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Iran J Med Sci ; 47(2): 114-122, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761632


Background: Negative effects of statins on glucose metabolism have been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of co-administration of vitamin E and atorvastatin on glycemic control in hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: A randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted at Vali-e-Asr Teaching Hospital (Zanjan, Iran) from July 2017 to March 2018. A total of 30 T2DM female patients were allocated to two groups, namely atorvastatin with placebo (n=15) and atorvastatin with vitamin E (n=15). The patients received daily 20 mg atorvastatin and 400 IU vitamin E or placebo for 12 weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical measures were recorded pre- and post-intervention. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Independent sample t test and paired t test were used to analyze between- and within-group variables, respectively. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to adjust the effect of baseline variables on the outcomes. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: After baseline adjustment, there was a significant improvement in homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P=0.04) and serum insulin (P<0.001) in the atorvastatin with vitamin E group compared to the atorvastatin with the placebo group. In addition, co-administration of vitamin E with atorvastatin significantly upregulated PPAR-γ expression (OR=5.4, P=0.04) in the PBMCs of T2DM patients. Conclusion: Co-administration of vitamin E and atorvastatin reduced insulin resistance and improved PPAR-γ mRNA expression. Further studies are required to substantiate our findings. Trial registration number: IRCT 20170918036256N.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin Resistance , Atorvastatin/metabolism , Atorvastatin/pharmacology , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , PPAR gamma/genetics , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Vitamin E/metabolism , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Vitamin E/therapeutic use
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597185


Beta-3 adrenergic receptor activation via exercise or CL316,243 (CL) induces white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, improves glucose tolerance, and reduces visceral adiposity. Our aim was to determine if sex or adipose tissue depot differences exist in response to CL. Daily CL injections were administered to diet-induced obese male and female mice for two weeks, creating four groups: male control, male CL, female control, and female CL. These groups were compared to determine the main and interaction effects of sex (S), CL treatment (T), and WAT depot (D). Glucose tolerance, body composition, and energy intake and expenditure were assessed, along with perigonadal (PGAT) and subcutaneous (SQAT) WAT gene and protein expression. CL consistently improved glucose tolerance and body composition. Female PGAT had greater protein expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), while SQAT (S, p < 0.001) was more responsive to CL in increasing UCP1 (S×T, p = 0.011) and the mitochondrial biogenesis induction protein, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) (S×T, p = 0.026). Females also displayed greater mitochondrial OXPHOS (S, p < 0.05) and adiponectin protein content (S, p < 0.05). On the other hand, male SQAT was more responsive to CL in increasing protein levels of PGC1α (S×T, p = 0.046) and adiponectin (S, p < 0.05). In both depots and in both sexes, CL significantly increased estrogen receptor beta (ERß) and glucose-related protein 75 (GRP75) protein content (T, p < 0.05). Thus, CL improves systemic and adipose tissue-specific metabolism in both sexes; however, sex differences exist in the WAT-specific effects of CL. Furthermore, across sexes and depots, CL affects estrogen signaling by upregulating ERß.

Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , PPAR gamma/genetics , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha/genetics , Uncoupling Protein 1/genetics , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adipose Tissue, Brown/growth & development , Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism , Animals , Body Composition/genetics , Dioxoles/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism/genetics , Estrogen Receptor beta/genetics , Estrogens/genetics , Estrogens/metabolism , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Male , Mice , Mitochondria/genetics , Mitochondria/metabolism , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3/genetics , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3/metabolism , Sex Characteristics
Bioengineered ; 12(2): 12461-12469, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585255


Severe mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted from the lack of effective treatment. Although COVID-19 vaccines are available, their side effects have become a challenge for clinical use in patients with chronic diseases, especially cancer patients. In the current report, we applied network pharmacology and systematic bioinformatics to explore the use of biochanin A in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and COVID-19 infection. Using the network pharmacology approach, we identified two clusters of genes involved in immune response (IL1A, IL2, and IL6R) and cell proliferation (CCND1, PPARG, and EGFR) mediated by biochanin A in CRC/COVID-19 condition. The functional analysis of these two gene clusters further illustrated the effects of biochanin A on interleukin-6 production and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction in CRC/COVID-19 pathology. In addition, pathway analysis demonstrated the control of PI3K-Akt and JAK-STAT signaling pathways by biochanin A in the treatment of CRC/COVID-19. The findings of this study provide a therapeutic option for combination therapy against COVID-19 infection in CRC patients.

Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Genistein/therapeutic use , Phytoestrogens/therapeutic use , Atlases as Topic , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/immunology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Cyclin D1/genetics , Cyclin D1/immunology , ErbB Receptors/genetics , ErbB Receptors/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-1alpha/genetics , Interleukin-1alpha/immunology , Interleukin-2/genetics , Interleukin-2/immunology , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/immunology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Multigene Family , PPAR gamma/genetics , PPAR gamma/immunology , Pharmacogenetics/methods , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/immunology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/immunology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , STAT Transcription Factors/immunology , Signal Transduction