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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 234, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ozone (O3) is an effective disinfectant agent that leaves no harmful residues. Due to the global health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, surgical masks are in high demand, with some needing to be reused in certain regions. This study aims to evaluate the effects of O3 for pathogen disinfection on reused surgical masks in various conditions. METHODS: O3 generators, a modified PZ 2-4 for Air (2000 mg O3/L) and a modified PZ 7 -2HO for Air (500 mg O3/L), were used together with 1.063 m3 (0.68 × 0.68 × 2.3 m) and 0.456 m3 (0.68 × 0.68 × 1.15 m) acrylic boxes as well as a room-sized 56 m3 (4 × 4 × 3.5 m) box to provide 3 conditions for the disinfection of masks contaminated with enveloped RNA virus (105 FFU/mL), bacteria (103 CFU/mL) and fungi (102 spores/mL). RESULTS: The virucidal effects were 82.99% and 81.70% after 15 min of treatment with 2000 mg/L O3 at 1.063 m3 and 500 mg/L O3 at 0.456 m3, respectively. The viral killing effect was increased over time and reached more than 95% after 2 h of incubation in both conditions. By using 2000 mg/L O3 in a 1.063 m3 box, the growth of bacteria and fungi was found to be completely inhibited on surgical masks after 30 min and 2 h of treatment, respectively. Using a lower-dose O3 generator at 500 mg O3/L in 0.456 m3 provided lower efficiency, although the difference was not significant. Using O3 at 2000 mg O3/L or 500 mg O3/L in a 56 m3 room is efficient for the disinfection of all pathogens on the surface of reused surgical masks. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided the conditions for using O3 (500-2000 mg/L) to reduce pathogens and disinfect contaminated surgical masks, which might be applied to reduce the inappropriate usage of reused surgical masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ozone , Disinfection , Humans , Ozone/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
N Biotechnol ; 66: 36-45, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521430

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a major need for non-destructive and environmentally friendly disinfection methods. This work presents the development and testing of a disinfection process based on gaseous ozone for SARS-CoV-2-contaminated porous and non-porous surfaces. A newly developed disinfection chamber was used, equipped with a CeraPlas™ cold plasma generator that produces ozone during plasma ignition. A reduction of more than log 6 of infectious virus could be demonstrated for virus-contaminated cotton and FFP3 face masks as well as glass slides after exposure to 800 ppm ozone for 10-60 min, depending on the material. In contrast to other disinfectants, ozone can be produced quickly and cost-effectively, and its environmentally friendly breakdown product oxygen does not leave harmful residues. Disinfection with ozone could help to overcome delivery difficulties of personal protective equipment by enabling safe reuse with further applications, thereby reducing waste generation, and may allow regular disinfection of personal items with non-porous surfaces.


Subject(s)
Disinfection/methods , Ozone , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Equipment Contamination , Masks/virology , Ozone/pharmacology , Porosity
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18851, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434149

ABSTRACT

In this pandemic SARS-CoV-2 crisis, any attempt to contain and eliminate the virus will also stop its spread and consequently decrease the risk of severe illness and death. While ozone treatment has been suggested as an effective disinfection process, no precise mechanism of action has been previously reported. This study aimed to further investigate the effect of ozone treatment on SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, virus collected from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab and sputum samples from symptomatic patients was exposed to ozone for different exposure times. The virus morphology and structure were monitored and analyzed through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), and ATR-FTIR. The obtained results showed that ozone treatment not only unsettles the virus morphology but also alters the virus proteins' structure and conformation through amino acid disturbance and Zn ion release from the virus non-structural proteins. These results could provide a clearer pathway for virus elimination and therapeutics preparation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Ozone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Protein Structure, Secondary/drug effects , Protein Structure, Tertiary/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Time Factors , Viral Envelope/chemistry , Viral Envelope/drug effects , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Zinc/chemistry , Zinc/metabolism
4.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410351

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity and virucidal mechanisms of ozonated water (OW) with those of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and 70% ethanol (EtOH). SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity was evaluated in a virus solution containing 1%, 20% or 40% fetal bovine serum (FBS) with OW, SAEW or EtOH at a virus-to-test solution ratio of 1:9, 1:19 or 1:99 for a reaction time of 20 s. EtOH showed the strongest virucidal activity, followed by SAEW and OW. Even though EtOH potently inactivated the virus despite the 40% FBS concentration, virus inactivation by OW and SAEW decreased in proportion to the increase in FBS concentration. Nevertheless, OW and SAEW showed potent virucidal activity with 40% FBS at a virus-to-test solution ratio of 1:99. Real-time PCR targeting the viral genome revealed that cycle threshold values in the OW and SAEW groups were significantly higher than those in the control group, suggesting that OW and SAEW disrupted the viral genome. Western blotting analysis targeting the recombinant viral spike protein S1 subunit showed a change in the specific band into a ladder upon treatment with OW and SAEW. OW and SAEW may cause conformational changes in the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Ethanol/pharmacology , Ozone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans
6.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308177

ABSTRACT

Influenza and RSV are human viruses responsible for outbreaks in hospitals, long-term care facilities and nursing homes. The present study assessed an air treatment using ozone at two relative humidity conditions (RHs) in order to reduce the infectivity of airborne influenza. Bovine pulmonary surfactant (BPS) and synthetic tracheal mucus (STM) were used as aerosols protectants to better reflect the human aerosol composition. Residual ozone concentration inside the aerosol chamber was also measured. RSV's sensitivity resulted in testing its resistance to aerosolization and sampling processes instead of ozone exposure. The results showed that without supplement and with STM, a reduction in influenza A infectivity of four orders of magnitude was obtained with an exposure to 1.70 ± 0.19 ppm of ozone at 76% RH for 80 min. Consequently, ozone could be considered as a virucidal disinfectant for airborne influenza A. RSV did not withstand the aerosolization and sampling processes required for the use of the experimental setup. Therefore, ozone exposure could not be performed for this virus. Nonetheless, this study provides great insight for the efficacy of ozone as an air treatment for the control of nosocomial influenza A outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/drug effects , Ozone/pharmacology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Ozone/administration & dosage , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control
7.
Food Environ Virol ; 13(3): 316-321, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281335

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity of ozonated glycerol (OG). When a viral solution with 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) was mixed with test solutions at a ratio of 1:19 and incubated for 20 s, OG with ozone concentrations of over 1000 ppm inactivated ≥ 94.38% of the virus. Extension of the reaction time to 1 h led to the inactivation of ≥ 99.82% of the virus (the viral titer was below the detection limit). Extension to 24 h resulted in concentrations over 200 ppm OG inactivating ≥ 99.87% of the virus (the viral titers were below the detection limit). Next, viral solutions with 1, 20, and 40% FBS were mixed with test solutions at a ratio of 1:19 and incubated for 5 min. Whereas the virucidal activity of 500 ppm OG was very limited in the presence of 1% FBS (79.47% inactivation), it increased in the presence of 20 and 40% FBS (95.13 and 97.95% inactivation, respectively; the viral titers were not below the detection limit). Meanwhile, over 1000 ppm OG inactivated ≥ 99.44% of the virus regardless of the FBS concentration (the viral titers were below the detection limit). Extension of the reaction time to 1 h led to 500 ppm OG inactivating ≥ 99.91 and ≥ 99.95% of the virus with 20 and 40% FBS, respectively (the viral titers were below the detection limit). These results suggested that OG might be useful as a virucidal agent against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Glycerol , Hand Hygiene/methods , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Ozone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chlorocebus aethiops , Skin , Vero Cells , Viral Load
8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107777, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225264

ABSTRACT

An increasing amount of reports in the literature is showing that medical ozone (O3) is used, with encouraging results, in treating COVID-19 patients, optimizing pain and symptoms relief, respiratory parameters, inflammatory and coagulation markers and the overall health status, so reducing significantly how much time patients underwent hospitalization and intensive care. To date, aside from mechanisms taking into account the ability of O3 to activate a rapid oxidative stress response, by up-regulating antioxidant and scavenging enzymes, no sound hypothesis was addressed to attempt a synopsis of how O3 should act on COVID-19. The knowledge on how O3 works on inflammation and thrombosis mechanisms is of the utmost importance to make physicians endowed with new guns against SARS-CoV2 pandemic. This review tries to address this issue, so to expand the debate in the scientific community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Oxidants, Photochemical/pharmacology , Ozone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans , Oxidative Stress/drug effects
9.
J Hosp Infect ; 112: 108-113, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presence of coronaviruses on surfaces in the patient environment is a potential source of indirect transmission. Manual cleaning and disinfection measures do not always achieve sufficient removal of surface contamination. This increases the importance of automated solutions in the context of final disinfection of rooms in the hospital setting. Ozone is a highly effective disinfectant which, combined with high humidity, is an effective agent against respiratory viruses. Current devices allow continuous nebulization for high room humidity as well as ozone production without any consumables. AIM: In the following study, the effectiveness of a fully automatic room decontamination system based on ozone was tested against bacteriophage Φ6 (phi 6) and bovine coronavirus L9, as surrogate viruses for the pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: For this purpose, various surfaces (ceramic tile, stainless steel surface and furniture board) were soiled with the surrogate viruses and placed at two different levels in a gas-tight test room. After using the automatic decontamination device according to the manufacturer's instructions, the surrogate viruses were recovered from the surfaces and examined by quantitative cultures. Then, reduction factors were calculated. FINDINGS: The ozone-based room decontamination device achieved virucidal efficacy (reduction factor >4 log10) against both surrogate organisms regardless of the different surfaces and positions confirming a high activity under the used conditions. CONCLUSION: Ozone is highly active against SARS-CoV-2 surrogate organisms. Further investigations are necessary for a safe application and efficacy in practice as well as integration into routine processes.


Subject(s)
Automation/instrumentation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/instrumentation , Disinfection/methods , Ozone/pharmacology , Animals , Bacteriophages/drug effects , COVID-19/transmission , Cattle , Coronavirus, Bovine/drug effects , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Decontamination/instrumentation , Decontamination/methods , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/virology , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
10.
Microbiol Immunol ; 65(1): 10-16, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066571

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Because complete elimination of SARS-CoV-2 appears difficult, decreasing the risk of transmission is important. Treatment with 0.1 and 0.05 ppm ozone gas for 10 and 20 hr, respectively, decreased SARS-CoV-2 infectivity by about 95%. The magnitude of the effect was dependent on humidity. Treatment with 1 and 2 mg/L ozone water for 10 s reduced SARS-CoV-2 infectivity by about 2 and 3 logs, respectively. Our results suggest that low-dose ozone, in the form of gas and water, is effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Ozone/pharmacology , Virulence/drug effects , Humidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
11.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021021

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Personal protective equipment shortages require the reuse of N95 respirators. We sought the necessary conditions for ozone to disinfect N95 respirators for reuse and the effects of multiple cycles of exposure. METHODS: Portions of 3M 1870 N95 respirators were exposed to ozone at 400 ppm with 80% humidity for 2 hours to determine effectiveness of ozone on killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Entire 3M 1870 N95 respirators were exposed to five cycles of 400 ppm with 80% or higher humidity for 2 hours then evaluated for ozone's effects on airflow resistance, filtration efficiency, strap strength and quantitative fit. RESULTS: Ozone exposure disinfected 3M 1870 N95 respirators heavily inoculated with P. aeruginosa. Ozone exposure did not negatively affect the airflow resistance, filtration efficiency, strap strength or fit of the 3M 1870 N95 respirator. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that ozone is a feasible strategy to disinfect N95 respirators for reuse during this and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ozone , Decontamination , Disinfection , Humans , N95 Respirators , Ozone/pharmacology , Pilot Projects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 206-210, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007445

ABSTRACT

The extremely rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 has already resulted in more than 1 million reported deaths of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The ability of infectious particles to persist on environmental surfaces is potentially considered a factor for viral spreading. Therefore, limiting viral diffusion in public environments should be achieved with correct disinfection of objects, tissues, and clothes. This study proves how two widespread disinfection systems, short-wavelength ultraviolet light (UV-C) and ozone (O3), are active in vitro on different commonly used materials. The development of devices equipped with UV-C, or ozone generators, may prevent the virus from spreading in public places.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Ozone/pharmacology , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects
13.
Microbiol Immunol ; 65(1): 10-16, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977457

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Because complete elimination of SARS-CoV-2 appears difficult, decreasing the risk of transmission is important. Treatment with 0.1 and 0.05 ppm ozone gas for 10 and 20 hr, respectively, decreased SARS-CoV-2 infectivity by about 95%. The magnitude of the effect was dependent on humidity. Treatment with 1 and 2 mg/L ozone water for 10 s reduced SARS-CoV-2 infectivity by about 2 and 3 logs, respectively. Our results suggest that low-dose ozone, in the form of gas and water, is effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Ozone/pharmacology , Virulence/drug effects , Humidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
15.
J Hosp Infect ; 105(2): 213-215, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324553

ABSTRACT

The effect of alcohol hand rub was tested in eradicating Escherichia coli, and compared with hand wash using ozonized tap water or soap and water. Alcohol eradicated all bacteria in 10 out of 35 participants, but with an average (SD) of 2330 (4227) cfu/mL left after disinfection, whereas ozonized water removed all bacteria in 10 out of 55 participants, with an average of only 538 (801) cfu/mL left (P = 0.045). Soap washing was the most effective with total removal of bacteria in six out of 20 participants, with an average of 98 (139) cfu/mL (P = 0.048 and 0.018 versus ozonized water and alcohol, respectively).


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Soaps/pharmacology , Water/pharmacology , 2-Propanol/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Colony Count, Microbial , Disinfectants/classification , Ethanol/pharmacology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Ozone/pharmacology , Young Adult
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