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1.
J Clin Invest ; 132(4)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685790

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, causes mild to moderate disease in most patients but carries a risk of morbidity and mortality. Seriously affected individuals manifest disorders of hemostasis and a cytokine storm, but it is not understood how these manifestations of severe COVID-19 are linked. Here, we showed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein engaged the CD42b receptor to activate platelets via 2 distinct signaling pathways and promoted platelet-monocyte communication through the engagement of P selectin/PGSL-1 and CD40L/CD40, which led to proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytes. These results explain why hypercoagulation, monocyte activation, and a cytokine storm are correlated in patients severely affected by COVID-19 and suggest a potential target for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/physiology , COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/blood , Monocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , CD40 Antigens/blood , CD40 Ligand/blood , Cell Communication , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , HEK293 Cells , Humans , P-Selectin/blood
3.
Biomolecules ; 11(9)2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408458

ABSTRACT

Systemic vascular damage with micro/macro-thrombosis is a typical feature of severe COVID-19. However, the pathogenesis of this damage and its predictive biomarkers remain poorly defined. For this reason, in this study, serum monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-2 and P- and E-selectin levels were analyzed in 204 patients with COVID-19. Serum MCP-2 and P-selectin were significantly higher in hospitalized patients compared with asymptomatic patients. Furthermore, MCP-2 increased with the WHO stage in hospitalized patients. After 1 week of hospitalization, MCP-2 levels were significantly reduced, while P-selectin increased in patients in WHO stage 3 and decreased in patients in WHO stages 5-7. Serum E-selectin was not significantly different between asymptomatic and hospitalized patients. The lower MCP-2 levels after 1 week suggest that endothelial damage triggered by monocytes occurs early in COVID-19 disease progression. MCP-2 may also predict COVID-19 severity. The increase in P-selectin levels, which further increased in mild patients and reduced in severe patients after 1 week of hospitalization, suggests that the inactive form of the protein produced by the cleavage of the active protein from the platelet membrane is present. This may be used to identify a subset of patients that would benefit from targeted therapies. The unchanged levels of E-selectin in these patients suggest that endothelial damage is less relevant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemokine CCL8/blood , E-Selectin/blood , Endothelium, Vascular , P-Selectin/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/injuries , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/pathology
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344351

ABSTRACT

Progressive respiratory failure is seen as a major cause of death in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection. Relatively little is known about the associated morphologic and molecular changes in the circulation of these patients. In particular, platelet and erythrocyte pathology might result in severe vascular issues, and the manifestations may include thrombotic complications. These thrombotic pathologies may be both extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary and may be central to respiratory failure. Previously, we reported the presence of amyloid microclots in the circulation of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we investigate the presence of related circulating biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, and P-selectin. These biomarkers are well-known to interact with, and cause pathology to, platelets and erythrocytes. We also study the structure of platelets and erythrocytes using fluorescence microscopy (using the markers PAC-1 and CD62PE) and scanning electron microscopy. Thromboelastography and viscometry were also used to study coagulation parameters and plasma viscosity. We conclude that structural pathologies found in platelets and erythrocytes, together with spontaneously formed amyloid microclots, may be central to vascular changes observed during COVID-19 progression, including thrombotic microangiopathy, diffuse intravascular coagulation, and large-vessel thrombosis, as well as ground-glass opacities in the lungs. Consequently, this clinical snapshot of COVID-19 strongly suggests that it is also a true vascular disease and considering it as such should form an essential part of a clinical treatment regime.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Erythrocytes/pathology , Ferritins/blood , P-Selectin/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Erythrocytes/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325684

ABSTRACT

In severe COVID-19, which is characterized by blood clots and neutrophil-platelet aggregates in the circulating blood and different tissues, an increased incidence of cardiovascular complications and venous thrombotic events has been reported. The inflammatory storm that characterizes severe infections may act as a driver capable of profoundly disrupting the complex interplay between platelets, endothelium, and leukocytes, thus contributing to the definition of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. In this frame, P-selectin represents a key molecule expressed on endothelial cells and on activated platelets, and contributes to endothelial activation, leucocyte recruitment, rolling, and tissue migration. Briefly, we describe the current state of knowledge about P-selectin involvement in COVID-19 pathogenesis, its possible use as a severity marker and as a target for host-directed therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , COVID-19/complications , P-Selectin/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism
6.
Life Sci ; 277: 119634, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233529

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To our knowledge, the diagnostic value of the sP-Selectin level in the diagnosis of COVID-19 disease has not yet been investigated. In this study, we aimed to assess this by evaluating the relationship between sP-Selectin level and the clinical severity of COVID-19 infections. METHODS: A total of 80 patients (50 with mild to moderate and 30 with severe COVID-19 pneumonia), and 60 non-symptomatic healthy volunteers participated in the study. Following serum isolation, sP-Selectin levels were assessed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. RESULTS: The serum sP-Selectin level was 1.7 ng/ml in the control group (1-3.78); 6.24 ng/ml (5.14-7.23) in mild-to-moderate pneumonia group; and 6.72 ng/ml (5.36-8.03) in the severe pneumonia group. Serum sP-Selectin levels in both mild-to-moderate pneumonia and severe pneumonia groups were found to be higher than the control group, with statistical significance (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC) showed greater area under the curve (AUC) for the serum sP-Selectin levels of the COVID-19 patients (AUC = 0.913, 95% CI = 0.857-0.969; p = 0.0001). The serum sP-Selectin level was found to be 97.5% sensitive and 80% specific at 4.125 ng/ml level for diagnosis (p = 0.0001). The serum sP-Selectin level was found to be 76.9% sensitive and 51.9% specific at the level of 6.12 ng/ml (p = 0.005) to predict the need for intensive care treatment. CONCLUSION: This study showed that sP-Selectin can be used as a valuable biomarker in both diagnosing and predicting the need for intensive care treatment of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , P-Selectin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 1076029621999099, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175260

ABSTRACT

Among COVID-19 hospitalized patients, high incidence of alterations in inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers correlates with a poor prognosis. Comorbidities such as chronic degenerative diseases are frequently associated with complications in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate inflammatory and procoagulant biomarkers in COVID-19 patients from a public hospital in Mexico. Blood was sampled within the first 48 h after admission in 119 confirmed COVID-19 patients that were classified in 3 groups according to oxygen demand, evolution and the severity of the disease as follows: 1) Non severe: nasal cannula or oxygen mask; 2) Severe: high flow nasal cannula and 3) Death: mechanical ventilation eventually leading to fatal outcome. Blood samples from 20 healthy donors were included as a Control Group. Analysis of inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers including D-dimer, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, PAI-1, P-selectin and VWF was performed in plasma. Routine laboratory and clinical biomarkers were also included and compared among groups. Concentrations of D-dimer (14.5 ± 13.8 µg/ml) and PAI-1 (1223 ± 889.6 ng/ml) were significantly elevated in severe COVID-19 patients (P < 0.0001). A significant difference was found in interleukin-6, PAI-1 and P-selectin in non-severe and healthy donors when compared to Severe COVID-19 and deceased patients (P < 0.001). VWF levels were also significantly different between severe patients (153.5 ± 24.3 UI/dl) and non-severe ones (133.9 ± 20.2 UI/dl) (P < 0.0001). WBC and glucose levels were also significantly elevated in patients with Severe COVID-19. Plasma concentrations of all prothrombotic biomarkers were significantly higher in patients with a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Inflammation Mediators/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , P-Selectin/blood , Pandemics , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/blood , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
8.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 74, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers can be used to detect the presence of endothelial and/or alveolar epithelial injuries in case of ARDS. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), P-selectin and E-selectin are biomarkers of endothelial injury, whereas the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) reflects alveolar epithelial injury. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether the plasma concentration of the above-mentioned biomarkers was different 1) in survivors and non-survivors of COVID-19-related ARDS and 2) in COVID-19-related and classical ARDS. METHODS: This prospective study was performed in two COVID-19-dedicated Intensive Care Units (ICU) and one non-COVID-19 ICU at Ferrara University Hospital. A cohort of 31 mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 ARDS and a cohort of 11 patients with classical ARDS were enrolled. Ang-2, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, P-selectin, E-selectin and RAGE were determined with a bead-based multiplex immunoassay at three time points: inclusion in the study (T1), after 7 ± 2 days (T2) and 14 ± 2 days (T3). The primary outcome was to evaluate the plasma trend of the biomarker levels in survivors and non-survivors. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the differences in respiratory mechanics variables and gas exchanges between survivors and non-survivors. Furthermore, we compared the plasma levels of the biomarkers at T1 in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS and classical ARDS. RESULTS: In COVID-19-related ARDS, the plasma levels of Ang-2 and ICAM-1 at T1 were statistically higher in non-survivors than survivors, (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively), whereas those of P-selectin, E-selectin and RAGE did not differ. Ang-2 and ICAM-1 at T1 were predictors of mortality (AUROC 0.650 and 0.717, respectively). At T1, RAGE and P-selectin levels were higher in classical ARDS than in COVID-19-related ARDS. Ang-2, ICAM-1 and E-selectin were lower in classical ARDS than in COVID-19-related ARDS (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 ARDS is characterized by an early pulmonary endothelial injury, as detected by Ang-2 and ICAM-1. COVID-19 ARDS and classical ARDS exhibited a different expression of biomarkers, suggesting different pathological pathways. Trial registration NCT04343053 , Date of registration: April 13, 2020.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , Lung Injury/diagnosis , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Aged , Antigens, Neoplasm/analysis , Antigens, Neoplasm/blood , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , E-Selectin/analysis , E-Selectin/blood , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , Lung Injury/blood , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/blood , P-Selectin/analysis , P-Selectin/blood , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Versicans/analysis , Versicans/blood , Vesicular Transport Proteins/analysis , Vesicular Transport Proteins/blood
9.
PLoS Biol ; 19(2): e3001109, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088651

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected over 30 million globally to date. Although high rates of venous thromboembolism and evidence of COVID-19-induced endothelial dysfunction have been reported, the precise aetiology of the increased thrombotic risk associated with COVID-19 infection remains to be fully elucidated. Therefore, we assessed clinical platelet parameters and circulating platelet activity in patients with severe and nonsevere COVID-19. An assessment of clinical blood parameters in patients with severe COVID-19 disease (requiring intensive care), patients with nonsevere disease (not requiring intensive care), general medical in-patients without COVID-19, and healthy donors was undertaken. Platelet function and activity were also assessed by secretion and specific marker analysis. We demonstrated that routine clinical blood parameters including increased mean platelet volume (MPV) and decreased platelet:neutrophil ratio are associated with disease severity in COVID-19 upon hospitalisation and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Strikingly, agonist-induced ADP release was 30- to 90-fold higher in COVID-19 patients compared with hospitalised controls and circulating levels of platelet factor 4 (PF4), soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), and thrombopoietin (TPO) were also significantly elevated in COVID-19. This study shows that distinct differences exist in routine full blood count and other clinical laboratory parameters between patients with severe and nonsevere COVID-19. Moreover, we have determined all COVID-19 patients possess hyperactive circulating platelets. These data suggest abnormal platelet reactivity may contribute to hypercoagulability in COVID-19 and confirms the role that platelets/clotting has in determining the severity of the disease and the complexity of the recovery path.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Aged , Blood Coagulation , Blood Platelets/cytology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hemostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Male , Mean Platelet Volume , Middle Aged , P-Selectin/blood , Phenotype , Platelet Factor 4/blood , Platelet Function Tests , Thrombopoietin/blood
10.
Platelets ; 32(4): 560-567, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998117

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study (NCT04343053) is to investigate the relationship between platelet activation, myocardial injury, and mortality in patients affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Fifty-four patients with respiratory failure due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were enrolled as cases. Eleven patients with the same clinical presentation, but negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection, were included as controls. Blood samples were collected at three different time points (inclusion [T1], after 7 ± 2 days [T2] and 14 ± 2 days [T3]). Platelet aggregation by light transmittance aggregometry and the circulating levels of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and P-selectin were measured. Platelet biomarkers did not differ between cases and controls, except for sCD40L which was higher in COVID-19 patients (p = .003). In COVID-19 patients, P-selectin and sCD40L levels decreased from T1 to T3 and were higher in cases requiring admission to intensive care unit (p = .004 and p = .008, respectively). Patients with myocardial injury (37%), as well as those who died (30%), had higher values of all biomarkers of platelet activation (p < .05 for all). Myocardial injury was an independent predictor of mortality. In COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital for respiratory failure, heightened platelet activation is associated with severity of illness, myocardial injury, and mortality.ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04343053.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , Myocardium , Respiratory Insufficiency , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , CD40 Ligand/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Heart Injuries/blood , Heart Injuries/mortality , Heart Injuries/pathology , Heart Injuries/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , P-Selectin/blood , Platelet Aggregation , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology
11.
Redox Biol ; 38: 101764, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880596

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections cause the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and challenge the immune system with ongoing inflammation. Several redox-relevant micronutrients are known to contribute to an adequate immune response, including the essential trace elements zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that COVID-19 patients are characterised by Zn deficiency and that Zn status provides prognostic information. Serum Zn was determined in serum samples (n = 171) collected consecutively from patients surviving COVID-19 (n = 29) or non-survivors (n = 6). Data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were used for comparison. Zn concentrations in patient samples were low as compared to healthy subjects (mean ± SD; 717.4 ± 246.2 vs 975.7 ± 294.0 µg/L, P < 0.0001). The majority of serum samples collected at different time points from the non-survivors (25/34, i.e., 73.5%) and almost half of the samples collected from the survivors (56/137, i.e., 40.9%) were below the threshold for Zn deficiency, i.e., below 638.7 µg/L (the 2.5th percentile in the EPIC cohort). In view that the Se status biomarker and Se transporter selenoprotein P (SELENOP) is also particularly low in COVID-19, we tested the prevalence of a combined deficit, i.e., serum Zn below 638.7 µg/L and serum SELENOP below 2.56 mg/L. This combined deficit was observed in 0.15% of samples in the EPIC cohort of healthy subjects, in 19.7% of the samples collected from the surviving COVID-19 patients and in 50.0% of samples from the non-survivors. Accordingly, the composite biomarker (SELENOP and Zn with age) proved as a reliable indicator of survival in COVID-19 by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, yielding an area under the curve (AUC) of 94.42%. We conclude that Zn and SELENOP status within the reference ranges indicate high survival odds in COVID-19, and assume that correcting a diagnostically proven deficit in Se and/or Zn by a personalised supplementation may support convalescence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , P-Selectin/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Zinc/blood , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Survival Rate
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