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Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12948, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279894


COVID 19 disease has become a global catastrophe over the past year that has claimed the lives of over two million people around the world. Despite the introduction of vaccines against the disease, there is still a long way to completely eradicate it. There are concerns about the complications following infection with SARS-CoV-2. This research aimed to evaluate the possible correlation between infection with SARS-CoV viruses and cancer in an in-silico study model. To do this, the relevent dataset was selected from GEO database. Identification of differentially expressed genes among defined groups including SARS-CoV, SARS-dORF6, SARS-BatSRBD, and H1N1 were screened where the |Log FC| ≥ 1and p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Later, the pathway enrichment analysis and gene ontology (GO) were used by Enrichr and Shiny GO databases. Evaluation with STRING online was applied to predict the functional interactions of proteins, followed by Cytoscape analysis to identify the master genes. Finally, analysis with GEPIA2 server was carried out to reveal the possible correlation between candidate genes and cancer development. The results showed that the main molecular function of up- and down-regulated genes was "double-stranded RNA binding" and actin-binding, respectively. STRING and Cytoscape analysis presented four genes, PTEN, CREB1, CASP3, and SMAD3 as the key genes involved in cancer development. According to TCGA database results, these four genes were up-regulated notably in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our findings suggest that pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most probably malignancy happening after infection with SARS-CoV family.

Adenocarcinoma/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/complications , Pancreatic Neoplasms/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Caspase 3/genetics , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Ontology , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps , Risk , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Smad3 Protein/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics
FEBS J ; 288(24): 7123-7142, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085289


The adaptive immune system has the enormous challenge to protect the host through the generation and differentiation of pathogen-specific short-lived effector T cells while in parallel developing long-lived memory cells to control future encounters with the same pathogen. A complex regulatory network is needed to preserve a population of naïve cells over lifetime that exhibit sufficient diversity of antigen receptors to respond to new antigens, while also sustaining immune memory. In parallel, cells need to maintain their proliferative potential and the plasticity to differentiate into different functional lineages. Initial signs of waning immune competence emerge after 50 years of age, with increasing clinical relevance in the 7th-10th decade of life. Morbidity and mortality from infections increase, as drastically exemplified by the current COVID-19 pandemic. Many vaccines, such as for the influenza virus, are poorly effective to generate protective immunity in older individuals. Age-associated changes occur at the level of the T-cell population as well as the functionality of its cellular constituents. The system highly relies on the self-renewal of naïve and memory T cells, which is robust but eventually fails. Genetic and epigenetic modifications contribute to functional differences in responsiveness and differentiation potential. To some extent, these changes arise from defective maintenance; to some, they represent successful, but not universally beneficial adaptations to the aging host. Interventions that can compensate for the age-related defects and improve immune responses in older adults are increasingly within reach.

Aging/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Memory T Cells/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Aged , Aging/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6/genetics , Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Memory T Cells/virology , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/genetics , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/immunology , Positive Regulatory Domain I-Binding Factor 1/genetics , Positive Regulatory Domain I-Binding Factor 1/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/virology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/virology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/virology