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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1327: 151-160, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316245

ABSTRACT

Recent investigations are seeking a novel treatment to control the new pandemic of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19). The aim of this systematic review was to study the effect of ozone therapy on COVID-19 patients and the available supporting evidence. Electronic databases including MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), and TRIP, clinical trial registries, and preprint sources were searched for published evidence-based articles. In addition, manual searching was conducted for articles published up to April 6, 2020, using MeSH and free text keywords with no language limitation. Articles were screened, categorized, and extracted for relative data. Data were reported in a descriptive manner. Among 234 articles, 9 were selected for review of the inclusion criteria. No published original articles were found regarding the efficacy of ozone therapy on COVID-19. Five review studies were found in which the potential role of systemic ozone therapy was concluded to be effective in controlling COVID-19 because of its antiviral, oxygenation, anti-inflammatory, oxidation balancing, and immunomodulation effects. Three ongoing clinical trials were registered in China. A preliminary report of an ongoing study in Italy on 46 patients (11 intubated and 35 non-intubated) showed that in 39 (84%) of the patients, an improvement was seen. In spite of the promising background data, as well as the expert opinions and a preliminary report indicating the effectiveness of ozone, there is still not enough evidence to confirm this as a viable treatment option for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ozone , China , Humans , Italy , Ozone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107743, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226294

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Ozone therapy has tremendous therapeutic potential owing to its antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and potential to improve oxygenation. A pilot clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy ofintravenous ozonised saline treatment in patients with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 10 patients were administered 200 ml freshly prepared ozonised saline intravenously over 1 h once a day for 8 days along with standard medical treatment. Clinical symptoms were monitored everyday and laboratory biomarkers, radiological findings at 1,3,6,10 days. Telephonic follow up was done for all after discharge till Day 14. 7 out of 10 patients required oxygen supplementation at recruitment. RESULTS: There was severe adverse event recorded in the study group.All patients improved from moderate to mild category in average 8 days and were discharged in average 9.7 days. None deteriorated to severe stage. All clinical symptoms resolved within 6 days and oxygen supplementation requirement reduced to none within 4.1 days. There wasstatistically significant reduction inCRP (p = 0.003), D-Dimer (p = 0.049), IL6 (p = 0.002)and statistically significant improvement (p = 0.001) in SpO2/FiO2 ratio. Change in LDH was borderline statistically not significant (p = 0.058).All patients showed significant resolution of bilateral interstitial infiltrates at the end of 10 days. CONCLUSION: Resolved clinical symptoms, improved oxygenation, clearance of infiltrates on Chest X-ray and improvement in biomarkers in a short period with non-progression of the disease showed that IV ozonised saline therapy was safe and effective to prevent disease progression in COVID-19, making it an effective novel therapeutic tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Ozone/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 92: 107307, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988108

ABSTRACT

Severe forms of COVID-19 can evolve into pneumonia, featured by acute respiratory failure due to acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In viral diseases, the replication of viruses is seemingly stimulated by an imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity as well as by the deprivation of antioxidant mechanisms. In COVID-19 pneumonia, oxidative stress also appears to be highly detrimental to lung tissues. Although inhaling ozone (O3) gas has been shown to be toxic to the lungs, recent evidence suggests that its administration via appropriate routes and at small doses can paradoxically induce an adaptive reaction capable of decreasing the endogenous oxidative stress. Ozone therapy is recommended to counter the disruptive effects of severe COVID-19 on lung tissues, especially if administered in early stages of the disease, thereby preventing the progression to ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Oxidants, Photochemical/therapeutic use , Ozone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans
6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 91: 107301, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988107

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) has accounted for multiple deaths and economic woes.While the entire medical fraternity and scientists are putting their best feet forward to find a solution to contain this deadly pandemic, there is a growing interest in integrating other known alternative therapies in to standard care. This study is aimed at evaluating the safety and efficacy of ozone therapy (OT), as an adjuvant to the standard of care (SOC). METHODS: In the current randomized control trial, 60 patients with mild to moderate score NEWS score were included in two parallel groups (n = 30/group). The interventional group (OZ) received ozonized rectal insufflation and minor auto haemotherapy, daily along with SOC, while the control group (ST) received SOC alone. The main outcome measures included changes in clinical features, oxygenation index (SpO2), NEWS score, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), inflammatory markers, requirement of advanced care, and metabolic profiles. RESULTS: The OZ group has shown clinically significant improvement in the mean values of all the parameters tested compared to ST Group. However, statistical significance were only observed in RT-PCR negative reaction (P = 0.01), changes in clinical symptoms (P < 0.05) and requirement for Intensive care (P < 0.05). No adverse events were reported in OZ group, as against 2 deaths reported in ST group. CONCLUSION: OT when integrated with SOC can improve the clinical status and rapidly reduce the viral load compared to SOC alone, which facilitate early recovery and check the need for advanced care and mortality as demonstrated in this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Ozone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Critical Care/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 90: 107261, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is still no specific treatment strategies for COVID-19 other than supportive management. DESIGN: A prospective case-control study determined by admittance to the hospital based on bed availability. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen patients with COVID-19 infection (laboratory confirmed) severe pneumonia admitted to hospital between 20th March and 19th April 2020. Patients admitted to the hospital during the study period were assigned to different beds based on bed availability. Depending on the bed the patient was admitted, the treatment was ozone autohemotherapy or standard treatment. Patients in the case group received ozonated blood twice daily starting on the day of admission for a median of four days. Each treatment involved administration of 200 mL autologous whole blood enriched with 200 mL of oxygen-ozone mixture with a 40 µg/mL ozone concentration. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was time from hospital admission to clinical improvement. RESULTS: Nine patients (50%) received ozonated autohemotherapy beginning on the day of admission. Ozonated autohemotherapy was associated with shorter time to clinical improvement (median [IQR]), 7 days [6-10] vs 28 days [8-31], p = 0.04) and better outcomes at 14-days (88.8% vs 33.3%, p = 0.01). In risk-adjusted analyses, ozonated autohemotherapy was associated with a shorter mean time to clinical improvement (-11.3 days, p = 0.04, 95% CI -22.25 to -0.42). CONCLUSION: Ozonated autohemotherapy was associated with a significantly shorter time to clinical improvement in this prospective case-control study. Given the small sample size and study design, these results require evaluation in larger randomized controlled trials. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04444531.


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion, Autologous , COVID-19/therapy , Ozone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
8.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(4 Suppl. 1): 1-13. SPECIAL ISSUE: OZONE THERAPY, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919947

ABSTRACT

Despite various opinions and healthy controversy on Ozone Therapy (OT), the practices of this therapy have increased worldwide. Main areas of study with consistent scientific outcomes are the topical treatment of both disk herniation and periodontal disease. On the other hand, there is a net dissociation of the scientific resonance concerning systemic oxygen/ozone treatments. It is our intention to discuss in logical terms the numerous papers that commendably reported adverse reactions attributable to OT, focusing our attention mainly to the techniques of administration and not to the simple contact of ozone with biological material. The case reports on OT treatments safety concerns discussed on international journals, make it possible to state that most safety issues are secondary to infections or traumatic reactions due to malpractice. Commonly, the molecule of ozone itself is not responsible of severe reactions at the therapeutic modalities. The millions of patients treated so far from the thousands of physicians correctly practicing OT world widely in the last 40 years demonstrate the safety of this simple and cost-effective regenerative medicine tool. The promising therapeutic implications also for the current COVID-19 emergency are a further stimulus to the standardization of this therapeutic resource with multiple application specificities.


Subject(s)
Ozone/therapeutic use , Regenerative Medicine/trends , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 88: 106879, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the potential efficacy of a novel approach to treat COVID-19 patients, using an oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) mixture, via a process called Oxygen-Ozone- Immunoceutical Therapy. The methodology met the criteria of a novel, promising approach to treat successfully elderly COVID-19 patients, particularly when hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) Experimental design: We investigated the therapeutic effect of 4 cycles of O2-O3 in 50 hospitalized COVID-19 subjects suffering from acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS), aged more than 60 years, all males and undergoing non invasive mechanical ventilation in ICUs. RESULTS: Following O2-O3 treatment a significant improvement in inflammation and oxygenation indexes occurred rapidly and within the first 9 days after the treatment, despite the expected 14-20 days. A significant reduction of inflammatory and thromboembolic markers (CRP, IL-6, D-dimer) was observed. Furthermore, amelioration in the major respiratory indexes, such as respiratory and gas exchange markers (SatO2%, PaO2/FiO2 ratio), was reported. CONCLUSION: Our results show that O2-O3 treatment would be a promising therapy for COVID-19 patients. It leads patients to a fast recovery from ARDS via the improvement of major respiratory indexes and blood gas parameters, following a relatively short time of dispensed forced ventilation (about one to two weeks). This study may encourage the scientific community to further investigate and evaluate the proposed method for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Ozone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy/instrumentation , Infusions, Intravenous , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Ozone/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(3): 669-675, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898127

ABSTRACT

The emerging outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread worldwide. We prescribed some promising medication to our patients with mild to moderate pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2, however such drugs as chloroquine, hydrossichloroquine, azithromycin, antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/cobicistat) and immunomodulating agents (steroids, tocilizumab) were not confirmed as effective against SARS-CoV2. We, therefore, started to use auto-hemotherapy treated with an oxygen/ozone (O2/O3) gaseous mixture as adjuvant therapy. In Udine University Hospital (Italy) we performed a case-control study involving hospitalized adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 with mild to moderate pneumonia. Clinical presentations are based upon clinical phenotypes identified by the Italian Society of Emergency and Urgency Medicine (SIMEU-Società Italiana di Medicina di Emergenza-Urgenza) and patients that met criteria of phenotypes 2 to 4 were treated with best available therapy (BAT), with or without O3-autohemotherapy. 60 patients were enrolled in the study: 30 patients treated with BAT and O2/O3 mixture, as adjuvant therapy and 30 controls treated with BAT only. In the group treated with O3-autohemotherapy plus BAT, patients were younger but with more severe clinical phenotypes. A decrease of SIMEU clinical phenotypes was observed (2.70 ± 0.67 vs. 2.35 ± 0.88, p = 0.002) in all patients during hospitalization but this clinical improvement was statistically significant only in O3-treated patients (2.87 ± 0.78 vs. 2.27 ± 0.83, p < 0.001), differently to the control group (2.53 ± 0.51 vs. 2.43 ± 0.93, p = 0.522). No adverse events were observed associated with the application of O2/O3 gaseous mixture. O2/O3 therapy as adjuvant therapy could be useful in mild to moderate pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2. Randomized prospective study is ongoing [Clinical Trials.gov ID: Z7C2CA5837].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Ozone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Virus Res ; 291: 198207, 2021 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894257

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this narrative review is to describe the available evidence on the possible antiviral activity of ozone in patients with COVID-19 and its therapeutic applicability through hospital protocols. Amongst different possible therapies for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, ozone therapy seems to have an immunological role because of the modulation of cytokines and interferons, including the induction of gamma interferon. Some data suggest the possible role of ozone therapy in SARS, either as a monotherapy or, more realistically, as an adjunct to standard treatment regimens; therefore, there is increasing interest in the role of ozone therapy in COVID-19 treatment The PubMed and Scopus databases and the Italian Scientific Society of Oxygen Ozone Therapy website were used to identify articles focused on ozone therapy. The search was limited to articles published from January 2011 to July 2020. Of 280 articles found on ozone therapy, 13 were selected and narratively reviewed. Ozone exerts antiviral activity through the inhibition of viral replication and direct inactivation of viruses. Ozone is an antiviral drug enhancer and is not an alternative to antiviral drugs. Combined treatment with involving ozone and antivirals demonstrated a reduction in inflammation and lung damage. The routes of ozone administration are direct intravenous, major autohaemotherapy and extravascular blood oxygenation-ozonation. Systemic ozone therapy seems useful in controlling inflammation, stimulating immunity and as antiviral activity and providing protection from acute coronary syndromes and ischaemia reperfusion damage, thus suggesting a new methodology of immune therapy. Systemic ozone therapy in combination with antivirals in COVID-19-positive patients may be justified, helpful and synergic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ozone/therapeutic use , Humans
12.
Med Gas Res ; 10(3): 134-138, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809850

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the respiratory disease caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 and is characterized by clinical manifestations ranging from mild, flu-like symptoms to severe respiratory insufficiency and multi-organ failure. Patients with more severe symptoms may require intensive care treatments and face a high mortality risk. Also, thrombotic complications such as pulmonary embolisms and disseminated intravascular coagulation are frequent in these patients. Indeed, COVID-19 is characterized by an abnormal inflammatory response resembling a cytokine storm, which is associated to endothelial dysfunction and microvascular complications. To date, no specific treatments are available for COVID-19 and its life-threatening complication. Immunomodulatory drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine and interleukin-6 inhibitors, as well as antithrombotic drugs such as heparin and low molecular weight heparin, are currently being administered with some benefit. Ozone therapy consists in the administration of a mixture of ozone and oxygen, called medical ozone, which has been used for over a century as an unconventional medicine practice for several diseases. Medical ozone rationale in COVID-19 is the possibility of contrasting endothelial dysfunction, modulating the immune response and acting as a virustatic agent. Thus, medical ozone could help to decrease lung inflammation, slow down viral growth, regulate lung circulation and oxygenation and prevent microvascular thrombosis. Ozone-therapy could be considered a feasible, cost-effective and easy to administer adjuvant therapy while waiting for the synthesis of a therapy or the development of the vaccine.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Ozone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925849, 2020 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Pneumonia caused by coronavirus originated in Wuhan, China in late 2019 and has spread around the world, becoming a pandemic. Many patients deteriorate rapidly and require intubation and mechanical ventilation, which is causing the collapse of healthcare systems in many countries. Coronavirus infection is associated with extensive lung inflammation and microvascular thrombosis, which can result in hypoxia. It can also cause severe and lasting harm in other organs, including the heart and kidneys. At present, there is no proven and efficacious treatment for this new disease. Consequently, there is a growing tendency to use novel methods. Ozone therapy consists of administration of a mixture of oxygen and ozone (a molecule consisting of 3 oxygen atoms). The potential benefits of this therapy include reduced tissue hypoxia, decreased hypercoagulability, renal and heart protection, modulated immune function, improved phagocytic function, and impaired viral replication. CASE REPORT We report rapidly improved hypoxia with associated decreases in inflammatory markers and D-dimer immediately after 1-4 sessions of oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) therapy in 3 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who presented with respiratory failure. Invasive mechanical ventilation was not required in these 3 patients. All patients were discharged home on days 3-4 after O2-O3 therapy. CONCLUSIONS O2-O3 therapy appears to be an effective therapy for COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure. Large controlled clinical trials are required to study the efficacy and safety of using O2-O3 therapy compared with the standard supportive case in patients with COVID-19 in terms of the need for invasive ventilation and length of hospital and intensive care unit stays.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Ozone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Blood Transfusion, Autologous , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hypoxia/therapy , Hypoxia/virology , Infusions, Intravenous , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Radiography , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(3): 757-766, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401296

ABSTRACT

The aim of the multicentre study promoted by Nuova FIO is to evaluate the beneficial effects of the systemic Oxygen-Ozone (O2O3) therapy in patients suffering from SARS COV-2 disease in the early phases of the disease, before worsening, up to the need of tracheal intubation. The study is based on the rationale on that the systemic oxygen-ozone treatment could be effective, positively influencing the disease evolution and/or being able to mitigate the onset of the cytokine storm syndrome at least partially.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Ozone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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