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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(5): 1777-1785, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The first pandemic phase of COVID-19 in Italy was characterized by high in-hospital mortality ranging from 23% to 38%. During the third pandemic phase there has been an improvement in the management and treatment of COVID-19, so mortality and predictors may have changed. A prospective study was planned to identify predictors of mortality during the third pandemic phase. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 15 December 2020 to 15 May 2021, 208 patients were hospitalized (median age: 64 years; males: 58.6%); 83% had a median of 2 (IQR,1-4) comorbidities; pneumonia was present in 89.8%. Patients were monitored remotely for respiratory function and ECG trace for 24 hours/day. Management and treatment were done following the timing and dosage recommended by international guidelines. RESULTS: 79.2% of patients necessitated O2-therapy. ARDS was present in 46.1% of patients and 45.4% received non-invasive ventilation and 11.1% required ICU treatment. 38% developed arrhythmias which were identified early by telemetry and promptly treated. The in-hospital mortality rate was 10%. At multivariate analysis independent predictors of mortality were: older age (R-R for≥70 years: 5.44), number of comorbidities ≥3 (R-R 2.72), eGFR ≤60 ml/min (RR 2.91), high d-Dimer (R-R for≥1,000 ng/ml:7.53), and low PaO2/FiO2 (R-R for <200: 3.21). CONCLUSIONS: Management and treatment adherence to recommendations, use of telemetry, and no overcrowding appear to reduce mortality. Advanced age, number of comorbidities, severe renal failure, high d-Dimer and low P/F remain predictors of poor outcome. The data help to identify current high-risk COVID-19 patients in whom management has yet to be optimized, who require the greatest therapeutic effort, and subjects in whom vaccination is mandatory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Departments/organization & administration , Hospital Mortality , Internal Medicine/methods , Pandemics , Telemetry/methods , Age Factors , Aged , Critical Care , Electrocardiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(5): 1761-1764, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754185

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In the past few years, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been increasingly used in patients with severe respiratory insufficiency in whom mechanical ventilation (MV) had failed. MV in severe COVID-19 patients is often accompanied by high respiratory pressures and high oxygen concentrations. Thus, by "placing the lungs at rest" ECMO might spare severe COVID-19 patients from being subjected to aggressive MV. Awake ECMO is another therapeutic alternative for providing extracorporeal oxygenation and ventilation by avoiding the complications of MV. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old male diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after deteriorating to hypoxemic respiratory failure with acute respiratory distress disorder (ARDS). Awake veno-venous (VV) ECMO was considered after receiving patient consent and was successfully implemented as an attempt to avoid invasive MV. This is one of the first cases described during the COVID-19 pandemic, in which awake VV-ECMO was used in a critically ill COVID-19 patient as a replacement therapy to conventional MV. CONCLUSIONS: Under the appropriate conditions, awake ECMO might be a suitable alternative approach to avoid complications of aggressive MV in selected critically ill COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hypoxia/therapy , Pneumonia/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Humans , Male , Oxygen/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Treatment Outcome , Wakefulness
3.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(11): 1261-1267, 2020 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus has caused the outbreak of the acute respiratory disease in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China since December 2019. This study was performed to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients who succumbed to and who recovered from 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: Clinical data were collected from two tertiary hospitals in Wuhan. A retrospective investigation was conducted to analyze the clinical characteristics of fatal cases of COVID-19 (death group) and we compare them with recovered patients (recovered group). Continuous variables were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Categorical variables were analyzed by χ test or Fisher exact test as appropriate. RESULTS: Our study enrolled 109 COVID-19 patients who died during hospitalization and 116 recovered patients. The median age of the death group was older than the recovered group (69 [62, 74] vs. 40 [33, 57] years, Z = 9.738, P < 0.001). More patients in the death group had underlying diseases (72.5% vs. 41.4%, χ = 22.105, P < 0.001). Patients in the death group had a significantly longer time of illness onset to hospitalization (10.0 [6.5, 12.0] vs. 7.0 [5.0, 10.0] days, Z = 3.216, P = 0.001). On admission, the proportions of patients with symptoms of dyspnea (70.6% vs. 19.0%, χ = 60.905, P < 0.001) and expectoration (32.1% vs. 12.1%, χ = 13.250, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the death group. The blood oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the death group (85 [77, 91]% vs. 97 [95, 98]%, Z = 10.625, P < 0.001). The white blood cell (WBC) in death group was significantly higher on admission (7.23 [4.87, 11.17] vs. 4.52 [3.62, 5.88] ×10/L, Z = 7.618, P < 0.001). Patients in the death group exhibited significantly lower lymphocyte count (0.63 [0.40, 0.79] vs. 1.00 [0.72, 1.27] ×10/L, Z = 8.037, P < 0.001) and lymphocyte percentage (7.10 [4.45, 12.73]% vs. 23.50 [15.27, 31.25]%, Z = 10.315, P < 0.001) on admission, and the lymphocyte percentage continued to decrease during hospitalization (7.10 [4.45, 12.73]% vs. 2.91 [1.79, 6.13]%, Z = 5.242, P < 0.001). Alanine transaminase (22.00 [15.00, 34.00] vs. 18.70 [13.00, 30.38] U/L, Z = 2.592, P = 0.010), aspartate transaminase (34.00 [27.00, 47.00] vs. 22.00 [17.65, 31.75] U/L, Z = 7.308, P < 0.001), and creatinine levels (89.00 [72.00, 133.50] vs. 65.00 [54.60, 78.75] µmol/L, Z = 6.478, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the death group than those in the recovered group. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also significantly higher in the death group on admission (109.25 [35.00, 170.28] vs. 3.22 [1.04, 21.80] mg/L, Z = 10.206, P < 0.001) and showed no significant improvement after treatment (109.25 [35.00, 170.28] vs. 81.60 [27.23, 179.08] mg/L, Z = 1.219, P = 0.233). The patients in the death group had more complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (89.9% vs. 8.6%, χ = 148.105, P < 0.001), acute cardiac injury (59.6% vs. 0.9%, χ = 93.222, P < 0.001), acute kidney injury (18.3% vs. 0%, χ = 23.257, P < 0.001), shock (11.9% vs. 0%, χ = 14.618, P < 0.001), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (6.4% vs. 0%, χ = 7.655, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the recovered group, more patients in the death group exhibited characteristics of advanced age, pre-existing comorbidities, dyspnea, oxygen saturation decrease, increased WBC count, decreased lymphocytes, and elevated CRP levels. More patients in the death group had complications such as ARDS, acute cardiac injury, acute kidney injury, shock, and DIC.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259910, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical observations have shown that there is a relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral blood; however, knowledge about the time course of the changes in atypical lymphocytes and the association with the clinical course of COVID-19 is limited. OBJECTIVE: Our purposes were to investigate the dynamics of atypical lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients and to estimate their clinical significance for diagnosis and monitoring disease course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 98 inpatients in a general ward at Kashiwa Municipal Hospital from May 1st, 2020, to October 31st, 2020. We extracted data on patient demographics, symptoms, comorbidities, blood test results, radiographic findings, treatment after admission and clinical course. We compared clinical findings between patients with and without atypical lymphocytes, investigated the behavior of atypical lymphocytes throughout the clinical course of COVID-19, and determined the relationships among the development of pneumonia, the use of supplemental oxygen and the presence of atypical lymphocytes. RESULTS: Patients with atypical lymphocytes had a significantly higher prevalence of pneumonia (80.4% vs. 42.6%, p < 0.0001) and the use of supplemental oxygen (25.5% vs. 4.3%, p = 0.0042). The median time to the appearance of atypical lymphocytes after disease onset was eight days, and atypical lymphocytes were observed in 16/98 (16.3%) patients at the first visit. Atypical lymphocytes appeared after the confirmation of lung infiltrates in 31/41 (75.6%) patients. Of the 13 oxygen-treated patients with atypical lymphocytes, approximately two-thirds had a stable or improved clinical course after the appearance of atypical lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: Atypical lymphocytes frequently appeared in the peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients one week after disease onset. Patients with atypical lymphocytes were more likely to have pneumonia and to need supplemental oxygen; however, two-thirds of them showed clinical improvement after the appearance of atypical lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Leukocyte Disorders/diagnosis , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Leukocyte Disorders/complications , Leukocyte Disorders/epidemiology , Leukocyte Disorders/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21136, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493228

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is impressively challenging the healthcare system. Several prognostic models have been validated but few of them are implemented in daily practice. The objective of the study was to validate a machine-learning risk prediction model using easy-to-obtain parameters to help to identify patients with COVID-19 who are at higher risk of death. The training cohort included all patients admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli with COVID-19 from March 5, 2020, to November 5, 2020. Afterward, the model was tested on all patients admitted to the same hospital with COVID-19 from November 6, 2020, to February 5, 2021. The primary outcome was in-hospital case-fatality risk. The out-of-sample performance of the model was estimated from the training set in terms of Area under the Receiving Operator Curve (AUROC) and classification matrix statistics by averaging the results of fivefold cross validation repeated 3-times and comparing the results with those obtained on the test set. An explanation analysis of the model, based on the SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP), is also presented. To assess the subsequent time evolution, the change in paO2/FiO2 (P/F) at 48 h after the baseline measurement was plotted against its baseline value. Among the 921 patients included in the training cohort, 120 died (13%). Variables selected for the model were age, platelet count, SpO2, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, neutrophil count, and sodium. The results of the fivefold cross-validation repeated 3-times gave AUROC of 0.87, and statistics of the classification matrix to the Youden index as follows: sensitivity 0.840, specificity 0.774, negative predictive value 0.971. Then, the model was tested on a new population (n = 1463) in which the case-fatality rate was 22.6%. The test model showed AUROC 0.818, sensitivity 0.813, specificity 0.650, negative predictive value 0.922. Considering the first quartile of the predicted risk score (low-risk score group), the case-fatality rate was 1.6%, 17.8% in the second and third quartile (high-risk score group) and 53.5% in the fourth quartile (very high-risk score group). The three risk score groups showed good discrimination for the P/F value at admission, and a positive correlation was found for the low-risk class to P/F at 48 h after admission (adjusted R-squared = 0.48). We developed a predictive model of death for people with SARS-CoV-2 infection by including only easy-to-obtain variables (abnormal blood count, BUN, C-reactive protein, sodium and lower SpO2). It demonstrated good accuracy and high power of discrimination. The simplicity of the model makes the risk prediction applicable for patients in the Emergency Department, or during hospitalization. Although it is reasonable to assume that the model is also applicable in not-hospitalized persons, only appropriate studies can assess the accuracy of the model also for persons at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Multivariate Analysis , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , Rome/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258754, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477539

ABSTRACT

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been successfully applied to patients with COVID-19 to prevent endotracheal intubation. However, experience of CPAP application in pregnant women with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is scarce. This study aimed to describe the natural history and outcome of ARF in a cohort of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, focusing on the feasibility of helmet CPAP (h-CPAP) application and the variables related to ARF worsening. A retrospective, observational study enrolling 41 consecutive pregnant women hospitalised for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a tertiary care center between March 2020 and March 2021. h-CPAP was applied if arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) was inferior to 200 and/or patients had respiratory distress despite adequate oxygen supplementation. Characteristics of patients requiring h-CPAP vs those in room air or oxygen only were compared. Twenty-seven (66%) patients showed hypoxemic ARF requiring oxygen supplementation and h-CPAP was needed in 10 cases (24%). PaO2/FiO2 was significantly improved during h-CPAP application. The device was well-tolerated in all cases with no adverse events. Higher serum C reactive protein and more extensive (≥3 lobes) involvement at chest X-ray upon admission were observed in the h-CPAP group. Assessment of temporal distribution of cases showed a substantially increased rate of CPAP requirement during the third pandemic wave (January-March 2021). In conclusion, h-CPAP was feasible, safe, well-tolerated and improved oxygenation in pregnant women with moderate-to-severe ARF due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Moderate-to-severe ARF was more frequently observed during the third pandemic wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Respiratory Insufficiency , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tertiary Care Centers , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Oxygen/blood , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Protein C/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26748, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475911

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical data of COVID-19 patients with different severity during February 2020 in Wuxi, China.The present retrospective study included a total of 60 cases who were diagnosed as COVID-19 patients and hospitalized in the Wuxi Fifth People's Hospital during February 2020 to March 2020. Among all patients 14 cases were asymptomatic, 25 cases were with mild stage, 13 cases were with moderate stage, and 8 cases were with severe stage. Basic clinical data as well as clinical characteristics, including temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, blood gas analysis data, whole blood test data, and the prognosis condition, were collected and analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted in different severity stage patients.Among the patients, the median temperature gradually increased from the asymptomatic to the severe patients and the median age increased from the mild to the severe patients with statistical difference. The hospitalization duration was the highest in severe patients. Higher heart rate, as well as lower oxygen partial pressure and oxygenation index were observed in severe patients than the other groups. Besides, higher CRP and globulin levels after admission were found in severe patients, and were gradually increased from the asymptomatic patients to the severe patients. On the contrary, the lymphocyte ratio and count was significant lower in severe patients. We also observed higher D-Dimer levels in the severe patients and the difference was statistical. Among all patients, 2 cases (3.33%) died and other patients were all cured after treatment.Statistical difference was mainly found mainly in age, hospitalization duration, temperature, CRP levels, O2 partial pressure and oxygenation index, globulin, lymphocyte ratio, and D-Dimer in patients with different severity. The higher CRP levels, lower O2 partial pressure and oxygenation index, higher globulin, lower lymphocyte ratio, and higher D-Dimer might be associated with the patients' severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27444, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462563

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 may cause low oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory failure in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Hence, increased SpO2 levels in COVID-19 patients could be crucial for their quality of life and recovery. This study aimed to demonstrate that a 30-minute single session of dorsal low-field thoracic magnetic stimulation (LF-ThMS) can be employed to increase SpO2 levels in COVID-19 patients significantly. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the variables associated with LF-ThMS, such as frequency, magnetic flux density, and temperature in the dorsal thorax, might be correlated to SpO2 levels in these patients.Here we employed an LF-ThMS device to noninvasively deliver a pulsed magnetic field from 100 to 118 Hz and 10.5 to 13.1 milliTesla (i.e., 105 to 131 Gauss) to the dorsal thorax. These values are within the intensity range of several pulsed electromagnetic field devices employed in physical therapy worldwide. We designed a single-blind, sham-controlled, crossover study on 5 COVID-19 patients who underwent 2 sessions of the study (real and sham LF-ThMS) and 12 patients who underwent only the real LF-ThMS.We found a statistically significant positive correlation between magnetic flux density, frequency, or temperature, associated with the real LF-ThMS and SpO2 levels in all COVID-19 patients. However, the 5 patients in the sham-controlled study did not exhibit a significant change in their SpO2 levels during sham stimulation. The employed frequencies and magnetic flux densities were safe for the patients. We did not observe adverse events after the LF-ThMS intervention.This study is a proof-of-concept that a single session of LF-ThMS applied for 30 minutes to the dorsal thorax of 17 COVID-19 patients significantly increased their SpO2 levels. However, future research will be needed to understand the physiological mechanisms behind this finding.The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04895267, registered on May 20, 2021) retrospectively registered. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04895267.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Magnetic Field Therapy/methods , Oxygen/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Thorax
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257056, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438346

ABSTRACT

We present an interpretable machine learning algorithm called 'eARDS' for predicting ARDS in an ICU population comprising COVID-19 patients, up to 12-hours before satisfying the Berlin clinical criteria. The analysis was conducted on data collected from the Intensive care units (ICU) at Emory Healthcare, Atlanta, GA and University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN and the Cerner® Health Facts Deidentified Database, a multi-site COVID-19 EMR database. The participants in the analysis consisted of adults over 18 years of age. Clinical data from 35,804 patients who developed ARDS and controls were used to generate predictive models that identify risk for ARDS onset up to 12-hours before satisfying the Berlin criteria. We identified salient features from the electronic medical record that predicted respiratory failure among this population. The machine learning algorithm which provided the best performance exhibited AUROC of 0.89 (95% CI = 0.88-0.90), sensitivity of 0.77 (95% CI = 0.75-0.78), specificity 0.85 (95% CI = 085-0.86). Validation performance across two separate health systems (comprising 899 COVID-19 patients) exhibited AUROC of 0.82 (0.81-0.83) and 0.89 (0.87, 0.90). Important features for prediction of ARDS included minimum oxygen saturation (SpO2), standard deviation of the systolic blood pressure (SBP), O2 flow, and maximum respiratory rate over an observational window of 16-hours. Analyzing the performance of the model across various cohorts indicates that the model performed best among a younger age group (18-40) (AUROC = 0.93 [0.92-0.94]), compared to an older age group (80+) (AUROC = 0.81 [0.81-0.82]). The model performance was comparable on both male and female groups, but performed significantly better on the severe ARDS group compared to the mild and moderate groups. The eARDS system demonstrated robust performance for predicting COVID19 patients who developed ARDS at least 12-hours before the Berlin clinical criteria, across two independent health systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Machine Learning , Models, Biological , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Records Systems, Computerized , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Rate , Risk Factors
10.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 47(12): 3323-3332, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433868

ABSTRACT

Chest computed tomography (CT) may provide insights into the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), although it is not suitable for a timely bedside dynamic assessment of patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU); therefore, lung ultrasound (LUS) has been proposed as a complementary diagnostic tool. The aims of this study were to investigate different lungs phenotypes in patients with COVID-19 and to assess the differences in CT and LUS scores between ICU survivors and non-survivors. We also explored the association between CT and LUS, and oxygenation (arterial partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2]/fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2]) and clinical parameters. The study included 39 patients with COVID-19. CT scans revealed types 1, 2 and 3 phenotypes in 62%, 28% and 10% of patients, respectively. Among survivors, pattern 1 was prevalent (p < 0.005). Chest CT and LUS scores differed between survivors and non-survivors both at ICU admission and 10 days after and were associated with ICU mortality. Chest CT score was positively correlated with LUS findings at ICU admission (r = 0.953, p < 0.0001) and was inversely correlated with PaO2/FiO2 (r = -0.375, p = 0.019) and C-reactive protein (r = 0.329, p = 0.041). LUS score was inversely correlated with PaO2/FiO2 (r = -0.345, p = 0.031). COVID-19 presents distinct phenotypes with differences between survivors and non-survivors. LUS is a valuable monitoring tool in an ICU setting because it may correlate with CT findings and mortality, although it cannot predict oxygenation changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Phenotype , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
11.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(9): 920-927, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431004

ABSTRACT

<b>Background and Objective:</b> COVID-19 is a fast-spreading worldwide pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. The World Health Organization recommended wearing face masks. Masks have become an urgent necessity throughout the pandemic, the study's goal was to track the impact of wearing masks on immunological responses. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> This study was conducted on 40 healthy people who were working in health care at Nineveh Governorate Hospitals from September-December, 2020. They wore face masks at work for more than 8 months for an average of 6 hrs a day. The control sample included 40 healthy individuals, who wore masks for very short periods. All samples underwent immunological and physiological tests to research the effects of wearing masks for extended periods within these parameters. <b>Results:</b> The results showed a significant decrease in total White Blood Count and the absolute number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and phagocytic activity. However, there was a significant increase in the absolute number of eosinophils in participants compared with the control. The results also suggested there were no significant differences in IgE, haemoglobin concentration and blood O<sub>2 </sub>saturation in participants who wore masks for more than 6 hrs compared to the control group. The results showed a significant increase in pulse rate in participants who wore masks for more than 6 hrs compared to the control group. The results also showed a strong correlation coefficient between the time of wearing masks and some immunological, haematological parameters. <b>Conclusion:</b> Wearing masks for long periods alters immunological parameters that initiate the immune response, making the body weaker in its resistance to infectious agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control , Leukocytes/immunology , Masks , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Phagocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/transmission , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart Rate , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Leukocyte Count , Male , Masks/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Oxygen/blood , Personnel, Hospital , Phagocytosis , Time Factors
12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107522, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined the safety and efficacy of a treatment protocol containing Favipiravir for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We did a multicenter randomized open-labeled clinical trial on moderate to severe cases infections of SARS-CoV-2. Patients with typical ground glass appearance on chest computerized tomography scan (CT scan) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of less than 93% were enrolled. They were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (1.6 gr loading, 1.8 gr daily) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (800/200 mg daily) treatment regimens in addition to standard care. In-hospital mortality, ICU admission, intubation, time to clinical recovery, changes in daily SpO2 after 5 min discontinuation of supplemental oxygen, and length of hospital stay were quantified and compared in the two groups. RESULTS: 380 patients were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (193) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (187) groups in 13 centers. The number of deaths, intubations, and ICU admissions were not significantly different (26, 27, 31 and 21, 17, 25 respectively). Mean hospital stay was also not different (7.9 days [SD = 6] in the Favipiravir and 8.1 [SD = 6.5] days in Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups) (p = 0.61). Time to clinical recovery in the Favipiravir group was similar to Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.75 - 1.17) and likewise the changes in the daily SpO2 after discontinuation of supplemental oxygen (p = 0.46) CONCLUSION: Adding Favipiravir to the treatment protocol did not reduce the number of ICU admissions or intubations or In-hospital mortality compared to Lopinavir/Ritonavir regimen. It also did not shorten time to clinical recovery and length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Intubation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Rev Invest Clin ; 73(6): 399-407COVID-19, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospital bed saturation has been one of the problems to solve during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. However, not every patient who is admitted requires close monitoring or specific therapeutics. Mild cases could be managed in the outpatient setting. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to analyze the accuracy of the oxygen saturation/respiratory rate (sat/RR) index, NEWS2, CURB65, and quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) scores to predict supplemental oxygen requirement and prolonged hospital stay in patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A prospective cohort study in an academic medical center. We compared the values of these scores according to the occurrence or not of each outcome. When differences between groups were statistically significant, the discriminatory capacity of the score for that outcome was analyzed. RESULTS: We included 271 patients. Of them, 11.07% required supplemental oxygen, showing significantly higher values of NEWS2 score and qSOFA score, and lower values of Sat/RR index. About 38% presented prolonged hospital stay, with significantly higher values of NEWS2 score and lower values of sat/RR index. The ROC curve area under the curve (AUC) of sat/RR index to discriminate the requirement of supplemental oxygen was 0.72 (CI 95% 0.61-0.84). The ROC curve of NEWS2 and qSOFA for the same outcome was 0.75 (95% [95% CI 0.65-0.85]) and 0.66 (95% CI 0.57-0.76), respectively. The ability of the Sat/RR index to discriminate the requirement of prolonged hospitalization showed an AUC of 0.67 (95% [95% CI 0.60- 0.73]). The NEWS2 score showed an AUC of 0.63 (CI 95% 0.56-0.70) for the same outcome. CONCLUSIONS: sat/RR index and NEWS2 score have a good capacity to discriminate patients at risk of clinical worsening, being the Sat/RR index simpler and easier to calculate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Oxygen/blood , Respiratory Rate , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Aged , Argentina , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 263-271, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377590

ABSTRACT

This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of adding melatonin to the treatment protocol of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This was an open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients were randomized into a treatment arm receiving melatonin plus standard care or a control arm receiving standard care alone. The trial's primary endpoint was sleep quality examined by the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ). The trial's secondary endpoints were symptoms alleviation by Day 7, intensive care unit admission, 10-day mortality, white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein status, and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation. Ninety-six patients were recruited and allocated to either the melatonin arm (n = 48) or control arm (n = 48). Baseline characteristics were similar across treatment arms. There was no significant difference in symptoms on Day 7. The mean of the LSEQ scores was significantly higher in the melatonin group (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in laboratory data, except for blood oxygen saturation, which has improved significantly in the melatonin group compared with the control group (95.81% vs. 93.65% respectively, p = 0.003). This clinical trial study showed that the combination of oral melatonin tablets and standard treatment could substantially improve sleep quality and blood oxygen saturation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Sleep/drug effects , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood
15.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 241, 2021 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369491

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus SARS-Cov-2 can infect the respiratory tract causing a spectrum of disease varying from mild to fatal pneumonia, and known as COVID-19. Ongoing clinical research is assessing the potential for long-term respiratory sequelae in these patients. We assessed the respiratory function in a cohort of patients after recovering from SARS-Cov-2 infection, stratified according to PaO2/FiO2 (p/F) values. METHOD: Approximately one month after hospital discharge, 86 COVID-19 patients underwent physical examination, arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and six-minute walk test (6MWT). Patients were also asked to quantify the severity of dyspnoea and cough before, during, and after hospitalization using a visual analogic scale (VAS). Seventy-six subjects with ABG during hospitalization were stratified in three groups according to their worst p/F values: above 300 (n = 38), between 200 and 300 (n = 30) and below 200 (n = 20). RESULTS: On PFTs, lung volumes were overall preserved yet, mean percent predicted residual volume was slightly reduced (74.8 ± 18.1%). Percent predicted diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was also mildly reduced (77.2 ± 16.5%). Patients reported residual breathlessness at the time of the visit (VAS 19.8, p < 0.001). Patients with p/F below 200 during hospitalization had lower percent predicted forced vital capacity (p = 0.005), lower percent predicted total lung capacity (p = 0.012), lower DLCO (p < 0.001) and shorter 6MWT distance (p = 0.004) than patients with higher p/F. CONCLUSION: Approximately one month after hospital discharge, patients with COVID-19 can have residual respiratory impairment, including lower exercise tolerance. The extent of this impairment seems to correlate with the severity of respiratory failure during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Aged , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/complications , Carbon Monoxide , Dyspnea/virology , Exercise Tolerance , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Partial Pressure , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity , Residual Volume , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Walk Test
16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(4): 1015-1032, 2021 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369073

ABSTRACT

The motivation for this review comes from the emerging complexity of the autonomic innervation of the carotid body (CB) and its putative role in regulating chemoreceptor sensitivity. With the carotid bodies as a potential therapeutic target for numerous cardiorespiratory and metabolic diseases, an understanding of the neural control of its circulation is most relevant. Since nerve fibres track blood vessels and receive autonomic innervation, we initiate our review by describing the origins of arterial feed to the CB and its unique vascular architecture and blood flow. Arterial feed(s) vary amongst species and, unequivocally, the arterial blood supply is relatively high to this organ. The vasculature appears to form separate circuits inside the CB with one having arterial venous anastomoses. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves are present with postganglionic neurons located within the CB or close to it in the form of paraganglia. Their role in arterial vascular resistance control is described as is how CB blood flow relates to carotid sinus afferent activity. We discuss non-vascular targets of autonomic nerves, their possible role in controlling glomus cell activity, and how certain transmitters may relate to function. We propose that the autonomic nerves sub-serving the CB provide a rapid mechanism to tune the gain of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity based on alterations in blood flow and oxygen delivery, and might provide future therapeutic targets. However, there remain a number of unknowns regarding these mechanisms that require further research that is discussed.


Subject(s)
Arteries/innervation , Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Carotid Body/blood supply , Hemodynamics , Oxygen/blood , Reflex , Animals , Autonomic Nervous System/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Humans , Regional Blood Flow , Species Specificity
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15619, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338550

ABSTRACT

Triage is crucial for patient's management and estimation of the required intensive care unit (ICU) beds is fundamental for health systems during the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed whether chest computed tomography (CT) of COVID-19 pneumonia has an incremental role in predicting patient's admission to ICU. We performed volumetric and texture analysis of the areas of the affected lung in CT of 115 outpatients with COVID-19 infection presenting to the emergency room with dyspnea and unresponsive hypoxyemia. Admission blood laboratory including lymphocyte count, serum lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer and C-reactive protein and the ratio between the arterial partial pressure of oxygen and inspired oxygen were collected. By calculating the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC), we compared the performance of blood laboratory-arterial gas analyses features alone and combined with the CT features in two hybrid models (Hybrid radiological and Hybrid radiomics)for predicting ICU admission. Following a machine learning approach, 63 patients were allocated to the training and 52 to the validation set. Twenty-nine (25%) of patients were admitted to ICU. The Hybrid radiological model comprising the lung %consolidation performed significantly (p = 0.04) better in predicting ICU admission in the validation (AUC = 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.97) set than the blood laboratory-arterial gas analyses features alone (AUC = 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.56-0.86). A risk calculator for ICU admission was derived and is available at: https://github.com/cgplab/covidapp . The volume of the consolidated lung in CT of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia has a mild but significant incremental value in predicting ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Patient Admission , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Predictive Value of Tests
18.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 294: 103765, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336881

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Concerns have been raised that COVID-19 face coverings compromise lung function and pulmonary gas exchange to the extent that they produce arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnia during high intensity exercise resulting in exercise intolerance in recreational exercisers. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of a surgical, flannel or vertical-fold N95 masks on cardiorespiratory responses to incremental exercise. METHODS: This investigation studied 11 adult males and females at rest and while performing progressive cycle exercise to exhaustion. We tested the hypotheses that wearing a surgical (S), flannel (F) or horizontal-fold N95 mask compared to no mask (control) would not promote arterial deoxygenation or exercise intolerance nor alter primary cardiovascular variables during submaximal or maximal exercise. RESULTS: Despite the masks significantly increasing end-expired peri-oral %CO2 and reducing %O2, each ∼0.8-2% during exercise (P < 0.05), our results supported the hypotheses. Specifically, none of these masks reduced sub-maximal or maximal exercise arterial O2 saturation (P = 0.744), but ratings of dyspnea were significantly increased (P = 0.007). Moreover, maximal exercise capacity was not compromised nor were there any significant alterations of primary cardiovascular responses (mean arterial pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output) found during sub-maximal exercise. CONCLUSION: Whereas these results are for young healthy recreational male and female exercisers and cannot be applied directly to elite athletes, older or patient populations, they do support that arterial hypoxemia and exercise intolerance are not the obligatory consequences of COVID-19-indicated mask-wearing at least for cycling exercise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Masks/adverse effects , Oxygen/blood , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6654388, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309867

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Risk stratification is an important aspect of COVID-19 management, especially in patients admitted to ICU as it can provide more useful consumption of health resources, as well as prioritize critical care services in situations of overwhelming number of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multivariable predictive model for mortality was developed using data solely from a derivation cohort of 160 COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe ARDS admitted to ICU. The regression coefficients from the final multivariate model of the derivation study were used to assign points for the risk model, consisted of all significant variables from the multivariate analysis and age as a known risk factor for COVID-19 patient mortality. The newly developed AIDA score was arrived at by assigning 5 points for serum albumin and 1 point for IL-6, D dimer, and age. The score was further validated on a cohort of 304 patients admitted to ICU due to the severe form of COVID-19. RESULTS: The study population included 160 COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU in the derivation and 304 in the validation cohort. The mean patient age was 66.7 years (range, 20-93 years), with 68.1% men and 31.9% women. Most patients (76.8%) had comorbidities with hypertension (67.7%), diabetes (31.7), and coronary artery disease (19.3) as the most frequent. A total of 316 patients (68.3%) were treated with mechanical ventilation. Ninety-six (60.0%) in the derivation cohort and 221 (72.7%) patients in the validation cohort had a lethal outcome. The population was divided into the following risk categories for mortality based on the risk model score: low risk (score 0-1) and at-risk (score > 1). In addition, patients were considered at high risk with a risk score > 2. By applying the risk model to the validation cohort (n = 304), the positive predictive value was 78.8% (95% CI 75.5% to 81.8%); the negative predictive value was 46.6% (95% CI 37.3% to 56.2%); the sensitivity was 82.4% (95% CI 76.7% to 87.1%), and the specificity was 41.0% (95% CI 30.3% to 52.3%). The C statistic was 0.863 (95% CI 0.805-0.921) and 0.665 (95% CI 0.598-0.732) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively, indicating a high discriminative value of the proposed score. CONCLUSION: In the present study, AIDA score showed a valuable significance in estimating the mortality risk in patients with the severe form of COVID-19 disease at admission to ICU. Further external validation on a larger group of patients is needed to provide more insights into the utility of this score in everyday practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Models, Biological , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/blood , Risk Assessment
20.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 197(11): 1010-1020, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298545

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lung low-dose radiation therapy (LD-RT) for pneumonia in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inclusion criteria comprised patients with COVID-19-related moderate-severe pneumonia warranting hospitalization with supplemental O2 and not candidates for admission to the intensive care unit because of comorbidities or general status. All patients received single lung dose of 0.5 Gy. Respiratory and systemic inflammatory parameters were evaluated before irradiation, at 24 h and 1 week after LD-RT. Primary endpoint was increased in the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) or the pulse oximetry saturation (SpO2) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio of at least 20% at 24 h with respect to the preirradiation value. RESULTS: Between June and November 2020, 36 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and a mean age of 84 years were enrolled. Seventeen were women and 19 were men and all of them had comorbidities. All patients had bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest X­ray. All patients received dexamethasone treatment. Mean SpO2 pretreatment value was 94.28% and the SpO2/FiO2 ratio varied from 255 mm Hg to 283 mm Hg at 24 h and to 381 mm Hg at 1 week, respectively. In those who survived (23/36, 64%), a significant improvement was observed in the percentage of lung involvement in the CT scan at 1 week after LD-RT. No adverse effects related to radiation treatment have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: LD-RT appears to be a feasible and safe option in a population with COVID-19 bilateral interstitial pneumonia in the presence of significant comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/radiation effects , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/radiotherapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Partial Pressure , Prospective Studies , Radiotherapy Dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
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