COVID-19 due to its efficacy as an anti-inflammatory drug. The findings of the studies were contentious on the role of colchicine in preventing deterioration in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of colchicine in COVID-19-hospitalized patients. Design: A retrospective observational cohort study was carried out at three major isolation hospitals in Alexandria (Egypt), covering multiple centers. In addition, a systematic review was conducted by searching six different databases for published studies on the utilization of colchicine in patients with COVID-19 until March 2023. The primary outcome measure was to determine whether colchicine could decrease the number of days that the patient needed supplemental oxygen. The secondary outcomes were to evaluate whether colchicine could reduce the number of hospitalization days and mortality rate in these patients. Results: Out of 515 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 411 were included in the survival analysis. After adjusting for the patients' characteristics, patients not receiving colchicine had a shorter length of stay (median: 7.0 vs. 6.0 days) and fewer days of supplemental oxygen treatment (median: 6.0 vs. 5.0 days), p < 0.05, but there was no significant difference in mortality rate. In a subgroup analysis based on oxygen equipment at admission, patients admitted on nasal cannula/face masks who did not receive colchicine had a shorter duration on oxygen supply than those who did [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.76 (CI 0.59-0.97)]. Using cox-regression analysis, clarithromycin compared to azithromycin in colchicine-treated patients was associated with a higher risk of longer duration on oxygen supply [HR = 1.77 (CI 1.04-2.99)]. Furthermore, we summarized 36 published colchicine studies, including 114,878 COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: COVID-19-hospitalized patients who were given colchicine had poorer outcomes in terms of the duration of supplemental oxygen use and the length of their hospital stay. Therefore, based on these findings, the use of colchicine is not recommended for COVID-19-hospitalized adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Oxygen Saturation , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Observational Studies as Topic
6.
J Clin Anesth ; 88: 111126, 2023 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241322

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Investigate a low-cost, nasopharyngeal apnoeic oxygenation technique, establish its efficacy, and compare it to preoxygenation only in an obese population. The study's hypothesis was that nasopharyngeal apnoeic oxygenation at 18 l.min-1 would significantly prolong safe apnoea time compared to preoxygenation alone. DESIGN: Randomised controlled study. SETTING: Theatre complex of a resource constrained hospital. PATIENTS: 30 adult, obese (BMI ≥ 35 kg.m-2) patients presenting for elective surgery. Patients with limiting cardio-respiratory disease, suspected difficult airway, risk of aspiration, and that were pregnant, were excluded. Patients were allocated by block randomisation in a 1:2 ratio to a preoxygenation-only (No-AO) and an intervention group (NPA-O2). INTERVENTIONS: All patients were preoxygenated to an Et-O2 > 80%, followed by a standardised induction. The intervention group received oxygen at 18 l.min-1 via the nasopharyngeal catheter intervention. The desaturation process was documented until an SpO2 of 92% or 600 s was reached. MEASUREMENTS: Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. The primary outcome was safe apnoea time, defined as the time taken to desaturate to an SpO2 of 92%. Secondary outcomes were rate of carbon dioxide accumulation and factors affecting the risk of desaturation. MAIN RESULTS: The study was conducted in a morbidly obese population (NoAO = 41,1 kg.m-2; NPA-O2 = 42,5 kg.m-2). The risk of desaturation was signifantly lower in the intervention group (Hazzard Ratio = 0,072, 95% CI[0,019-0,283]) (Log-Rank test, p < 0.001). The median safe apnoea time was significantly longer in the intervention group (NoAO = 262 s [IQR 190-316]; NPA-O2 = 600 s [IQR 600-600]) (Mann-Whitney-U test, p < 0.001). The mean rate of CO2 accumalation was significantly slower in the intervention group (NoAO = 0,47 ± 0,14 kPa.min-1; NPA-O2 = 0,3 ± 0,09 kPa.min-1) (t-test, p = 0.003). There were no statistically significant risk factors associated with an increased risk of desaturation found. CONCLUSIONS: Nasopharyngeal apnoeic oxygenation at 18 l/min prolongs safe apnoea time, compared to preoxygenation alone, and reduces the risk of desaturation in morbidly obese patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: PACTR202202665252087; WC/202004/007.


Subject(s)
Apnea , Obesity, Morbid , Adult , Humans , Apnea/etiology , Apnea/therapy , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Respiration, Artificial , Oxygen , Nasopharynx , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects
7.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e070489, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated remdesivir's clinical use to provide direct evidence of effectiveness for a low-middle income Asian setting. DESIGN: A one-to-one propensity score matching retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A tertiary hospital with COVID-19 treatment facilities in Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 310 patients in standard of care (SoC) group were matched with 310 patients in SoC+remdesivir (SoC+R) group. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was time to critical progression, defined as all-cause mortality or critical illness. The secondary outcomes were length of oxygen therapy/ventilation and need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Outcome reports were presented as HR, OR or effect difference with 95% CI. RESULTS: Patients receiving remdesivir had a lower risk for mortality or critical illness (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96, p=0.030). Remdesivir was not associated with a shorter length of oxygen therapy/ventilation (effect difference -0.17 days, 95% CI -1.29 to 0.96, p=0.774). The need for invasive mechanical ventilation was lower in SoC+R group (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.86, p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: This study's results showing remdesivir's benefits in non-critical patients with COVID-19 may be extrapolated to other similar low-middle income countries, allowing more regimens for limited resource areas and reducing poor outcomes and equity gap worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Critical Illness , Retrospective Studies , Oxygen , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 69(5): e20220917, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240543

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the clinical-epidemiological profile, possible risk predictors, and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to the ward of a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil. Specifically, we describe the demographic characteristics, comorbidities, baseline laboratory findings, clinical course, and survival of these patients. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective cohort study, performed from January to March 2022, on medical records of patients hospitalized between April 2020 and December 2021 in the coronavirus disease 2019 ward of a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil. RESULTS: Data from 502 hospitalized patients were analyzed, of which 60.2% were male, with a median age of 56 years and 31.7% were over 65 years old. The main symptoms presented were dyspnea/respiratory discomfort (69.9%) and cough (63.1%). The most common comorbidities were obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. A proportion of 55.8% of 493 patients had PaO2/FiO2<300 mmHg in the first examination performed after admission and 46.0% had a neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio>6.8. Oxygen therapy by Venturi mask or mask with reservoir was used in 34.7% of the patients, and non-invasive ventilation was used in 10.0% of the patients. The majority of the patients (98.4%) used corticosteroids, and the outcome of 82.5% of the hospitalized patients was home discharge. CONCLUSION: After analyzing the clinical and epidemiological profile, it can be concluded that age greater than 65 years and pulmonary involvement >50% are predictors of a worse prognosis for coronavirus disease 2019, as is the need for high-flow oxygen therapy. Corticotherapy, however, proved to be beneficial in the treatment of the disease.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Retrospective Studies , Blood Gas Analysis , Oxygen
9.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1185716, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232537

ABSTRACT

Background: Tocilizumab and anakinra are anti-interleukin drugs to treat severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) refractory to corticosteroids. However, no studies compared the efficacy of tocilizumab versus anakinra to guide the choice of the therapy in clinical practice. We aimed to compare the outcomes of COVID-19 patients treated with tocilizumab or anakinra. Methods: Our retrospective study was conducted in three French university hospitals between February 2021 and February 2022 and included all the consecutive hospitalized patients with a laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection assessed by RT-PCR who were treated with tocilizumab or anakinra. A propensity score matching was performed to minimize confounding effects due to the non-random allocation. Results: Among 235 patients (mean age, 72 years; 60.9% of male patients), the 28-day mortality (29.4% vs. 31.2%, p = 0.76), the in-hospital mortality (31.7% vs. 33.0%, p = 0.83), the high-flow oxygen requirement (17.5% vs. 18.3%, p = 0.86), the intensive care unit admission rate (30.8% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.30), and the mechanical ventilation rate (15.4% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.50) were similar in patients receiving tocilizumab and those receiving anakinra. After propensity score matching, the 28-day mortality (29.1% vs. 30.4%, p = 1) and the rate of high-flow oxygen requirement (10.1% vs. 21.5%, p = 0.081) did not differ between patients receiving tocilizumab or anakinra. Secondary infection rates were similar between the tocilizumab and anakinra groups (6.3% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.44). Conclusion: Our study showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles of tocilizumab and anakinra to treat severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Oxygen
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231880

ABSTRACT

Elucidation of the redox pathways in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) might aid in the treatment and management of the disease. However, the roles of individual reactive oxygen species (ROS) and individual reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in COVID-19 severity have not been studied to date. The main objective of this research was to assess the levels of individual ROS and RNS in the sera of COVID-19 patients. The roles of individual ROS and RNS in COVID-19 severity and their usefulness as potential disease severity biomarkers were also clarified for the first time. The current case-control study enrolled 110 COVID-19-positive patients and 50 healthy controls of both genders. The serum levels of three individual RNS (nitric oxide (NO•), nitrogen dioxide (ONO-), and peroxynitrite (ONOO-)) and four ROS (superoxide anion (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (•OH), singlet oxygen (1O2), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) were measured. All subjects underwent thorough clinical and routine laboratory evaluations. The main biochemical markers for disease severity were measured and correlated with the ROS and RNS levels, and they included tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The results indicated that the serum levels of individual ROS and RNS were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than in healthy subjects. The correlations between the serum levels of ROS and RNS and the biochemical markers ranged from moderate to very strongly positive. Moreover, significantly elevated serum levels of ROS and RNS were observed in intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with non-ICU patients. Thus, ROS and RNS concentrations in serum can be used as biomarkers to track the prognosis of COVID-19. This investigation demonstrated that oxidative and nitrative stress play a role in the etiology of COVID-19 and contribute to disease severity; thus, ROS and RNS are probable innovative targets in COVID-19 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxygen , Humans , Female , Male , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Reactive Nitrogen Species/metabolism , Nitric Oxide , Biomarkers , Patient Acuity
11.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 187: 104039, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328186

ABSTRACT

Erythrocytes are the most abundant type of cells in the blood and have a relatively simple structure when mature; they have a long life-span in the circulatory system. The primary function of erythrocytes is as oxygen carriers; however, they also play an important role in the immune system. Erythrocytes recognize and adhere to antigens and promote phagocytosis. The abnormal morphology and function of erythrocytes are also involved in the pathological processes of some diseases. Owing to the large number and immune properties of erythrocytes, their immune functions should not be ignored. Currently, research on immunity is focused on immune cells other than erythrocytes. However, research on the immune function of erythrocytes and the development of erythrocyte-mediated applications is of great significance. Therefore, we aimed to review the relevant literature and summarize the immune functions of erythrocytes.


Subject(s)
Erythrocytes , Immune System , Humans , Phagocytosis , Oxygen
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 207(9): 1126-1133, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327780

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 crisis was characterized by a massive need for respiratory support, which has unfortunately not been met globally. This situation mimicked those which gave rise to critical care in the past. Since the polio epidemic in the 50's, the technological evolution of respiratory support has enabled health professionals to save the lives of critically-ill patients worldwide every year. However, much of the current innovation work has turned around developing sophisticated, complex, and high-cost standards and approaches whose resilience is still questionable upon facing constrained environments or contexts, as seen in resuscitation work outside intensive care units, during pandemics, or in low-income countries. Ventilatory support is an essential life-saving tool for patients with respiratory distress. It requires an oxygen source combined to a ventilatory assistance device, an adequate monitoring system, and properly trained caregivers to operate it. Each of these elements can be subject to critical constraints, which we can no longer ignore. The innovation process should incorporate them as a prima materia, whilst focusing on the core need of the field using the concept of frugal innovation. Having a universal access to oxygen and respiratory support, irrespective of the context and constraints, necessitates: i) developing cost-effective, energy-efficient, and maintenance-free oxygen generation devices; ii) improving the design of non-invasive respiratory devices (for example, with oxygen saving properties); iii) conceiving fully frugal ventilators and universal monitoring systems; iv) broadening ventilation expertise by developing end-user training programs in ventilator assistance. The frugal innovation approach may give rise to a more resilient and inclusive critical care system. This paradigm shift is essential for the current and future challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen
13.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1085610, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323111

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and particles (EPs) represent reliable biomarkers for disease detection. Their role in the inflammatory microenvironment of severe COVID-19 patients is not well determined. Here, we characterized the immunophenotype, the lipidomic cargo and the functional activity of circulating EPs from severe COVID-19 patients (Co-19-EPs) and healthy controls (HC-EPs) correlating the data with the clinical parameters including the partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) and the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score. Methods: Peripheral blood (PB) was collected from COVID-19 patients (n=10) and HC (n=10). EPs were purified from platelet-poor plasma by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and ultrafiltration. Plasma cytokines and EPs were characterized by multiplex bead-based assay. Quantitative lipidomic profiling of EPs was performed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry combined with quadrupole time-of-flight (LC/MS Q-TOF). Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) were characterized by flow cytometry after co-cultures with HC-EPs or Co-19-EPs. Results: We observed that EPs from severe COVID-19 patients: 1) display an altered surface signature as assessed by multiplex protein analysis; 2) are characterized by distinct lipidomic profiling; 3) show correlations between lipidomic profiling and disease aggressiveness scores; 4) fail to dampen type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) cytokine secretion. As a consequence, ILC2 from severe COVID-19 patients show a more activated phenotype due to the presence of Co-19-EPs. Discussion: In summary, these data highlight that abnormal circulating EPs promote ILC2-driven inflammatory signals in severe COVID-19 patients and support further exploration to unravel the role of EPs (and EVs) in COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes , Cytokines , Oxygen
14.
J Neurol ; 270(7): 3303-3314, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321393

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Systemic hypoxia occurs in COVID-19 infection; however, it is unknown if cerebral hypoxia occurs in convalescent individuals. We have evidence from other conditions associated with central nervous system inflammation that hypoxia may occur in the brain. If so, hypoxia could reduce the quality of life and brain function. This study was undertaken to assess if brain hypoxia occurs in individuals after recovery from acute COVID-19 infection and if this hypoxia is associated with neurocognitive impairment and reduced quality of life. METHODS: Using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (fdNIRS), we measured cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) (a measure of hypoxia) in participants who had contracted COVID-19 at least 8 weeks prior to the study visit and healthy controls. We also conducted neuropsychological assessments and health-related quality of life assessments, fatigue, and depression. RESULTS: Fifty-six percent of the post-COVID-19 participants self-reported having persistent symptoms (from a list of 18), with the most reported symptom being fatigue and brain fog. There was a gradation in the decrease of oxyhemoglobin between controls, and normoxic and hypoxic post-COVID-19 groups (31.7 ± 8.3 µM, 27.8 ± 7.0 µM and 21.1 ± 7.2 µM, respectively, p = 0.028, p = 0.005, and p = 0.081). We detected that 24% of convalescent individuals' post-COVID-19 infection had reduced StO2 in the brain and that this relates to reduced neurological function and quality of life. INTERPRETATION: We believe that the hypoxia reported here will have health consequences for these individuals, and this is reflected in the correlation of hypoxia with greater symptomology. With the fdNIRS technology, combined with neuropsychological assessment, we may be able to identify individuals at risk of hypoxia-related symptomology and target individuals that are likely to respond to treatments aimed at improving cerebral oxygenation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypoxia, Brain , Humans , Oxygen , Quality of Life , COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia, Brain/complications , Hypoxia, Brain/diagnostic imaging , Hypoxia , Brain/diagnostic imaging
15.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28786, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323697

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine reduces mortality in patients with moderate or severe COVID-19 disease requiring oxygen therapy. A retrospective cohort study, with data from 148 hospitals in both Spain (111 hospitals) and Argentina (37 hospitals), was conducted. We evaluated hospitalized patients for COVID-19 older than 18 years with oxygen requirements. Vaccine protection against death was assessed through a multivariable logistic regression and propensity score matching. We also performed a subgroup analysis according to vaccine type. The adjusted model was used to determine the population attributable risk. Between January 2020 and May 2022, we evaluated 21,479 COVID-19 hospitalized patients with oxygen requirements. Of these, 338 (1.5%) patients received a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and 379 (1.8%) were fully vaccinated. In vaccinated patients, mortality was 20.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.9-24), compared to 19.5% (95% CI: 19-20) in unvaccinated patients, resulting in a crude odds ratio (OR) of 1.07 (95% CI: 0.89-1.29; p = 0.41). However, after considering the multiple comorbidities in the vaccinated group, the adjusted OR was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.56-0.95; p = 0.02) with a population attributable risk reduction of 4.3% (95% CI: 1-5). The higher risk reduction for mortality was with messenger RNA (mRNA) BNT162b2 (Pfizer) (OR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.23-0.59; p < 0.01), ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) (OR 0.42; 95% CI: 0.20-0.86; p = 0.02), and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) (OR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.41-1.12; p = 0.13), and lower with Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik) (OR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.6-1.45; p = 0.76). COVID-19 vaccines significantly reduce the probability of death in patients suffering from a moderate or severe disease (oxygen therapy).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Oxygen , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger
16.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 71(3): 11-12, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Only corticosteroids have confirmed mortality benefits in coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Rational use of costlier drugs with questionable benefits poses a great concern to hospital pharmacies in low middle-income countriesAim: The present study aimed to assess the rational utilization of hospital supply tocilizumab and understand its clinical benefits in hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia patientsMethods: The Hospital Tocilizumab Committee (HTC) decision support system framework was developed to make patients eligible or ineligible for tocilizumab procurement from the hospital pharmacy. A total of 33 consecutive patients receiving tocilizumab were analyzed retrospectively in the 3-month study period. The records of the inpatient stay of the patients were observed for pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate (RR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) laboratory work-up, hospital stay duration, and mortality benefit, if any. Patients were analyzed as "died," "survived," and "composite" subgroupsResults: The study observed death as a final outcome in 48% of patients. The study observed a significant effect of tocilizumab on C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.02) and ferritin (p = 0.018) levels on a 10-day follow-up when all patients were analyzed together. Rising and declining trends of RR and FiO2 were observed among the "died" (RR, p = 0.02; FiO2, p = 0.03) and survived (RR, p = 0.03; FiO2, p = 0.05) subgroups. The second dose of tocilizumab was received by 88% of survivors as against 50% of patients who died (p = 0.04)Conclusion: Hospital Tocilizumab Committee (HTC) was successfully established to continue the assessment of the costlier drug with uncertain treatment benefits. A repeat dose of tocilizumab may provide a mortality benefit in Asian Indians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hospitals , Oxygen
17.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 23(1): 156, 2023 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nasal high flow (NHF) may reduce hypoxia and hypercapnia during an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedure under sedation. The authors tested a hypothesis that NHF with room air during ERCP may prevent intraoperative hypercapnia and hypoxemia. METHODS: In the prospective, open-label, single-center, clinical trial, 75 patients undergoing ERCP performed with moderate sedation were randomized to receive NHF with room air (40 to 60 L/min, n = 37) or low-flow O2 via a nasal cannula (1 to 2 L/min, n = 38) during the procedure. Transcutaneous CO2, peripheral arterial O2 saturation, a dose of administered sedative and analgesics were measured. RESULTS: The primary outcome was the incidence of marked hypercapnia during an ERCP procedure under sedation observed in 1 patient (2.7%) in the NHF group and in 7 patients (18.4%) in the LFO group; statistical significance was found in the risk difference (-15.7%, 95% CI -29.1 - -2.4, p = 0.021) but not in the risk ratio (0.15, 95% CI 0.02 - 1.13, p = 0.066). In secondary outcome analysis, the mean time-weighted total PtcCO2 was 47.2 mmHg in the NHF group and 48.2 mmHg in the LFO group, with no significant difference (-0.97, 95% CI -3.35 - 1.41, p = 0.421). The duration of hypercapnia did not differ markedly between the two groups either [median (range) in the NHF group: 7 (0 - 99); median (range) in the LFO group: 14.5 (0 - 206); p = 0.313] and the occurrence of hypoxemia during an ERCP procedure under sedation was observed in 3 patients (8.1%) in the NHF group and 2 patients (5.3%) in the LFO group, with no significant difference (p = 0.674). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory support by NHF with room air did not reduce marked hypercapnia during ERCP under sedation relative to LFO. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of hypoxemia between the groups that may indicate an improvement of gas exchanges by NHF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: jRCTs072190021 . The full date of first registration on jRCT: August 26, 2019.


Subject(s)
Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Conscious Sedation , Humans , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/adverse effects , Hypercapnia/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/prevention & control , Oxygen
18.
West J Emerg Med ; 24(3): 511-521, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325938

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a respiratory support measure for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients that has been increasingly used in the emergency department (ED). Although the respiratory rate oxygenation (ROX) index can predict HFNC success, its utility in emergency COVID-19 patients has not been well-established. Also, no studies have compared it to its simpler component, the oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2 [SF]) ratio, or its modified version incorporating heart rate. Therefore, we aimed to compare the utility of the SF ratio, the ROX index (SF ratio/respiratory rate), and the modified ROX index (ROX index/heart rate) in predicting HFNC success in emergency COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted this multicenter retrospective study at five EDs in Thailand between January-December 2021. Adult patients with COVID-19 treated with HFNC in the ED were included. The three study parameters were recorded at 0 and 2 hours. The primary outcome was HFNC success, defined as no requirement of mechanical ventilation at HFNC termination. RESULTS: A total of 173 patients were recruited; 55 (31.8%) had successful treatment. The two-hour SF ratio yielded the highest discrimination capacity (AUROC 0.651, 95% CI 0.558-0.744), followed by two-hour ROX and modified ROX indices (AUROC 0.612 and 0.606, respectively). The two-hour SF ratio also had the best calibration and overall model performance. At its optimal cut-point of 128.19, it gave a balanced sensitivity (65.3%) and specificity (61.8%). The two-hour SF≥128.19 was also significantly and independently associated with HFNC failure (adjusted odds ratio 0.29, 95% CI 0.13-0.65; P=0.003). CONCLUSION: The SF ratio predicted HFNC success better than the ROX and modified ROX indices in ED patients with COVID-19. With its simplicity and efficiency, it may be the appropriate tool to guide management and ED disposition for COVID-19 patients receiving HFNC in the ED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Humans , Oxygen , Cannula , Oxygen Saturation , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Rate , COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
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Int J Artif Organs ; 46(6): 381-383, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324100

ABSTRACT

When COVID-19 ARDS abolishes pulmonary function, VV-ECMO can provide gas exchange. If oxygenation remains insufficient despite maximal VV-ECMO support, the addition of esmolol has been proposed. Conflict exists, however, as to the oxygenation level which should trigger beta-blocker initiation. We evaluated the effect of esmolol therapy on oxygenation and oxygen delivery in patients with negligible native lung function and various degrees of hypoxemia despite maximal VV-ECMO support. We found that, in COVID-19 patients with negligible pulmonary gas exchange, the generalized use of esmolol administration to raise arterial oxygenation by slowing heart rate and thereby match native cardiac output to maximal attainable VV ECMO flows actually reduces systemic oxygen delivery in many cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/etiology , Oxygen
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