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1.
N Engl J Med ; 386(17): 1627-1637, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neonatal endotracheal intubation often involves more than one attempt, and oxygen desaturation is common. It is unclear whether nasal high-flow therapy, which extends the time to desaturation during elective intubation in children and adults receiving general anesthesia, can improve the likelihood of successful neonatal intubation on the first attempt. METHODS: We performed a randomized, controlled trial to compare nasal high-flow therapy with standard care (no nasal high-flow therapy or supplemental oxygen) in neonates undergoing oral endotracheal intubation at two Australian tertiary neonatal intensive care units. Randomization of intubations to the high-flow group or the standard-care group was stratified according to trial center, the use of premedication for intubation (yes or no), and postmenstrual age of the infant (≤28 or >28 weeks). The primary outcome was successful intubation on the first attempt without physiological instability (defined as an absolute decrease in the peripheral oxygen saturation of >20% from the preintubation baseline level or bradycardia with a heart rate of <100 beats per minute) in the infant. RESULTS: The primary intention-to-treat analysis included the outcomes of 251 intubations in 202 infants; 124 intubations were assigned to the high-flow group and 127 to the standard-care group. The infants had a median postmenstrual age of 27.9 weeks and a median weight of 920 g at the time of intubation. A successful intubation on the first attempt without physiological instability was achieved in 62 of 124 intubations (50.0%) in the high-flow group and in 40 of 127 intubations (31.5%) in the standard-care group (adjusted risk difference, 17.6 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0 to 29.2), for a number needed to treat of 6 (95% CI, 4 to 17) for 1 infant to benefit. Successful intubation on the first attempt regardless of physiological stability was accomplished in 68.5% of the intubations in the high-flow group and in 54.3% of the intubations in the standard-care group (adjusted risk difference, 15.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 4.3 to 27.3). CONCLUSIONS: Among infants undergoing endotracheal intubation at two Australian tertiary neonatal intensive care units, nasal high-flow therapy during the procedure improved the likelihood of successful intubation on the first attempt without physiological instability in the infant. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12618001498280.).


Subject(s)
Intubation, Intratracheal , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Australia , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Oxygen/analysis , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19980, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462034

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest biological hazard for the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Even though numerous diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2 have been proposed, new diagnosis strategies are being developed, looking for less expensive methods to be used as screening. This study aimed to establish salivary vibrational modes analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to detect COVID-19 biological fingerprints that allow the discrimination between COVID-19 and healthy patients. Clinical dates, laboratories, and saliva samples of COVID-19 patients (N = 255) and healthy persons (N = 1209) were obtained and analyzed through ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Then, a multivariate linear regression model (MLRM) was developed. The COVID-19 patients showed low SaO2, cough, dyspnea, headache, and fever principally. C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and ferritin were the most important altered laboratory blood tests, which were increased. In addition, changes in amide I and immunoglobulin regions were evidenced in the FTIR spectra analysis, and the MLRM showed clear discrimination between both groups. Specific salivary vibrational modes employing ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were established; moreover, the COVID-19 biological fingerprint in saliva was characterized, allowing the COVID-19 detection using an MLRM, which could be helpful for the development of new diagnostic devices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Saliva/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(11): 828-831, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406806

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Controversial data have been published regarding the prognostic role of cardiac troponins in patients who need hospitalization because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the study was to assess the role of high-sensitivity troponin plasma levels and of respiratory function at admission on all-cause deaths in unselected patients hospitalized because of COVID-19. METHODS: We pooled individual patient data from observational studies that assessed all-cause mortality of unselected patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The individual data of 722 patients were included. The ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) and high-sensitivity troponins was reported at admission in all patients. This meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020213209). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 14 days, 180 deaths were observed. At multivariable regression analysis, age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.083, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.061-1.105, P < 0.0001], male sex (HR 2.049, 95% CI 1.319-3.184, P = 0.0014), moderate-severe renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate  < 30 mL/min/m2) (HR 2.108, 95% CI 1.237-3.594, P = 0.0061) and lower PaO2/FiO2 (HR 0.901, 95% CI 0.829-0.978, P = 0.0133) were the independent predictors of death. A linear increase in the HR was associated with decreasing values of PaO2/FiO2 below the normality threshold. On the contrary, the HR curve for troponin plasma levels was near-flat with large CI for values above the normality thresholds. CONCLUSION: In unselected patients hospitalized for COVID-19, mortality is mainly driven by male gender, older age and respiratory failure. Elevated plasma levels of high-sensitivity troponins are not an independent predictor of worse survival when respiratory function is accounted for.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxygen/analysis , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Troponin/blood , Age Factors , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 126, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare condition characterized by dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation in the upright position resolved in the supine position (orthodeoxia). Intracardiac shunt, pulmonary ventilation-perfusion mismatch and others intrapulmonary abnormalities are involved. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of POS associated with two pathophysiological issues: one, cardiac POS caused by a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and second, pulmonary POS due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) interstitial pneumonia. POS has resolved after recovery of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Right-to-left interatrial shunt and intrapulmonary shunt caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia contributed to refractory hypoxemia and POS. Therefore, in case of COVID-19 patient with unexplained POS, the existence of PFO must be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Hypoxia , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Echocardiography/methods , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis , Foramen Ovale, Patent/physiopathology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Posture/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome
5.
Nat Protoc ; 15(2): 207-235, 2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1017065

ABSTRACT

Reactive molecular oxygen (O2) plays important roles in bioenergetics and metabolism and is implicated in biochemical pathways underlying angiogenesis, fertilization, wound healing and regeneration. Here we describe how to use the scanning micro-optrode technique (SMOT) to measure extracellular fluxes of dissolved O2. The self-referencing O2-specific micro-optrode (also termed micro-optode and optical fiber microsensor) is a tapered optical fiber with an O2-sensitive fluorophore coated onto the tip. The O2 concentration is quantified by fluorescence quenching of the fluorophore emission upon excitation with blue-green light. The micro-optrode presents high spatial and temporal resolutions with improved signal-to-noise ratio (in the picomole range). In this protocol, we provide step-by-step instructions for micro-optrode calibration, validation, example applications and data analysis. We describe how to use the technique for cells (Xenopus oocyte), tissues (Xenopus epithelium and rat cornea), organs (Xenopus gills and mouse skin) and appendages (Xenopus tail), and provide recommendations on how to adapt the approach to different model systems. The basic, user-friendly system presented here can be readily installed to reliably and accurately measure physiological O2 fluxes in a wide spectrum of biological models and physiological responses. The full protocol can be performed in ~4 h.


Subject(s)
Microtechnology/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Optical Fibers , Oxygen/analysis , Animals , Male , Mice , Microtechnology/standards , Rats , Reference Standards , Time Factors
6.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 31(8): 558-561, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990910

ABSTRACT

: Coronavirus disease is a highly contagious disease caused by systemic acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with high mortality rates. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum D-dimer levels and tomography findings at the time of admission in patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study included 94 patients, 48 women (51%) and 46 men (49%), diagnosed by PCR method. Patients without any suspicious findings on thorax tomography and having oxygen saturation above 90% at the time of presentation were included as the first group. Patients with suspicious tomography findings but having oxygen saturation above 90% were designed as the second group, and patients with both suspicious tomography findings for COVID-19 and low oxygen saturation levels (<90%) at the time of admission were taken as the third group. Patients with oxygen desaturation were significantly older than the patients with normal oxygen saturations (P = 0.001). Patients with thorax tomography findings were having significantly higher D-dimer levels (P = 0.001). Patients with oxygen desaturation were having significantly higher D-dimer levels than the patients with normal oxygen saturations (P = 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen saturation and D-dimer levels in all patients with and without tomography findings (r = -0.301, P = 0.016). Similarly, there was a significant positive correlation between the oxygen saturation and the lymphocyte count (r = 0.300, P < 0.017). Thorax tomography and D-dimer levels significantly correlate in patients with suspected COVID-19 admission. It should be kept in mind that patients with low oxygen saturation and high D-dimer levels may have serious lung involvement.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Oxygen/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Emerg Med J ; 38(2): 88-93, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measurement of post-exertion oxygen saturation has been proposed to assess illness severity in suspected COVID-19 infection. We aimed to determine the accuracy of post-exertional oxygen saturation for predicting adverse outcome in suspected COVID-19. METHODS: We undertook a substudy of an observational cohort study across 70 emergency departments during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. We collected data prospectively, using a standardised assessment form, and retrospectively, using hospital records, from patients with suspected COVID-19, and reviewed hospital records at 30 days for adverse outcome (death or receiving organ support). Patients with post-exertion oxygen saturation recorded were selected for this analysis. We constructed receiver-operating characteristic curves, calculated diagnostic parameters, and developed a multivariable model for predicting adverse outcome. RESULTS: We analysed data from 817 patients with post-exertion oxygen saturation recorded after excluding 54 in whom measurement appeared unfeasible. The c-statistic for post-exertion change in oxygen saturation was 0.589 (95% CI 0.465 to 0.713), and the positive and negative likelihood ratios of a 3% or more desaturation were, respectively, 1.78 (1.25 to 2.53) and 0.67 (0.46 to 0.98). Multivariable analysis showed that post-exertion oxygen saturation was not a significant predictor of adverse outcome when baseline clinical assessment was taken into account (p=0.368). Secondary analysis excluding patients in whom post-exertion measurement appeared inappropriate resulted in a c-statistic of 0.699 (0.581 to 0.817), likelihood ratios of 1.98 (1.26 to 3.10) and 0.61 (0.35 to 1.07), and some evidence of additional prognostic value on multivariable analysis (p=0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Post-exertion oxygen saturation provides modest prognostic information in the assessment of selected patients attending the emergency department with suspected COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN Registry (ISRCTN56149622) http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN28342533.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Oxygen/analysis , Physical Exertion , Adult , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
9.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(8): 408-410, 2020 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829610
10.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(4): L670-L674, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-798131

ABSTRACT

The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is linked to an increasing number of risk factors, including exogenous (environmental) stimuli such as air pollution, nicotine, and cigarette smoke. These three factors increase the expression of angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a key receptor involved in the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-the etiological agent of COVID-19-into respiratory tract epithelial cells. Patients with severe COVID-19 are managed with oxygen support, as are at-risk individuals with chronic lung disease. To date, no study has examined whether an increased fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) may affect the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors and co-receptors, including ACE2 and the transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS1, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS11D. To address this, steady-state mRNA levels for genes encoding these SARS-CoV-2 receptors were assessed in the lungs of mouse pups chronically exposed to elevated FiO2, and in the lungs of preterm-born human infants chronically managed with an elevated FiO2. These two scenarios served as models of chronic elevated FiO2 exposure. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 receptor expression was assessed in primary human nasal, tracheal, esophageal, bronchial, and alveolar epithelial cells, as well as primary mouse alveolar type II cells exposed to elevated oxygen concentrations. While gene expression of ACE2 was unaffected, gene and protein expression of TMPRSS11D was consistently upregulated by exposure to an elevated FiO2. These data highlight the need for further studies that examine the relative contribution of the various viral co-receptors on the infection cycle, and point to oxygen supplementation as a potential risk factor for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Female , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/analysis , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Proteases/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(17)2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740500

ABSTRACT

The non-invasive estimation of blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) by pulse oximetry is of vital importance clinically, from the detection of sleep apnea to the recent ambulatory monitoring of hypoxemia in the delayed post-infective phase of COVID-19. In this proof of concept study, we set out to establish the feasibility of SpO2 measurement from the ear canal as a convenient site for long term monitoring, and perform a comprehensive comparison with the right index finger-the conventional clinical measurement site. During resting blood oxygen saturation estimation, we found a root mean square difference of 1.47% between the two measurement sites, with a mean difference of 0.23% higher SpO2 in the right ear canal. Using breath holds, we observe the known phenomena of time delay between central circulation and peripheral circulation with a mean delay between the ear and finger of 12.4 s across all subjects. Furthermore, we document the lower photoplethysmogram amplitude from the ear canal and suggest ways to mitigate this issue. In conjunction with the well-known robustness to temperature induced vasoconstriction, this makes conclusive evidence for in-ear SpO2 monitoring being both convenient and superior to conventional finger measurement for continuous non-intrusive monitoring in both clinical and everyday-life settings.


Subject(s)
Ear Canal , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Oximetry/instrumentation , Photoplethysmography/instrumentation , Wearable Electronic Devices , Adult , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Equivalence Trials as Topic , Feasibility Studies , Female , Fingers , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Oximetry/methods , Oxygen/analysis , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics , Photoplethysmography/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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