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1.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 35 Suppl 3: 10-15, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091722

ABSTRACT

The use of antiviral drugs represents an important progress in the therapeutic management of COVID-19, leading to a substantial reduction of SARS-CoV-2-related complications and mortality. In immunocompetent host, peak viral replication occurs around the symptom's onset, and it prolongs for 5 to 7 days that is the window of opportunity for giving an antiviral. Accordingly, early and rapid diagnostic of the infection in the outpatient clinic is essential as well as the availability of oral agents that can be easily prescribe. Remdesivir has demonstrated its efficacy in hospitalized patients requiring oxygen support and in mild/moderate cases to avoid the hospitalization, however, the intravenous administration limits its use among outpatients. Molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir are potent oral antiviral agents. In the present review we discuss the potential targets against SARS-CoV-2, and an overview of the main characteristics and clinical results with the available antiviral agents for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Oxygen
2.
Ter Arkh ; 94(5): 675-682, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies is an effective method of etiotropic therapy for SARS-CoV-2 in patients of high-risk groups of severe COVID-19. Regdanvimab is a single-component monoclonal antibodies immunoglobulin G1, whose mechanism of action is aimed at binding SARS-CoV-2 virus at the RBD site of the spike protein S1 domain. In the Russian Federation, regdanvimab is approved for emergency administration in COVID-19 for adult patients not requiring respiratory therapy who are at high risk of developing a severe course of the disease. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of therapy with regdanvimab in patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 in a short-term hospital unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Virus-neutralizing therapy with regdanvimab was performed at the short-term hospital unit of the Moscow City Clinic. An open retrospective observational single-center study included 92 adult patients with mild/moderate coronavirus infection. All patients had comorbid chronic diseases and belonged to the high-risk group for the development of a severe COVID-19. INCLUSION CRITERIA: age 18 to 75 years; presence of a verified diagnosis of COVID-19 of mild/moderate COVID-19, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed; one or more chronic diseases; first 7 days from the onset of the first symptoms of COVID-19 (including day 7). EXCLUSION CRITERIA: need for oxygen support. Clinical efficacy was assessed according to the World Health Organization Сlinical Progression Scale and supplemented with laboratory markers at baseline and in dynamics, as well as with monitoring of virus elimination by PCR. STATISTICS: Calculations were performed using the statistical computing environment R 4.1.3 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Austria). For quantitative indices the median (1; 3 quartiles) was indicated. For binomial signs we calculated 95% confidence intervals according to Wilson's method. Time interval analysis was performed according to the KaplanMeier method. The significance level was determined at p0.05. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the severity of clinical manifestations according to the World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale was noted by patients by day 4 after regdanvimab administration. All 92 patients in the cohort were discharged from the hospital l on average on day 5 after regdanvimab administration and on day 9 of the disease. On day 4 after drug administration 82% of patients was being PCR negative. No adverse events related to the administration of regdanvimab were reported during the study. CONCLUSION: In real clinical practice, the efficacy and safety of regdanvimab in patients at high risk of severe COVID-19 was confirmed once again, with a positive clinical result observed in a mixed cohort by the causative agent omicron and delta strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Time Factors , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Oxygen
3.
Acta Biomed ; 93(5): e2022256, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Respiratory failure in SARS-CoV-2 patients is characterized by the presence of hypoxemia and hypocapnia without relevant dyspnea. To date, the use of respiratory parameters other than PaO2/FiO2 ratio to stratify the risk of worsening of these patients has not been sufficiently studied.  Aim of this work was to evaluate whether the ratio between partial pressure levels of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) measured at emergency department (ED) admission is predictive of the clinical course of patients suffering from SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 236 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia evaluated at the ED of the Perugia Hospital. The end-points were: in-hospital mortality, need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and length of in-hospital stay (LOS). Clinical, blood gas and laboratory data were collected at ED admission. RESULTS: Of the 236 patients 157 were male, the mean age was 64 ± 16. Thirtythree patients (14%) needed IMV, 49 died (21%). In the univariate analysis, the PaCO2/FiO2 ratio was inversely associated with the need for IMV (p <0.001), mortality (p <0.001) and LOS (p = 0.005). At the multivariate analysis the PaCO2/FiO2 ratio was found to be predictive of the need for IMV, independently from age, gender, number of comorbidities, neutrophils, lymphocytes, glomerular filtrate, d-dimer, LDH and CRP. CONCLUSIONS: the PaCO2/FiO2 ratio is predictive of the risk of respiratory failure worsening in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, independently from other several confounding factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Carbon Dioxide , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Oxygen
4.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 28(11): 1261-1271, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Final results for the primary endpoint of the COVID-19 Monoclonal antibody Efficacy Trial-Intent to Care Early (COMET-ICE) randomized controlled trial (NCT04545060) showed a 79% (P < 0.001) adjusted relative risk reduction in longer-than-24-hour hospitalization or death due to any cause in high-risk patients with COVID-19 receiving sotrovimab compared with placebo at Day 29. Given the substantial costs associated with COVID-19 hospitalizations, there is a need to quantify the economic impact of clinical trial outcomes to inform decisionmaking. OBJECTIVE: To compare longer-than-24-hour hospitalization costs (primary objective) and total health care costs (secondary objective) associated with COVID-19 care in the sotrovimab vs placebo group in the COMET-ICE trial. METHODS: This was a 2-step, retrospective, post hoc, within-trial economic analysis. Step 1 was a health care claims (MarketScan) database analysis to source unit cost data (2020 USD) from a US payer perspective for COVID-19 care-related resource use from April 1 through June 30, 2020, among adults diagnosed with COVID-19 at high risk of progression (similar to those enrolled in the COMET-ICE trial). Cost per day for an inpatient event stratified by the following maximum respiratory support levels was obtained: no respiratory support or oxygen therapy only, noninvasive ventilation, and invasive mechanical ventilation. Cost per event was obtained for outpatient resource use. Step 2 was the within-trial economic analysis, in which unit costs from Step 1 were applied to the resource use (based on maximum respiratory support and length of stay for inpatient events and number of visits for outpatient events) observed during the first 29 days post-randomization in COMET-ICE. RESULTS: A total of 1,057 patients from the intent-to-treat COMET-ICE population were included (sotrovimab, n = 528; placebo, n = 529). Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were well balanced between groups. During 29 days of follow-up, mean (SD) costs for the primary endpoint, longer-than-24-hour hospitalization, were $2,827 ($15,545) in the placebo group and $485 ($5,049) in the sotrovimab group (difference, -$2,342; P < 0.0001). Total health care costs were $2,850 ($15,546) in the placebo group and $525 ($5,070) in the sotrovimab group (difference, -$2,325; P = 0.0021). CONCLUSIONS: This post hoc within-trial economic analysis of COMET-ICE data shows that early treatment with sotrovimab vs placebo may be associated with lower longer-than-24-hour hospitalization costs and total health care costs for COVID-19 care in high-risk patients with COVID-19. These findings may be important in informing decision-making regarding use of sotrovimab in clinical practice. DISCLOSURES: Dr Lokhandwala and Ms Farrelly are employees of Xcenda LLC; Xcenda received funding from GSK to support the conduct of this study and did not receive funding for manuscript development. Mr Acharya and Dr Coutinho were employees of Xcenda LLC during the conduct of the study. Mr Bell and Dr Svedsater are employees of, and hold stocks/shares in, GSK. This study was funded by GSK (study 216974) and Vir Biotechnology, Inc. The study sponsors were involved in the study design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing of the report; and the decision to submit the report for publication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Oxygen
5.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 328, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Steroids have been shown to reduce inflammation, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and lung edema. Based on evidence from clinical trials, steroids are widely used in severe COVID-19. However, the effects of steroids on pulmonary gas volume and blood volume in this group of patients are unexplored. OBJECTIVE: Profiting by dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), we investigated the relationship between the use of steroids in COVID-19 and distribution of blood volume as an index of impaired HPV. We also investigated whether the use of steroids influences lung weight, as index of lung edema, and how it affects gas distribution. METHODS: Severe COVID-19 patients included in a single-center prospective observational study at the intensive care unit at Uppsala University Hospital who had undergone DECT were enrolled in the current study. Patients' cohort was divided into two groups depending on the administration of steroids. From each patient's DECT, 20 gas volume maps and the corresponding 20 blood volume maps, evenly distributed along the cranial-caudal axis, were analyzed. As a proxy for HPV, pulmonary blood volume distribution was analyzed in both the whole lung and the hypoinflated areas. Total lung weight, index of lung edema, was estimated. RESULTS: Sixty patients were analyzed, whereof 43 received steroids. Patients not exposed to steroids showed a more extensive non-perfused area (19% vs 13%, p < 0.01) and less homogeneous pulmonary blood volume of hypoinflated areas (kurtosis: 1.91 vs 2.69, p < 0.01), suggesting a preserved HPV compared to patients treated with steroids. Moreover, patients exposed to steroids showed a significantly lower lung weight (953 gr vs 1140 gr, p = 0.01). A reduction in alveolar-arterial difference of oxygen followed the treatment with steroids (322 ± 106 mmHg at admission vs 267 ± 99 mmHg at DECT, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The use of steroids might cause impaired HPV and might reduce lung edema in severe COVID-19. This is consistent with previous findings in other diseases. Moreover, a reduced lung weight, as index of decreased lung edema, and a more homogeneous distribution of gas within the lung were shown in patients treated with steroids. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials ID: NCT04316884, Registered March 13, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Lung , Hypoxia , Oxygen , Steroids , Edema
6.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 660-666, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087890

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the clinical problem and noninvasive treatments of hypoxemia in critically-ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and describe recent advances in evidence supporting bedside decision making. RECENT FINDINGS: High-flow nasal oxygen and noninvasive ventilation, along with awake prone positioning are potentially helpful therapies for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. High-flow nasal oxygen therapy has been widely implemented as a form of oxygen support supported by prepandemic randomized controlled trials showing possible benefit over noninvasive ventilation. Given the sheer volume of patients, noninvasive ventilation was often required, and based on a well conducted randomized controlled trial there was a developing role for helmet-interface noninvasive. Coupled with noninvasive supports, the use of awake prone positioning demonstrated physiological benefits, but randomized controlled trial data did not demonstrate clear outcome superiority. SUMMARY: The use of noninvasive oxygen strategies and our understanding of the proposed mechanisms are evolving. Variability in patient severity and physiology may dictate a personalized approach to care. High-flow nasal oxygen may be paired with awake and spontaneously breathing prone-positioning to optimize oxygen and lung mechanics but requires further insight before widely applying to clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen , Critical Care , Lung , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2238871, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084948

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data on the association of COVID-19 vaccination with intensive care unit (ICU) admission and outcomes of patients with SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia are scarce. Objective: To evaluate whether COVID-19 vaccination is associated with preventing ICU admission for COVID-19 pneumonia and to compare baseline characteristics and outcomes of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients admitted to an ICU. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study on regional data sets reports: (1) daily number of administered vaccines and (2) data of all consecutive patients admitted to an ICU in Lombardy, Italy, from August 1 to December 15, 2021 (Delta variant predominant). Vaccinated patients received either mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) or adenoviral vector vaccines (ChAdOx1-S or Ad26.COV2). Incident rate ratios (IRRs) were computed from August 1, 2021, to January 31, 2022; ICU and baseline characteristics and outcomes of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients admitted to an ICU were analyzed from August 1 to December 15, 2021. Exposures: COVID-19 vaccination status (no vaccination, mRNA vaccine, adenoviral vector vaccine). Main Outcomes and Measures: The incidence IRR of ICU admission was evaluated, comparing vaccinated people with unvaccinated, adjusted for age and sex. The baseline characteristics at ICU admission of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were investigated. The association between vaccination status at ICU admission and mortality at ICU and hospital discharge were also studied, adjusting for possible confounders. Results: Among the 10 107 674 inhabitants of Lombardy, Italy, at the time of this study, the median [IQR] age was 48 [28-64] years and 5 154 914 (51.0%) were female. Of the 7 863 417 individuals who were vaccinated (median [IQR] age: 53 [33-68] years; 4 010 343 [51.4%] female), 6 251 417 (79.5%) received an mRNA vaccine, 550 439 (7.0%) received an adenoviral vector vaccine, and 1 061 561 (13.5%) received a mix of vaccines and 4 497 875 (57.2%) were boosted. Compared with unvaccinated people, IRR of individuals who received an mRNA vaccine within 120 days from the last dose was 0.03 (95% CI, 0.03-0.04; P < .001), whereas IRR of individuals who received an adenoviral vector vaccine after 120 days was 0.21 (95% CI, 0.19-0.24; P < .001). There were 553 patients admitted to an ICU for COVID-19 pneumonia during the study period: 139 patients (25.1%) were vaccinated and 414 (74.9%) were unvaccinated. Compared with unvaccinated patients, vaccinated patients were older (median [IQR]: 72 [66-76] vs 60 [51-69] years; P < .001), primarily male individuals (110 patients [79.1%] vs 252 patients [60.9%]; P < .001), with more comorbidities (median [IQR]: 2 [1-3] vs 0 [0-1] comorbidities; P < .001) and had higher ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) and fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) at ICU admission (median [IQR]: 138 [100-180] vs 120 [90-158] mm Hg; P = .007). Factors associated with ICU and hospital mortality were higher age, premorbid heart disease, lower Pao2/FiO2 at ICU admission, and female sex (this factor only for ICU mortality). ICU and hospital mortality were similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, mRNA and adenoviral vector vaccines were associated with significantly lower risk of ICU admission for COVID-19 pneumonia. ICU and hospital mortality were not associated with vaccinated status. These findings suggest a substantial reduction of the risk of developing COVID-19-related severe acute respiratory failure requiring ICU admission among vaccinated people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , BNT162 Vaccine , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Oxygen
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2238507, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084943

ABSTRACT

Importance: Patients from racially and ethnically minoritized populations, such as Black and Hispanic patients, may be less likely to receive evidence-based COVID-19 treatments than White patients, contributing to adverse clinical outcomes. Objective: To determine whether clinical treatments and outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were associated with race. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 130 Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) between March 1, 2020, and February 28, 2022, with a 60-day follow-up period until May 1, 2022. Participants included veterans hospitalized with COVID-19. Data were analyzed from May 6 to June 2, 2022. Exposures: Self-reported race. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical care processes (eg, intensive care unit [ICU] admission; organ support measures, including invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation; prone position therapy, and COVID-19-specific medical treatments) were quantified. Clinical outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, 60-day mortality, and 30-day readmissions. Outcomes were assessed with multivariable random effects logistic regression models to estimate the association of race with outcomes not attributable to known mediators, such as socioeconomic status and age, while adjusting for potential confounding between outcomes and mediators. Results: A total of 43 222 veterans (12 135 Black veterans [28.1%]; 31 087 White veterans [71.9%]; 40 717 [94.2%] men) with a median (IQR) age of 71 (62-77) years who were hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Controlling for site of treatment, Black patients were equally likely to be admitted to the ICU (4806 Black patients [39.6%] vs 13 427 White patients [43.2%]; within-center adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.02; P = .17). Two-thirds of patients treated with supplemental oxygen or noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation also received systemic steroids, but Black veterans were less likely to receive steroids (within-center aOR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; P = .004; between-center aOR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48-0.96; P = .03). Similarly, Black patients were less likely to receive remdesivir (within-center aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.95; P < .001; between-center aOR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.99; P = .02) or treatment with immunomodulatory drugs (within-center aOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67-0.87; P < .001). After adjusting for patient demographic characteristics, chronic health conditions, severity of acute illness, and receipt of COVID-19-specific treatments, there was no association of Black race with hospital mortality (within-center aOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.86-1.10; P = .71) or 30-day readmission (within-center aOR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.04; P = .28). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that Black veterans hospitalized with COVID-19 were less likely to be treated with evidence-based COVID-19 treatments, including systemic steroids, remdesivir, and immunomodulatory drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Male , Humans , Aged , Female , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Oxygen
9.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0273402, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of COVID-19 remains poorly understood. We aimed to estimate the contribution of intrapulmonary shunting and ventilation-to-perfusion (VA/Q) mismatch using a mathematical model to construct oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curves (ODCs). METHODS: ODCs were constructed using transcutaneous pulse oximetry at two different fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2). 199 patients were included from two large district general hospitals in the South East of England from 1st to 14th January 2021. The study was supported by the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Clinical Research Network. RESULTS: Overall mortality was 29%. Mean age was 68.2 years (SEM 1·2) with 46% female. Median shunt on admission was 17% (IQR 8-24.5); VA/Q was 0.61 (IQR 0.52-0.73). Shunt was 37.5% higher in deaths (median 22%, IQR 9-29) compared to survivors (16%, 8-21; p = 0.0088) and was a predictor of mortality (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07). Admission oxygen saturations were more strongly predictive of mortality (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87-0.96). There was no difference in VA/Q mismatch between deaths (0.60; IQR 0.50-0.73) and survivors (0.61; IQR 0.52-0.73; p = 0.63) and it was not predictive of mortality (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.18-2.52; p = 0.55). Shunt negatively correlated with admission oxygen saturation (R -0.533; p<0.0001) whereas VA/Q was not (R 0.1137; p = 0.12). INTERPRETATION: Shunt, not VA/Q mismatch, was associated with worsening hypoxia, though calculating shunt was not of prognostic value. This study adds to our understanding of the pathophysiology of hypoxaemia in COVID-19. Our inexpensive and reliable technique may provide further insights into the pathophysiology of hypoxia in other respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Humans , Female , Aged , Male , Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio/physiology , Hypoxia , Oximetry/methods , Oxygen/physiology
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e31077, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077960

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with (COVID-19 often result in mortality. Treatment outcomes among puerperant, when compared with non-pregnant women (NPW) with the same syndrome. Physiological changes underwent within the gestation period have a considerable impact on the immune system, respiratory system, cardiovascular function, and coagulation. Through this research, it was aimed to compare intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up and treatment results of postpartum-period patients with those of non-pregnant ones. During the first week of ICU, 23 puerperant COVID-19 patients with ARDS and 34 non-pregnant COVID-19 patients took part in the study. Age, height, and predictive body weight (PBW) at admission to the ICU were compared with the clinical parameters of disease severity, such as FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen), PaO2 (arterial oxygen partial pressure), Horowitz index (PaO2/FiO2), procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Respiration parameters were recorded a meta-vision back server. Demographic data, FiO2, PaO2, Horowitz index, PCT, CRP and respiration parameters values were similar in both groups. The duration of non-mechanical ventilation and number of patients were seen to be significantly greater among the puerperant group than control group (P; .04 and .002, respectively). The duration of mechanical ventilation was similar in both groups (P; .07), while the mortality rate was lower in the puerperant group (P; .004). The postpartum women with COVID-19 induced ARDS were observed to have better ICU follow-up results and lower mortality. However, it is considered that the present results need to be supported greater number of participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen , Postpartum Period , Procalcitonin , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
11.
Am J Nurs ; 122(11): 61-62, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077890

ABSTRACT

According to this study: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can improve cognitive function, psychiatric symptoms, pain, and fatigue in patients who have post-COVID-19 condition.The beneficial effect of the therapy can be attributed to increased brain perfusion and neuroplasticity in regions associated with cognitive and emotional roles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Mental Disorders , Humans , Oxygen , Cognition
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17339, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077115

ABSTRACT

The relationship between fluid management and the severity of illness, duration of treatment, and outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate whether weight change during hospitalization was associated with COVID-19 severity, length of hospital stay, and route of admission. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of fluid restriction management in patients with severe COVID-19. COVID-19 patients admitted to our hospital between July 2020 and October 2021 were analyzed. Patients were treated with standard drug therapy based on the Japanese guidelines and respiratory support according to the severity of the disease. Early enteral nutrition, defecation management, and anticoagulation therapy were also administered. Fluid restriction management was performed using furosemide and continuous renal replacement therapy as needed unless hemodynamic instability or hyperlactatemia was present. Patient background, route of admission (ambulance, A; transfer, T), weight at admission and discharge, the severity of illness (oxygen therapy, G1; mechanical ventilation, G2; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, G3), in-hospital mortality, and length of hospital stay were analyzed. There were 116 subjects: G1 (n = 48), G2 (n = 43), and G3 (n = 25), with ages (median [IQR]) of 58 (47-70), 65 (53-71.5), 56 (51-62) years, 40 (83.3%), 31 (72.1%), and 19 (76.0%) males, respectively. Hospital stays were 4.5 (2-7), 10 (7-16), and 18 (15-26) days, and the in-hospital mortality rates were 0 (0%), 7 (16.3%), and 8 (32%), respectively. Body mass index on admission was 26 (23.1-30.2), 27.1 (22.7-31.1), and 31.5 (27.1-33.1) kg/m2, and weight loss during admission was 1.1 (0-2.9), 4.6 (2.3-5.7), 9.2 (5.6-10.5) kg (P < 0.001, Jonckheere-Terpstra test. Weight loss in the severe group (G2 + G3) was 3.4 (0.5-5.8) kg [A, n = 12] and 5.6 (4.4-9) kg [T, n = 43] [P = 0.026, Mann-Whitney U test]. The lengths of hospital stay were 5 (2-7), 9 (7-15), and 18 (12-26) days [P < 0.001, Jonckheere-Terpstra test]. In our fluid restriction management, patients with severe COVID-19 had significant longer hospital length of stay, weight loss, especially those who were transferred to the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Furosemide , Humans , Male , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17458, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077114

ABSTRACT

An important element in the effective treatment of patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus during the pandemic is an effective early triage to determine patient allocation and in-patient therapy. This paper assesses the prognostic value of capillary blood gas tests in predicting extended hospitalisation and death due to COVID-19. This retrospective statistical research is based on a group of 200 patients, hospitalised from 15 October 2020 to 08 March 2021. The study utilised the treatment documentation of these patients hospitalised due to COVID-19 at the Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery Centre in Bystra (Southern Poland) during this period. The hospital has 50 beds with access to oxygen for COVID-19 patients and a five-bed intensive care unit. On the basis of the obtained results, conclusions were drawn that the need for early oxygen therapy with an oxygen mask and low pH values in capillary blood are significant risk factors for prolonging hospitalisation due to COVID-19. Age, the need for early oxygen mask therapy and low oxygen saturation are important risk factors for death from COVID-19. Capillary blood gas analysis is a simple and effective method of early in-patient segregation of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Oxygen
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2240037, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074864

ABSTRACT

Importance: With a large proportion of the US adult population vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, it is important to identify who remains at risk of severe infection despite vaccination. Objective: To characterize risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease in a vaccinated population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide, retrospective cohort study included US veterans who received a SARS-CoV-2 vaccination series and later developed laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and were treated at US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals. Data were collected from December 15, 2020, through February 28, 2022. Exposures: Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, immunocompromised status, and vaccination-related variables. Main Outcomes and Measures: Development of severe vs nonsevere SARS-CoV-2 infection. Severe disease was defined as hospitalization within 14 days of a positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test and either blood oxygen level of less than 94%, receipt of supplemental oxygen or dexamethasone, mechanical ventilation, or death within 28 days. Association between severe disease and exposures was estimated using logistic regression models. Results: Among 110 760 patients with infections following vaccination (97 614 [88.1%] men, mean [SD] age at vaccination, 60.8 [15.3] years; 26 953 [24.3%] Black, 11 259 [10.2%] Hispanic, and 71 665 [64.7%] White), 10 612 (9.6%) had severe COVID-19. The strongest association with risk of severe disease after vaccination was age, which increased among patients aged 50 years or older with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.42 (CI, 1.40-1.44) per 5-year increase in age, such that patients aged 80 years or older had an aOR of 16.58 (CI, 13.49-20.37) relative to patients aged 45 to 50 years. Immunocompromising conditions, including receipt of different classes of immunosuppressive medications (eg, leukocyte inhibitor: aOR, 2.80; 95% CI, 2.39-3.28) or cytotoxic chemotherapy (aOR, 2.71; CI, 2.27-3.24) prior to breakthrough infection, or leukemias or lymphomas (aOR, 1.87; CI, 1.61-2.17) and chronic conditions associated with end-organ disease, such as heart failure (aOR, 1.74; CI, 1.61-1.88), dementia (aOR, 2.01; CI, 1.83-2.20), and chronic kidney disease (aOR, 1.59; CI, 1.49-1.69), were also associated with increased risk. Receipt of an additional (ie, booster) dose of vaccine was associated with reduced odds of severe disease (aOR, 0.50; CI, 0.44-0.57). Conclusions and Relevance: In this nationwide, retrospective cohort of predominantly male US Veterans, we identified risk factors associated with severe disease despite vaccination. Findings could be used to inform outreach efforts for booster vaccinations and to inform clinical decision-making about patients most likely to benefit from preexposure prophylaxis and antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Humans , Adult , United States/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals, Veterans , Antiviral Agents , Dexamethasone , Oxygen
15.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(75): 381-386, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2073760

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the recent global health emergency making it crucial for rapid diagnosis and intervention. Computed tomography (CT) is important for screening, diagnosis and evaluating severity and disease progress. Objective To assess the CT changes in COVID patients and study its relationship with various factors. Method A retrospective study was conducted at Norvic International hospital from August 2020 to November 2020 among RT-PCR positive symptomatic COVID cases who had positive CT changes. CT imaging data were analyzed by radiology expertise. Statistical analysis was carried out with the help of SPSS 16. Result Out of 120 patients, 75% were males and mean age was 54.70±15.56 years. The mean CT severity score was 18.35±6.87. Pure ground glass opacities was seen in 74(61.7%), reticulations 89(74.2%) and crazy-paving pattern 28(23.3%). CT scans with bilateral 118(98.3%) and peripheral involvement 109(90.8%) in all five lobes. CT- severity score was positively correlated with oxygen and mechanical ventilation requirement (P-value < 0.05 and 0.011 respectively). Conclusion CT findings including pure ground glass opacities, reticulations, bilateral and peripheral involvement involving all five lobes were more frequent. Our data suggest that CT-severity score significantly correlates with oxygen and mechanical ventilation requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , Nepal , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
16.
West Afr J Med ; 39(10): 1007-1012, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2073026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel viral infection, now a pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with severe COVID-19 and poor glycaemic control is reportedly the link between these conditions. This study aimed to determine the association between DM and the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving 86 patients with COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary hospital in South-Western Nigeria. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were extracted from their medical records. Ethical approval was obtained and descriptive and inferential statistics computed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 16.1 years and 61.6% were males. Fever was noted in 67.4% of patients and, similarly, 67.4% of the patients had an SpO2<94% in ambient air when admitted. Thirty-six percent (36%) of the study patients had DM. Amongst patients with DM and those without DM, 72.2% and 62%, respectively, had severe or critical COVID-19 (p=0.323). Patients with DM were older than those without DM (65.8 years vs 57.3 years; p=0.015). The frequency of oxygen desaturation, respiratory failure, acute kidney injury (AKI) and multi-organ failure were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with DM (p=0.037, 0.043, 0.004 and 0.016, respectively). Mortality was higher in COVID-19 patients with DM but this was not statistically significant (p=0.214). The odds of a patient with diabetes and COVID-19 developing respiratory failure and acute kidney injury were 1.395 (95%CI 1.154-6.913) and 1.125 (95%CI 1.025-1.621), respectively. CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus was recorded in older patients with COVID-19 and associated with suboptimal oxygen saturation at presentation, respiratory failure, and acute kidney injury. There was no association found between DM and COVID-19 severity and mortality.


CONTEXTE ET OBJECTIFS: La maladie de coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) est une nouvelle infection virale, aujourd'hui pandémique, causée par le coronavirus-2 du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SARS-CoV-2). Le diabète sucré (DM) a été associé à une COVID-19 sévère et un mauvais contrôle glycémique serait le lien entre ces deux pathologies. Cette étude vise à déterminer l'association entre le DM et la sévérité du COVID-19. MÉTHODES: Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur 86 patients atteints de COVID-19 admis dans un hôpital tertiaire du sud-ouest du Nigeria. Les données sociodémographiques, cliniques et de laboratoire ont été extraites de leurs dossiers médicaux. Une approbation éthique a été obtenue et des statistiques descriptives et inférentielles ont été calculées. RÉSULTATS: L'âge moyen des patients était de 61 ± 16,1 ans et 61,6% étaient des hommes. De la fièvre a été notée chez 67,4 % des patients et de même, 67,4 % des patients avaient une SpO2<94 % à l'air ambiant lors de leur admission. Trente-six pour cent (36 %) des patients de l'étude étaient atteints de diabète. Parmi les patients atteints de DM et ceux qui ne l'étaient pas, 72,2 % et 62 % respectivement présentaient un COVID-19 sévère ou critique (p=0,323). Les patients atteints de DM étaient plus âgés que ceux sans DM (65,8 vs 57,3 ; p=0,015). La fréquence de la désaturation en oxygène, de l'insuffisance respiratoire, de l'insuffisance rénale aiguë (IRA) et de la défaillance multi-organique était significativement plus élevée chez les patients atteints de diabète de type 1 (p=0,037, 0,043, 0,004 et 0,016 respectivement). La mortalité était plus élevée chez les patients diabétiques de COVID-19, mais cela n'était pas statistiquement significatif (p=0,214). Les probabilités qu'un patient diabétique et COVID-19 développe une insuffisance respiratoire et une lésion rénale aiguë étaient de 1,395 (95%CI 1,154-6,913) et 1,125 (95%CI 1,025-1,621). CONCLUSION: Le diabète sucré a été enregistré chez les patients âgés atteints de COVID-19 et associé à une saturation en oxygène sous-optimale à la présentation, à une insuffisance respiratoire et à des lésions rénales aiguës. Aucune association n'a été trouvée entre le DM et la sévérité du COVID-19 et la mortalité. Mots clés: COVID-19 ; Diabète Mellitus ; SRAS- CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Respiratory Insufficiency , Male , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Nigeria/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Oxygen
17.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 50: 102472, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the association between the use of prehospital medications and the development of fatal outcomes in patients who required hospitalization due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, prehospital medication history, and fatal outcome development (use of high-flow oxygen therapy, intensive care unit [ICU] admission, or mortality) were extracted from the medical records of patients who were admitted due to COVID-19 to the Carlos Seguín Escobedo National Hospital of Arequipa, Peru during July to September 2021, the period after the second wave of COVID-19 cases in Peru. Survival was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model, and crude hazard ratios and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 192 patients were evaluated, of whom 62% were males and 46.9% did not require oxygen support at admission. Additionally, 64.6% used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 35.4% used corticosteroids, 28.1% used macrolides or ceftriaxone, 24.5% used ivermectin, and 21.9% used warfarin before hospitalization. Of the patients, 30.2% developed a fatal outcome during follow-up. The multivariate analysis revealed that prehospital corticosteroid use was independently associated with the fatal outcome due to COVID-19 with an aHR = 5.29 (95%CI: 1.63-17.2). CONCLUSION: Prehospital corticosteroid use was associated with a 5-fold increased risk of fatal outcome development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Peru/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Cohort Studies , Hospitals , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Referral and Consultation , Oxygen
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(19)2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066354

ABSTRACT

Modern life quality is strongly supported by the advances made in biosensors, which has been attributed to their crucial and viable contribution in point-of-care (POC) technology developments. POC devices are exploited for the fast tracing of disease progression, rapid analysis of water, and food quality assessment. Blood glucose meters, home pregnancy strips, and COVID-19 rapid tests all represent common examples of successful biosensors. Biosensors can provide great specificity due to the incorporation of selective bio-recognition elements and portability at significantly reduced costs. Electrochemical biosensor platforms are one of the most advantageous of these platforms because they offer many merits, such as being cheap, selective, specific, rapid, and portable. Furthermore, they can be incorporated into smartphones and various analytical approaches in order to increase their sensitivity and many other properties. As a very broad and interdisciplinary area of research and development, biosensors include all disciplines and backgrounds from materials science, chemistry, physics, medicine, microbiology/biology, and engineering. Accordingly, in this state-of-the-art article, historical background alongside the long journey of biosensing construction and development, starting from the Clark oxygen electrode until reaching highly advanced wearable stretchable biosensing devices, are discussed. Consequently, selected examples among the miscellaneous applications of nanobiosensors (such as microbial detection, cancer diagnosis, toxicity analysis, food quality-control assurance, point of care, and health prognosis) are described. Eventually, future perspectives for intelligent biosensor commercialization and exploitation in real-life that is going to be supported by machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) are stated.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Artificial Intelligence , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques , Humans , Oxygen , Water
19.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066277

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, since ages and nowadays, traditional medicine is well known, owing to its biodiversity, which immensely contributed to the advancement and development of complementary and alternative medicines. There is a wide range of spices, herbs, and trees known for their medicinal uses. Chilli peppers, a vegetable cum spice crop, are bestowed with natural bioactive compounds, flavonoids, capsaicinoids, phytochemicals, phytonutrients, and pharmacologically active compounds with potential health benefits. Such compounds manifest their functionality over solo-treatment by operating in synergy and consortium. Co-action of these compounds and nutrients make them potentially effective against coagulation, obesity, diabetes, inflammation, dreadful diseases, such as cancer, and microbial diseases, alongside having good anti-oxidants with scavenging ability to free radicals and oxygen. In recent times, capsaicinoids especially capsaicin can ameliorate important viral diseases, such as SARS-CoV-2. In addition, capsaicin provides an ability to chilli peppers to ramify as topical agents in pain-relief and also benefitting man as a potential effective anesthetic agent. Such phytochemicals involved not only make them useful and a much economical substitute to wonder/artificial drugs but can be exploited as obscene drugs for the production of novel stuffs. The responsibility of the TRPV1 receptor in association with capsaicin in mitigating chronic diseases has also been justified in this study. Nonetheless, medicinal studies pertaining to consumption of chilli peppers are limited and demand confirmation of the findings from animal studies. In this artifact, an effort has been made to address in an accessible format the nutritional and biomedical perspectives of chilli pepper, which could precisely upgrade and enrich our pharmaceutical industries towards human well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Capsicum , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Capsaicin/pharmacology , Capsicum/chemistry , Flavonoids , Humans , Oxygen , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066242

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Vitamin D supplementation plays a key effect in lowering cytokine storms among COVID-19 patients by influencing the activity of the renin-angiotensin system and the production of the angiotensin-2 converting enzyme. The study was conducted to explore the effect of high-dose intramuscular vitamin D in hospitalized adults infected with moderate-to-severe SARS-CoV-2 in comparison with the standard of care in the COVID-19 protocol. Materials and Methods: Two groups of patients were compared in this prospective randomized controlled trial as the vitamin D was administered orally to group 1 (alfacalcidol 1 mcg/day) and intramuscularly to group 2 (cholecalciferol 200,000 IU). One hundred and sixteen participants were recruited in total, with fifty-eight patients in each group. Following the Egyptian Ministry of Health's policy for COVID-19 management, all patients received the same treatment for a minimum of five days. Results: A significant difference was recorded in the length of hospital stay (8.6 versus 6.8 days), need for high oxygen or non-invasive mechanical ventilator (67% versus 33%), need for a mechanical ventilator (25% versus 75%), clinical improvement (45% versus 55%), the occurrence of sepsis (35% versus 65%), and in the monitored laboratory parameters in favor of high-dose vitamin D. Moreover, clinical improvement was significantly associated with the need for low/high oxygen, an invasive/non-invasive mechanical ventilator (MV/NIMV), and diabetes, while mortality was associated with the need for MV, ICU admission, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and the occurrence of secondary infection. Conclusions: Our study showed that high-dose vitamin D was considered a promising treatment in the suppression of cytokine storms among COVID-19 patients and was associated with better clinical improvement and fewer adverse outcomes compared to low-dose vitamin D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Cholecalciferol , Oxygen , Angiotensins
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