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6.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 8(4): 858-862, 2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000594

ABSTRACT

Oxygen therapy is an essential medicine and core component of effective hospital systems. However, many hospitals in low- and middle-income countries lack reliable oxygen access-a deficiency highlighted and exacerbated by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Oxygen access can be challenged by equipment that is low quality and poorly maintained, lack of clinical and technical training and protocols, and deficiencies in local infrastructure and policy environment. We share learnings from 2 decades of oxygen systems work with hospitals in Africa and the Asia-Pacific regions, highlighting practical actions that hospitals can take to immediately expand oxygen access. These include strategies to: (1) improve pulse oximetry and oxygen use, (2) support biomedical engineers to optimize existing oxygen supplies, and (3) expand on existing oxygen systems with robust equipment and smart design. We make all our resources freely available for use and local adaptation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Oxygen/supply & distribution , COVID-19/therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Hospital Administration/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Oximetry , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
S Afr Med J ; 110(12): 1168-1171, 2020 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948164

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed significant strain on the oxygen delivery infrastructure of health facilities in resource-constrained health systems. In this case report, we describe a patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who was managed with high-flow nasal oxygen for 40 days, with an eventual successful outcome. We discuss the oxygen delivery infrastructure needed to offer this intervention, as well as the psychosocial impact on those undergoing treatment.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Oxygen/supply & distribution , Patient Positioning/methods , Psychosocial Support Systems , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Cannula , Citalopram/therapeutic use , Counseling , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Disease Progression , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Factor Xa Inhibitors/blood , Female , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/complications , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/diagnosis , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/drug therapy , Hematoma/chemically induced , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/psychology , Patient Care Team , Patient Positioning/psychology , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Prone Position , Psychiatry , Resilience, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Social Work Department, Hospital , Thigh , Treatment Outcome
8.
Trials ; 21(1): 940, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of prone positioning therapy on intubation rate in awake patients with COVID-19 and acute respiratory failure. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a two-center parallel group, superiority, randomized (1:1 allocation ratio) controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: All patients admitted to the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara and Hospital General de Occidente in Mexico for COVID-19 associated acute respiratory failure and in need of supplementary oxygen through high-flow nasal cannula are screened for eligibility. INCLUSION CRITERIA: all adult patients admitted to the COVID-19 unit who test positive for COVID-19 by PCR-test and in need for oxygen are eligible for inclusion. Randomization starts upon identification of requirement of a fraction of inspired oxygen ≥30% for an oxygen capillary saturation of ≥90% Exclusion criteria: less than 18 years-old, pregnancy, patients with immediate need of invasive mechanical ventilation (altered mental status, fatigue), vasopressor requirement to maintain median arterial pressure >65 mmHg, contraindications for prone positioning therapy (recent abdominal or thoracic surgery or trauma, facial, pelvic or spine fracture, untreated pneumothorax, do-not-resuscitate or do-not-intubate order, refusal or inability of the patient to enroll in the study. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients of the intervention group will be asked to remain in a prone position throughout the day as long as possible, with breaks according to tolerance. Pillows will be offered for maximizing comfort at chest, pelvis and knees. Monitoring of vital signs will not be suspended. Inspired fraction of oxygen will be titrated to maintain a capillary saturation of 92%-95%. For patients in the control group, prone positioning will be allowed as a rescue therapy. Staff intensivists will monitor the patient's status in both groups on a 24/7 basis. All other treatment will be unchanged and left to the attending physicians. MAIN OUTCOMES: Endotracheal intubation rate for mechanical ventilation at 28 days. RANDOMISATION: Patients will be randomly allocated to either prone positioning or control group at 1:1 ratio. Such randomization will be computer generated and stratified by center with permuted blocks and length of 4. BLINDING (MASKING): Due to logistical reasons, only principal investigators and the data analyst will be blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): With an intubation rate of 60% according to recent reports from some American centers, and assuming a decrease to 40% to be clinically relevant, we calculated a total of 96 patients per group, for a beta error of 0.2, and alpha of 0.5. Therefore, we plan to recruit 200 patients, accounting for minimal losses to follow up, with 100 non-intubated patients in the prone position group and a 100 in the control group. TRIAL STATUS: The local registration number is 048-20, with the protocol version number 2.0. The date of approval is 3rd May 2020. Recruitment started on 3rd May and is expected to end in December 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol was retrospectively registered under the title: "Prone Positioning in Non-intubated Patients With COVID-19 Associated Acute Respiratory Failure. The PRO-CARF trial" in ClinicalTrials.gov with the registration number: NCT04477655. Registered on 20 July 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prone Position/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Acute Disease , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Cannula/adverse effects , Cannula/supply & distribution , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen/supply & distribution , Pandemics , Patient Positioning/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(9): 586-587, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-814657

ABSTRACT

The COVID 19 pandemic is exposing an important weakness in health systems: medical oxygen production and delivery. Tatum Anderson reports.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Oxygen/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Africa/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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