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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066081

ABSTRACT

Under the clean air action plans and the lockdown to constrain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the air quality improved significantly. However, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution still occurred on the North China Plain (NCP). This study analyzed the variations of PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) during 2017-2021 on the northern (Beijing) and southern (Henan) edges of the NCP. Furthermore, the drivers for the PM2.5 pollution episodes pre- to post-COVID-19 in Beijing and Henan were explored by combining air pollutant and meteorological datasets and the weighted potential source contribution function. Results showed air quality generally improved during 2017-2021, except for a slight rebound (3.6%) in NO2 concentration in 2021 in Beijing. Notably, the O3 concentration began to decrease significantly in 2020. The COVID-19 lockdown resulted in a sharp drop in the concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and CO in February of 2020, but PM2.5 and CO in Beijing exhibited a delayed decrease in March. For Beijing, the PM2.5 pollution was driven by the initial regional transport and later secondary formation under adverse meteorology. For Henan, the PM2.5 pollution was driven by the primary emissions under the persistent high humidity and stable atmospheric conditions, superimposing small-scale regional transport. Low wind speed, shallow boundary layer, and high humidity are major drivers of heavy PM2.5 pollution. These results provide an important reference for setting mitigation measures not only for the NCP but for the entire world.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(39): e290, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In some patients, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is accompanied by loss of smell and taste, and this has been reportedly associated with exposure to air pollutants. This study investigated the relationship between the occurrence of chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients and air pollutant concentrations in Korea. METHODS: Information on the clinical symptom of chemosensory dysfunction, the date of diagnosis, residential area, age, and sex of 60,194 confirmed COVID-19 cases reported to the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency from January 20 to December 31, 2020 was collected. In addition, the daily average concentration of air pollutants for a week in the patients' residential area was collected from the Ministry of Environment based on the date of diagnosis of COVID-19. A binomial logistic regression model, using age and gender, standardized smoking rate, number of outpatient visits, 24-hour mean temperature and relative humidity at the regional level as covariates, was used to determine the effect of air pollution on chemosensory dysfunction. RESULTS: Symptoms of chemosensory dysfunction were most frequent among patients in their 20s and 30s, and occurred more frequently in large cities. The logistic analysis showed that the concentration of particulate matter 10 (PM10) and 2.5 (PM2.5) up to 2 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) at least 7 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 affected the development of chemosensory dysfunction. In the logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, standardized smoking rate, number of outpatient visits, and daily average temperature and relative humidity, it was found that an increase in the interquartile range of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO on the day of diagnosis increased the incidence of chemosensory dysfunction 1.10, 1.10, 1.17, 1.31, and 1.19-fold, respectively. In contrast, the O3 concentration had a negative association with chemosensory dysfunction. CONCLUSION: High concentrations of air pollutants such as PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO on the day of diagnosis increased the risk of developing chemosensory dysfunction from COVID-19 infection. This result underscores the need to actively prevent exposure to air pollution and prevent COVID-19 infection. In addition, policies that regulate activities and products that create high amounts of harmful environmental wastes may help in promoting better health for all during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , China/epidemiology , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/adverse effects , Ozone/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/adverse effects , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
3.
Chemosphere ; 308(Pt 2): 136417, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027955

ABSTRACT

Treatment of recalcitrant and xenobiotic pharmaceutical compounds in polluted waters have gained significant attention of the environmental scientists. Antibiotics are diffused into the environment widely owing to their high usages, very particularly in the last two years due to over consumption during covid 19 pandemic worldwide. Quinolones are very effective antibiotics, but do not get completely metabolized due to which they pose severe health hazards if discharged without proper treatment. The commonly reported treatment methods for quinolones are adsorption and advanced oxidation methods. In both the treatment methods, metal organic frameworks (MOF) have been proved to be promising materials used as stand-alone or combined technique. Many composite MOF materials synthesized from renewable, natural, and harmless materials by eco-friendly techniques have been reported to be effective in the treatment of quinolones. In the present article, special focus is given on the abatement of norfloxacin and ofloxacin contaminated wastewater using MOFs by adsorption, oxidation/ozonation, photocatalytic degradation, electro-fenton methods, etc. However, integration of adsorption with any advanced oxidation methods was found to be best remediation technique. Of various MOFs reported by several researchers, the MIL-101(Cr)-SO3H composite was able to give 99% removal of norfloxacin by adsorption. The MIL - 88A(Fe) composite and Fe LDH carbon felt cathode were reported to yield 100% degradation of ofloxacin by photo-Fenton and electro-fenton methods respectively. The synthesis methods and mechanism of action of MOFs towards the treatment of norfloxacin and ofloxacin as reported by several investigation reports are also presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Metal-Organic Frameworks , Ozone , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Carbon Fiber , Humans , Norfloxacin , Ofloxacin , Waste Water , Xenobiotics
4.
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult ; 99(4. Vyp. 2): 22-29, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025845

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ozone therapy in rehabilitation of patients with previous COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical trial included 51 patients aged 29 - 78 years with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (J12.8). Patients were divided into 3 comparable groups depending on the complex of rehabilitation. In the first (control) group (n=17), a 10-day course included daily breathing exercises and physiotherapy for the lungs (drug electrophoresis and low-frequency magnetotherapy). In the second (main) group (n=18), rehabilitation was combined with daily intravenous infusions of ozonized saline with ozone concentration of 2.0 mg/l within 5 days with subsequent standard rehabilitation. In the third group (n=16), patients received 5 ozone therapy procedures every other day. To determine the effectiveness and safety of systemic ozone therapy in rehabilitation of patients with previous COVID-19, we analyzed oxygen saturation, laboratory data (D-dimer and C-reactive protein), need for oxygen support before and after rehabilitation course. Complaints and quality of life throughout the rehabilitation program were assessed using the EQ-5D questionnaire. RESULTS: All patients had positive changes of all parameters. There were no adverse reactions throughout the rehabilitation program and 2 months later. We observed higher effectiveness of rehabilitation with systemic ozone therapy. Moreover, daily ozone therapy had a better effect on laboratory parameters compared to ozone therapy every other day. CONCLUSION: Ozone therapy is safe and effective in complex rehabilitation of patients with previous COVID-19. Further studies of large samples are needed to determine indications and appropriate criteria for this rehabilitation program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ozone , Humans , Lung , Ozone/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(18): 12926-12936, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016513

ABSTRACT

This study presents total OH reactivity, ancillary trace species, HO2 reactivity, and complex isoprene-derived RO2 reactivity due to ambient aerosols measured during the air quality study (AQUAS)-Kyoto campaign in September, 2020. Observations were conducted during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic (associated with reduced anthropogenic emissions). The spatial distribution of missing OH reactivity highlights that the origin of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be from natural-emission areas. For the first time, the real-time loss rates of HO2 and RO2 onto ambient aerosols were measured continuously and alternately. Ozone production sensitivity was investigated considering unknown trace species and heterogeneous loss effects of XO2 (≡HO2 + RO2) radicals. Missing OH reactivity enhanced the ozone production potential by a factor of 2.5 on average. Heterogeneous loss of radicals could markedly suppress ozone production under low NO/NOx conditions with slow gas-phase reactions of radicals and change the ozone regime from VOC- to NOx-sensitive conditions. This study quantifies the relationship of missing OH reactivity and aerosol uptake of radicals with ozone production in Kyoto, a low-emission suburban area. The result has implications for future NOx-reduction policies. Further studies may benefit from the combination of chemical transport models and inverse modeling over a wide spatiotemporal range.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Volatile Organic Compounds , Air Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Ozone/chemistry , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets
7.
Environ Res ; 215(Pt 1): 114155, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is speculated to increase the risks of COVID-19 spread, severity, and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We systematically reviewed studies investigating the relationship between air pollution and COVID-19 cases, non-fatal severity, and mortality in North America and Europe. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for studies investigating the effects of harmful pollutants, including particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 or 10 µm (PM2.5 or PM10), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO), on COVID-19 cases, severity, and deaths in Europe and North America through to June 19, 2021. Articles were included if they quantitatively measured the relationship between exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 health outcomes. RESULTS: From 2,482 articles screened, we included 116 studies reporting 355 separate pollutant-COVID-19 estimates. Approximately half of all evaluations on incidence were positive and significant associations (52.7%); for mortality the corresponding figure was similar (48.1%), while for non-fatal severity this figure was lower (41.2%). Longer-term exposure to pollutants appeared more likely to be positively associated with COVID-19 incidence (63.8%). PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, and CO were most strongly positively associated with COVID-19 incidence, while PM2.5 and NO2 with COVID-19 deaths. All studies were observational and most exhibited high risk of confounding and outcome measurement bias. DISCUSSION: Air pollution may be associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. Future research is needed to better test the air pollution-COVID-19 hypothesis, particularly using more robust study designs and COVID-19 measures that are less prone to measurement error and by considering co-pollutant interactions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/analysis , Ozone/toxicity , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
8.
Chemosphere ; 308(Pt 1): 136075, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996067

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the changes in air pollutant's concentration, spatio-temporal distribution and sensitivity of changes in air pollutant's concentration during pre and post COVID-19 outbreak. We employed Google Earth Engine Platform to access remote sensing datasets of air pollutants across Asian continent. Air pollution and cumulative confirmed-COVID cases data of Asian countries (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, India, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia) have been collected and analyzed for 2019 and 2020. The results indicate that aerosol index (AI) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is significantly reduced during COVID outbreak i.e. in year 2020. In addition, we found significantly positive (P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval, two-tailed) correlation between changes in AI and NO2 concentration for net active-COVID case increment in almost each country. For other atmospheric gases i.e. carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), ozone (O3), and Sulfur dioxide (SO2), insignificant and/or significant negative correlation is also observed. These results suggest that the atmospheric concentration of AI and NO2 are good indicators of human activities. Furthermore, the changes in O3 shows significantly negative correlation for net active-COVID case increment. In conclusion, we observed significant positive environmental impact of COVID-19 restrictions in Asia. This study would help and assist environmentalist and policy makers in restraining air pollution by implementing efficient restrictions on human activities with minimal economic loss.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Formaldehyde , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/analysis , Pakistan , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(45): 67604-67640, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982293

ABSTRACT

This review summarizes research data on the pharmaceutical drugs used to treat the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, their characteristics, environmental impacts, and the advanced oxidation processes (AOP) applied to remove them. A literature survey was conducted using the electronic databases Science Direct, Scopus, Taylor & Francis, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Springer. This complete research includes and discusses relevant studies that involve the introduction, pharmaceutical drugs used in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: chemical characteristics and environmental impact, advanced oxidation process (AOP), future trends and discussion, and conclusions. The results show a full approach in the versatility of AOPs as a promising solution to minimize the environmental impact associated with these compounds by the fact that they offer different ways for hydroxyl radical production. Moreover, this article focuses on introducing the fundamentals of each AOP, the main parameters involved, and the concomitance with other sources and modifications over the years. Photocatalysis, sonochemical technologies, electro-oxidation, photolysis, Fenton reaction, ozone, and sulfate radical AOP have been used to mineralize SARS-CoV-2 pharmaceutical compounds, and the efficiencies are greater than 65%. According to the results, photocatalysis is the main technology currently applied to remove these pharmaceuticals. This process has garnered attention because solar energy can be directly utilized; however, low photocatalytic efficiencies and high costs in large-scale practical applications limit its use. Furthermore, pharmaceuticals in the environment are diverse and complex. Finally, the review also provides ideas for further research needs and major concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ozone , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Hydroxyl Radical/chemistry , Oxidation-Reduction , Ozone/chemistry , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2 , Sunlight , Waste Water/chemistry , Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Purification/methods
10.
J Hosp Infect ; 116: 16-20, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271690

ABSTRACT

Besides conventional prevention measures, no-touch technologies based on gaseous systems have been introduced in hospital hygiene for room disinfection. The whole-room disinfectant device Sterisafe Pro, which creates ozone as a biocidal agent, was tested for its virucidal efficacy based on Association Française de Normalisation Standard NF T 72-281:2014. All test virus titres were reduced after 150 and 300 min of decontamination, with mean reduction factors ranging from 2.63 (murine norovirus) to 3.94 (simian virus 40). These results will help to establish realistic conditions for virus inactivation, and assessment of the efficacy of ozone technology against non-enveloped and enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Ozone , Animals , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Humans , Hygiene , Mice , Ozone/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 843: 156948, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977811

ABSTRACT

Recent studies proves that indoor air chemistry differs in many aspects from atmospheric one. People send up to 90 % of their life indoors being exposed to pollutants present in gas, particle and solid phase. Particle phase indoor is composed of particles emitted from various sources, among which there is an indoor source - secondary chemical reactions leading to formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Lately, researchers' attentions turned towards the ultrafine particles, for there are still a lot of gaps in knowledge concerning this field of study, while there is evidence of negative influence of ultrafine particles on human health. Presented review sums up current knowledge about secondary particle formation in indoor environment and development of analytical techniques applied to study those processes. The biggest concern today is studying ROS, for their lifetime in indoor air is very short due to reactions at the very beginning of terpene oxidation process. Another interesting aspect that is recently discovered is monoterpene autooxidation process that leads to HOMs formation that in turn can influence SOA formation yield. A complex studies covering gas phase and particle phase characterization, but also toxicological studies are crucial to fully understand indoor air chemistry leading to ultrafine particle formation.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Ozone , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Humans , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter
12.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271826, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968872

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is causing profound health, economic, and social problems worldwide. The global shortage of medical and personal protective equipment (PPE) in specialized centers during the outbreak demonstrated the need for efficient methods to disinfect and recycle them in times of emergency. We have previously described that high ozone concentrations destroyed viral RNA in an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 strain within a few minutes. However, the efficient ozone dosages for active SARS-CoV-2 are still unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the systematic effects of ozone exposure on face masks from hospitalized patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Face masks from COVID-19 patients were collected and treated with a clinical ozone generator at high ozone concentrations in small volumes for short periods. The study focused on SARS-CoV-2 gene detection (assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)) and on the virus inactivation by in vitro studies. We assessed the effects of different high ozone concentrations and exposure times on decontamination efficiency. We showed that high ozone concentrations (10,000, 2,000, and 4,000 ppm) and short exposure times (10, 10, and 2 minutes, respectively), inactivated both the original strain and the B.1.1.7 strain of SARS-CoV-2 from 24 contaminated face masks from COVID-19 patients. The validation results showed that the best condition for SARS-CoV-2 inactivation was a treatment of 4,000 ppm of ozone for 2 minutes. Further studies are in progress to advance the potential applications of these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ozone , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Masks , Ozone/pharmacology , Ozone/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938802

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to cause profound health, economic, and social problems worldwide. The management and disinfection of materials used daily in health centers and common working environments have prompted concerns about the control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection risk. Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent that has been widely used in disinfection processes for decades. The aim of this study was to assess the optimal conditions of ozone treatment for the elimination of heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 from office supplies (personal computer monitors, keyboards, and computer mice) and clinical equipment (continuous positive airway pressure tubes and personal protective equipment) that are difficult to clean. (2) Methods: The office supplies and clinical equipment were contaminated in an area of 1 cm2 with 1 × 104 viral units of a heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 strain, then treated with ozone using two different ozone devices: a specifically designed ozonation chamber (for low-medium ozone concentrations over large volumes) and a clinical ozone generator (for high ozone concentrations over small volumes). SARS-CoV-2 gene detection was carried out using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). (3) Results: At high ozone concentrations over small surfaces, the ozone eliminated SARS-CoV-2 RNA in short time periods-i.e., 10 min (at 4000 ppm) or less. The optimum ozone concentration over large volumes was 90 ppm for 120 min in ambient conditions (24 °C and 60-75% relative humidity). (4) Conclusions: This study showed that the appropriate ozone concentration and exposure time eliminated heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 RNA from the surfaces of different widely used clinical and office supplies, decreasing their risk of transmission, and improving their reutilization. Ozone may provide an additional tool to control the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ozone , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Environ Manage ; 318: 115515, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914591

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of synthesized TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) for the removal of the COVID-19 aided antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) and the textile dye methylene blue (MB) from model wastewater. Synthesis of TiO2 NTAs showed that anodization potential and calcination temperatures directly influence nanotube formation. The increased anodization potential from 10 to 40 V resulted in the development of larger porous nanotubes with a diameter of 36-170 nm, while the collapse of the tubular structure was registered at the highest applied potential. Furthermore, it was found that the 500 °C calcination temperature was the most prominent for the formation of the most photocatalytically active TiO2 NTAs, due to the optimal anatase/rutile ratio of 4.60. The degradation of both model compounds was achieved with all synthesized TiO2 NTAs; however, the most photocatalytically active NTA sample was produced at 30 V and 500 °C. Compared to photocatalysis, CIP degradation was greatly enhanced by 5-25 times when ozone was introduced to the photocatalytic cell (rates 0.4-4.2 × 10-1 min-1 versus 0.07-0.2 × 10-1 min-1). This resulted in the formation of CIP degradation by-products, with different mass-to-charge ratios from [M+H]+ 346 to 273 m/z. Even though the CIP degradation pathway is rather complex, three main mechanisms, decarboxylation, hydroxylation reaction, and piperazine ring cleavage, were proposed and explained. Furthermore, treated samples were placed in contact with the crustaceans Daphnia magna. It was found that 100% mortality was achieved when approximately 60% of the remaining TOC was present in the samples, indicating that toxic degradation by-products were formed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanotubes , Ozone , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Ciprofloxacin , Humans , Nanotubes/chemistry , Titanium/chemistry , Water
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 110: 109014, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Ozone adjuvant in COVID-19 management showed conflicting results in prior studies. Here, we aimed to comprehensively evaluate benefits and side effects of ozone as adjuvant therapy in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, Springer, medRxiv, and ProQuest for articles investigating ozone as adjuvant therapy in COVID-19. Clinical and laboratory outcomes, mortality, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and adverse events were assessed. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included in this review. Case-control studies, but not randomized controlled trials (RCTs), showed a decrease in mortality following ozone therapy (OR = 0.24 (95% CI [0.07-0.76]), p = 0.02, I2 = 0%, fixed-effect). However, ozone therapy did not improve the length of hospital stay (SMD = -0.99 (95 %CI -2.44 to 0.45), p = 0.18, I2 = 84%, random-effects) and ICU admission (RR = 0.57 (95 %CI [0.05-6.71]), I2 = 73%, p = 0.65, random-effects). Consecutive case control studies suggested that ozone therapy significantly improved levels of D-dimer (p = 0.0060), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; p = 0.0209), C-reactive protein (CRP; p = 0.0040) and interleukin (IL)-6 (p = 0.0048) as compared to standard therapy alone. CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effect of ozone in COVID-19 management seems to be limited to the improvements of laboratory parameters among severe patients, including the reduction of IL-6, LDH, CRP, and D-dimer levels. Meanwhile, other study endpoints, such as mortality, length of stay and ICU admission, were not improved following ozone therapy, although it may partly be due to a shorter duration of viral clearance. Furthermore, no serious adverse event was reported following ozone therapy, suggesting its high safety profile. (PROSPERO ID: CRD42021278018).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ozone , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Ozone/therapeutic use
16.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant public health problem worldwide, favoring multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms. The SARS-CoV-2 infection was negatively associated with the increase in antimicrobial resistance, and the ESKAPE group had the most significant impact on HAIs. The study evaluated the bactericidal effect of a high concentration of O3 gas on some reference and ESKAPE bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four standard strains and four clinical or environmental MDR strains were exposed to elevated ozone doses at different concentrations and times. Bacterial inactivation (growth and cultivability) was investigated using colony counts and resazurin as metabolic indicators. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed. RESULTS: The culture exposure to a high level of O3 inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains tested with a statistically significant reduction in colony count compared to the control group. The cell viability of S. aureus (MRSA) (99.6%) and P. aeruginosa (XDR) (29.2%) was reduced considerably, and SEM showed damage to bacteria after O3 treatment Conclusion: The impact of HAIs can be easily dampened by the widespread use of ozone in ICUs. This product usually degrades into molecular oxygen and has a low toxicity compared to other sanitization products. However, high doses of ozone were able to interfere with the growth of all strains studied, evidencing that ozone-based decontamination approaches may represent the future of hospital cleaning methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Ozone , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross Infection/microbiology , Humans , Ozone/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcus aureus
17.
J Hosp Infect ; 126: 16-20, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of bipolar ionization in the healthcare setting has yet to be proven. A major limitation of studies sponsored by industry has been the assessment of efficiency within test chambers in which ozone levels are not adequately controlled. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of bipolar ionization against antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, fungi and human coronavirus within a controlled test chamber designed to mitigate the effect of ozone. METHODS: Bacteria- and fungi-inoculated gauze pads, and human coronavirus 229E-inoculated stainless steel plates were placed within the vicinity of the AIO-2 bipolar ionizer and left at room temperature (2 h for coronavirus and 4 h for bacteria and fungi). FINDINGS: Four hours of exposure to bipolar ionization showed a 1.23-4.76 log reduction, corresponding to a 94.2->99.9% colony-forming units/gauze reduction, in Clostridioides difficile, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multi-drug-resistant S. aureus. A 1.2 log 50% tissue culture infectious dose reduction in human coronavirus was observed after 2 h. CONCLUSION: The assessment of bipolar ionization systems merits further investigation as an infection control measure.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Coronavirus , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Ozone , Aspergillus , Bacteria , Humans , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 1): 155970, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852049

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown in 2020, severe haze pollution occurred in the North China Plain despite the significant reduction in anthropogenic emissions, providing a natural experiment to explore the response of haze pollution to the reduction of human activities. Here, we study the characteristics and causes of haze pollution during the COVID-19 outbreak based on comprehensive field measurements in Beijing during January and February 2020. After excluding the Spring Festival period affected by fireworks activities, we found the ozone concentrations and the proportion of sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 increased during the COVID-19 lockdown compared with the period before the lockdown, and sulfate played a more important role. Heterogeneous chemistry and photochemistry dominate the formation of sulfate and nitrate during the whole campaign, respectively, and the heterogeneous formation of nitrate at night was enhanced during the lockdown. The coeffects of more reductions in NOx than VOCs, weakened titration of NO, and increased temperature during the lockdown led to the increase in ozone concentrations, thereby promoting atmospheric oxidation capacity and photochemistry. In addition, the increase in relative humidity during the lockdown facilitated heterogeneous chemistry. Our results indicate that unbalanced emission reductions and adverse meteorological conditions induce the formation of secondary pollutants during the COVID-19 lockdown haze, and the formulation of effective coordinated emission-reduction control measures for PM2.5 and ozone pollution is needed in the future, especially the balanced control of NOx and VOCs.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Nitrates , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Sulfates
19.
Environ Pollut ; 307: 119468, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851031

ABSTRACT

The Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to evaluate the air quality in the coastal city of Kannur, India, during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdown. From the Pre1 (March 1-24, 2020) period to the Lock (March 25-April 19, 2020) and Tri (April 20-May 9, 2020) periods, the Kerala state government gradually imposed a strict lockdown policy. Both the simulations and observations showed a decline in the PM2.5 concentrations and an enhancement in the O3 concentrations during the Lock and Tri periods compared with that in the Pre1 period. Integrated process rate (IPR) analysis was employed to isolate the contributions of the individual atmospheric processes. The results revealed that the vertical transport from the upper layers dominated the surface O3 formation, comprising 89.4%, 83.1%, and 88.9% of the O3 sources during the Pre1, Lock, and Tri periods, respectively. Photochemistry contributed negatively to the O3 concentrations at the surface layer. Compared with the Pre1 period, the O3 enhancement during the Lock period was primarily attributable to the lower negative contribution of photochemistry and the lower O3 removal rate by horizontal transport. During the Tri period, a slower consumption of O3 by gas-phase chemistry and a stronger vertical import from the upper layers to the surface accounted for the increase in O3. Emission and aerosol processes constituted the major positive contributions to the net surface PM2.5, accounting for a total of 48.7%, 38.4%, and 42.5% of PM2.5 sources during the Pre1, Lock, and Tri periods, respectively. The decreases in the PM2.5 concentrations during the Lock and Tri periods were primarily explained by the weaker PM2.5 production from emission and aerosol processes. The increased vertical transport rate of PM2.5 from the surface layer to the upper layers was also a reason for the decrease in the PM2.5 during the Lock periods.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , India , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
20.
Radiol Med ; 127(6): 673-680, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826895

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess and compare the clinical effectiveness of percutaneous intradiscal ozone therapy in patients affected by lumbar disc herniation, with and without history of COVID-19 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After the rising of COVID-19 pandemics in Italy, 47 consecutive percutaneous intradiscal ozone therapies were performed on patients with low back pain and/or sciatic pain due to lumbar disc herniation. Among these, 19 had suffered from COVID-19 and successively recovered with no residual symptoms, while the remaining 28 had not previously been affected by COVID-19 and were not convalescent. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was administered before the treatment and at 1-month and 3-month follow-up in order to assess the clinical outcome. RESULTS: The two groups were similar in terms of patient age (p-value 0.54), treated levels (p-value 0.26) and pre-procedure ODI (p-value 0.33). Technical success was achieved in all cases. In patients previously affected by COVID-19, mean ODI decrease was 11.58 ± 9.51 (35.72%) at 1-month follow-up and 20.63 ± 9.87 (63.63%) at 3-month follow-up. In patients never affected by COVID-19, mean ODI decrease was 20.93 ± 10.53 (58.73%) at 1-month follow-up and 22.07 ± 11.36 (61.92%) at 3-month follow-up. Eventually, clinical success was registered in 84.21% (16/19) of patients with history of COVID-19 infection and in 85.71% (24/28) of patients with no history of COVID-19 infection. No major complication was registered. CONCLUSIONS: In case of lumbar disc herniation treated with percutaneous intradiscal ozone therapy, patients previously affected by COVID-19 showed a significantly longer recovery time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Low Back Pain , Ozone , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/complications , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/therapy , Low Back Pain/drug therapy , Low Back Pain/etiology , Lumbar Vertebrae , Ozone/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
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