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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 731016, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775861

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The U.S. is struggling with dual crises of chronic pain and opioid overdoses. To improve statewide pain and addiction care, the Arizona Department of Health Services and 18 health education programs collaboratively created the evidence-based, comprehensive Arizona Pain and Addiction Curriculum which includes a Toolbox for Operationalization with adult learning theory applications and an annual program survey to assess curriculum implementation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the first year's survey data to better understand the implementation of a novel curriculum across all programs in the state. Materials and Methods: Program surveys were sent 6 months after curriculum publication to all 18 health education programs in Arizona to assess the 6 Ds of curriculum implementation: Degree of implementation, Difficulty of implementation, Delivery methods, Faculty Development, Didactic dissonance and Discussion Opportunities. Results: Responses from all program types (14/18 programs) indicated that there was widespread implementation of the curriculum, with 71% reporting that all ten Core Components had been included in the past academic year. The majority of programs did not find the Components difficult to implement and had implemented them through lectures. Seventy-seven percent of programs did not have a process to ensure clinical rotation supervisors are teaching content consistent with the curriculum, 77% reported not addressing student's didactic dissonance, and 77% of programs did not report asking students about their interactions with industry representatives. Conclusion: In < 1 year after creation of the Arizona Pain and Addiction Curriculum, all program types reported wide implementation with little difficulty. This may represent a first step toward the transformation of pain and addiction education, and occurred statewide, across program types. Further focus on didactic dissonance, problem solving and faculty development is indicated, along with systematic education on pharmaceutical and industry influence on learners. Other programs may benefit from adopting this curriculum and may not experience significant challenges in doing so.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Pain , Adult , Arizona , Curriculum , Humans
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 829466, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776030

ABSTRACT

Aim: To examine the human exposure to perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate, and their associations with oral pain (OP) in the general population from the U.S. Methods: A total of 13,554 participants were enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were measured using ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The multivariable linear and logistic regressions were performed to explore the associations of the urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate, with the prevalence of oral pain. Restricted cubic splines were used to explore the non-linearity. Results: There are 3,129 OP cases. There was a higher urinary level of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate in OP. We found that urinary thiocyanate was positively associated with OP (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06; [1, 1.13]; p = 0.049). Restricted cubic spines revealed that urinary thiocyanate was in a U-shape association with OP. Conclusions: Urinary thiocyanate was in a U-shape association with OP, suggesting that we should keep the exposure of thiocyanate under a reasonable range.


Subject(s)
Mouth , Nitrates , Pain , Perchlorates , Thiocyanates , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Humans , Mouth/physiopathology , Nitrates/urine , Nutrition Surveys , Pain/epidemiology , Perchlorates/urine , Thiocyanates/urine , United States/epidemiology
3.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(5): 783-790, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767481

ABSTRACT

As a result of the pandemic, many patients with an inflammatory rheumatic disease (IRD) have isolated themselves. The lack of disease management together with fear of infection could lead to changes in physical- and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the social- and health behaviour in patients with an IRD compared with the behaviour of healthy individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study was a questionnaire survey answered by patients with an IRD and healthy individuals (HI). The questionnaire contained seven sections with questions regarding COVID-19 and quality of life including SF-36, EQ-5D-5L, and visual analogue scale (VAS) pain, fatigue and global health. Of 1663 invited participants, 661 patients with IRD and 266 HI were included in the analyses. Patients with an IRD felt more isolated during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with HI (IRD: 9.5% (61/644), HI: 3.1% (8/259), p-value = 0.001). More HI (5.4%) had been infected with COVID-19 than patients with an IRD (1.7%). Among patients with an IRD those with worse self-reported disease activity outcomes (VAS pain, fatigue and global health, all p-value < 0.001), worse social functioning and emotional well-being were more isolated than individuals with low disease activity. Patients with an IRD feel more isolated during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to HI. Isolation seems to be most pronounced in patients with worse disease related patient-reported outcomes and lower quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Humans , Pain , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 147(6): 319-325, 2022 03.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740507

ABSTRACT

MONITORING OF ANALGESIA, SEDATION AND DELIRIUM: The prerequisite for monitoring goal-oriented analgesia and screening for the presence of delirium is the use of validated measuring instruments such as the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale as well as an adequate medical and intensive care staffing ratio. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANALGESIA AND SEDATION: The goal, if possible, is an awake, oriented, cooperative patient who is free of pain. In this regard, multimodal analgesic treatment is of great importance. The lowest possible sedation should also be aimed for in COVID-19 patients, although deep sedation is recommended for invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients in the prone position.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , COVID-19 , Delirium , COVID-19/therapy , Delirium/therapy , Humans , Pain , Pain Management
5.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 64, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adverse events are increasingly being reported with the growing COVID-19 vaccination rate. However, the current literature on orofacial adverse effects following COVID-19 vaccination are severely limited. With the continuation of the global vaccination campaign the incidence of oral adverse effects will inevitably increase. CASE PRESENTATION: Clinical characteristics and treatment results of nine patients who complained of pain and discomfort of the oral cavity following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were analyzed. Swelling and pain of the posterior palatal area, pain on palatal area of the central incisor, pain on the mucosa of the lip and lower gingiva, right preauricular region and right posterior lower gingiva, the buccal mucosa, tongue, and the right lower second molar area were the reported symptoms. Ulceration and swelling of the oral mucosa were found in certain cases. The symptoms were generally mild and responded well to medication within a relatively short period of time. CONCLUSION: Oral adverse reactions following COVID-19 vaccination were manageable with treatment. Clinicians should understand the true nature of orofacial adverse reactions following COVID-19 vaccines and guide patients in decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Pain , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods
6.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; 35(2): 196-205, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profound negative effects on the mental health of clinically stable older patients with psychiatric disorders. This study examined the influential nodes of psychiatric problems and their associations in this population using network analysis. METHODS: Clinically stable older patients with psychiatric disorders were consecutively recruited from four major psychiatric hospitals in China from May 22 to July 15, 2020. Depressive and anxiety syndromes (depression and anxiety hereafter), insomnia, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), pain, and fatigue were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire, General Anxiety Disorder, Insomnia Severity Index, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version, and Numeric Rating Scales for pain and fatigue, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 1063 participants were included. The network analysis revealed that depression was the most influential node followed by anxiety as indicated by the centrality index of strength. In contrast, the edge connecting depression and anxiety was the strongest edge, followed by the edge connecting depression and insomnia, and the edge connecting depression and fatigue as indicated by edge-weights. The network structure was invariant by gender based on the network structure invariance test (M = .14, P = .20) and global strength invariance tests (S = .08, P = .30). CONCLUSIONS: Attention should be paid to depression and its associations with anxiety, insomnia, and fatigue in the screening and treatment of mental health problems in clinically stable older psychiatric patients affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Pain , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
7.
GMS J Med Educ ; 39(1): Doc6, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725322

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pain medicine is located in different sections of the medical curriculum. In the pandemic situation, an online teaching concept for Q14 which includes several disciplines had to be developed. The goal of the project was to create a fully digitized learning platform for the cross-sectional area Q14 that allows all participating disciplines to address the various learning goals without losing a practical component. Project description: First, the students' expectations regarding education in the field of pain medicine were recorded by means of a survey among medical students. Based on this, a teaching module in a blended learning format was developed, which consisted of two parts. Within a digital learning platform, students were first required to complete consecutive learning units using an interactive learning management system. This was followed by a presence phase (online ZOOM seminar) in which, under the guidance of teaching staff, the therapy suggestions of the individual case studies from the previous learning program were reflected. In the second part, the acquired knowledge was applied to a simulated patient. An evaluation of the online module was carried out through free-text answers and self-assessment of the completion time. The ZOOM seminar was evaluated on the basis of an assessment by the teachers. Results: The survey among students revealed a desire for practical training without "frontal teaching". The resulting project realized this aspect by teaching theory during an online module with case vignettes and interactive learning tasks. The subsequent online presence time during the ZOOM meeting enabled the students to repeat and deepen contents and to ask questions. 170 students completed the entire online program, of which evaluation data were available for 75 students. Self-assessment of completion time averaged at 4-6 hours. In the feedback, 90 aspects were addressed, including mainly comments on content (43%), praise (33%) and comments on technical problems (23%). According to the assessment of the presenters, the students were able to carry out the pain anamnesis survey in a structured manner. The submission of the therapy proposal, however, represents a particular hurdle. Conclusion: With the presented blended learning concept it is possible to address the different learning goals and the interdisciplinarity of Q14 sufficiently. After further processing and improvement of the project, a controlled and more extensive collection of evaluation data is required to further investigate the benefit of the platform for the students regarding achievement of defined learning goals.


Subject(s)
Simulation Training , Students, Medical , Humans , Motivation , Pain , Pandemics
8.
Cells ; 11(4)2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715129

ABSTRACT

The subacromial bursa has long been demolded as friction-reducing tissue, which is often linked to shoulder pain and, therefore, partially removed during shoulder surgery. Currently, the discovery of the stem cell potential of resident bursa-derived cells shed a new light on the subacromial bursa. In the meanwhile, this neglected tissue is gaining more attention as to how it can augment the regenerative properties of adjacent tissues such as rotator cuff tendons. Specifically, the tight fibrovascular network, a high growth factor content, and the large progenitor potential of bursa-derived cells could complement the deficits that a nearby rotator cuff injury might experience due to the fact of its low endogenous regeneration potential. This review deals with the question of whether bursal inflammation is only a pain generator or could also be an initiator of healing. Furthermore, several experimental models highlight potential therapeutic targets to overcome bursal inflammation and, thus, pain. More evidence is needed to fully elucidate a direct interplay between subacromial bursa and rotator cuff tendons. Increasing attention to tendon repair will help to guide future research and answer open questions such that novel treatment strategies could harvest the subacromial bursa's potential to support healing of nearby rotator cuff injuries.


Subject(s)
Rotator Cuff Injuries , Shoulder , Bursa, Synovial , Humans , Inflammation , Pain , Rotator Cuff/surgery , Rotator Cuff Injuries/surgery
9.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 17(1): 78, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the ALPL gene, which encodes tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase. The severity of HPP is widely diverse from the perinatal form to the adult mild form. The former represents the most severe form and was earlier associated with high mortality due to pneumonia which was caused by severe hypomineralization of the bones-such as chest deformity and fractured ribs-and muscle weakness. Enzyme replacement therapy using asfotase alfa (AA) was approved in 2015 in Japan for treating patients with HPP and has improved their pulmonary function and life prognosis. There are several practical and ethical challenges related to using orphan drugs for a rare disorder in a publicly funded healthcare system. Sharing experiences about their application is essential towards formulating guidelines to assist clinicians with decisions about their initiation and withdrawal. We report the details of AA experience in ten cases of pediatric-onset HPP in nine families from January 2015 to November 2019 (median [interquartile range] age 11.0 [7.6-12.5] years; 60% male). This is a study of a single-center cohort describing the clinical course of patients with HPP, mainly consisting of the mild childhood form of HPP, treated with AA in Japan. RESULTS: One case of perinatal form of HPP, two cases of benign prenatal form, and seven cases of childhood form were observed. The most common symptom at onset was pain. All patients had low serum alkaline phosphatase levels as compared to the age-matched reference range before the commencement of AA. All HPP patients seem to have responded to AA treatment, as evidenced by pain alleviation, increased height standard deviation, improvement in respiratory condition and 6-min walk test result improvement, disappearance of kidney calcification, alleviation of fatigue, and/or increases in bone mineralization. There were no serious adverse events, but all patients had an injection site reaction and skin changes at the injection sites. Genetic analysis showed that eight out of ten patients had compound heterozygosity. CONCLUSIONS: AA may be effective in patients with mild to severe pediatric-onset forms of HPP.


Subject(s)
Hypophosphatasia , Adult , Alkaline Phosphatase/genetics , Child , Female , Humans , Hypophosphatasia/complications , Hypophosphatasia/drug therapy , Immunoglobulin G , Japan , Male , Pain/drug therapy , Rare Diseases/drug therapy , Recombinant Fusion Proteins
10.
J Contin Educ Health Prof ; 42(1): 2-3, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713758
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(6): e28758, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708012

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Sleep disturbance is commonly noted after Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and is often caused by persistent discomfort after disease survival. Intravascular laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) has been shown to be effective in pain modulation owing to the influence of nociceptive signals in the peripheral nervous system. We investigated the application of ILIB on post-Oxford -AstraZeneca vaccination GBS and evaluated its effect on sleep quality. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 48-year-old woman was subsequently diagnosed with GBS after Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccination. The patient was discharged after a 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin administration. However, 1 week after discharge, the previously relieved symptoms flared with accompanying sleep disturbance. DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTIONS: The patient was diagnosed with post-vaccination GBS, and persistent pain and sleep disturbances persisted after disease survival. ILIB was performed. OUTCOMES: We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index before and after intravascular laser irradiation. There was a marked improvement in the sleep duration, efficiency, and overall sleep quality. The initial score was 12 out of 21 and the final score was 7 out of 21. LESSONS: We found that ILIB was effective in pain modulation in post-vaccination GBS and significantly improved sleep quality.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/chemically induced , Low-Level Light Therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pain , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30066, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687285

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We present a patient with bifacial weakness and paraesthesia subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which occurred 1 month after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. While GBS as complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been described many times, only a few cases of post-COVID-19 bifacial weakness and paraesthesia are known to date. RESULTS: A 59-year-old man presented with thoracoradicular pain, paraesthesias of hands and feet, as well as progressive bilateral facial palsy. Neurological examination revealed a hyporeflexia of his lower limbs and hypoaesthesia of his hands and feet. Clinical and electrophysiological findings as well as CSF analysis were consistent with bifacial weakness and paraesthesia. The patient's condition improved promptly after 5 days of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. DISCUSSION: We suspect bifacial weakness and paraesthesia to be a possible post-infectious complication of COVID-19. Hence, it is a differential diagnosis of facial nerve palsy in association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Considering the rarity of GBS and bifacial weakness and paraesthesia, it appears unlikely that bigger trials elucidating the causal relation between them and SARS-CoV-2 infection will be available in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pain , Paresthesia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Pain Pract ; 22(4): 453-462, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the wide variety of Covid-19 symptoms, pain and the related mechanisms underlying unsettled nociceptive status are still under-prioritized. Understanding the complex network of Covid-19-related pain may result in new lines of study. It is unknown whether patient's immunological background influences pain in the acute phase of Covid-19, including musculoskeletal pain. Thus, we evaluated the blood levels of selected molecules that are upregulated in SARS-CoV-2 infection and analyzed a possible correlation with pain during Covid-19. METHODS: A cohort of 20 hospitalized patients with confirmed diagnoses for Covid-19 were evaluated in the context of pain. Visual analogic scale (VAS) was applied to quantitate pain level. Blood tests were used to determine the systemic levels of cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1ß), substance P, and leptin. The data were correlated when appropriate to determine the association between pain-related markers and assessed pain intensity. RESULTS: Our findings show that systemic levels of IL-10 have strong negative correlation with pain intensity on Covid-19 patients. Additionally, we also show that leptin systemic levels were increased in Covid-19 patients with pain, however, with moderate positive correlation between these events. IL-1ß and SP levels did not differ between Covid-19 patients with or without pain. Men reported less pain compared to women. No differences were found between genders in the levels of the molecules evaluated in patients with pain. CONCLUSION: IL-10 has been described over the years as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic cytokine. The present data support that low IL-10 levels might contribute to Covid-19-associated pain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Leptin , Male , Pain , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Food Funct ; 13(3): 1617-1627, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655678

ABSTRACT

High-amylose starch branching enzyme II (sbeII) mutant wheat has potential to be low-glycaemic compared to conventional wheat; however, the effects of bread made from sbeII wheat flour on glycaemic response and product quality require investigation. We report the impact of white bread made from sbeII wheat flour on in vitro starch digestibility and product quality, and on postprandial glycaemia in vivo, compared to an isoglucidic wild-type (WT) control white bread. Starch in sbeII bread was ∼20% less susceptible to in vitro amylolysis leading to ∼15% lower glycaemic response measured in vivo, compared to the WT control bread, without major effects on bread appearance or texture, measured instrumentally. Despite the early termination of the in vivo intervention study due to the COVID-19 outbreak (n = 8 out of 19), results from this study indicate that sbeII wheat produces bread with lower starch digestibility than conventional white bread.


Subject(s)
1,4-alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme/metabolism , Amylose/metabolism , Bread , Digestion , Functional Food , Triticum , Adult , Blood Glucose , Cross-Over Studies , Double-Blind Method , Female , Glycemic Index , Humans , Male , Postprandial Period , Satiation
16.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 47(5): 322-326, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639316

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The use of the botulinum neurotoxin injection is a growing area of research and clinical activity, with a focus on its role in facilitating postoperative pain management after reconstructive breast surgery. The study aimed to find out the standard injection points for botulinum neurotoxin injection by revealing the intramuscular nerve arborization of the pectoralis major. METHODS: Sihler's technique was conducted on the pectoralis major muscles (16 cadaveric specimens). The intramuscular nerve arborization was documented relative to the inferior border of the clavicle bone and lateral border of the sternum. RESULTS: After the staining, the pectoralis major was divided into fifths transversely from the inferior border of the clavicle and vertically into fifths from the lateral border of the sternum. Intramuscular nerve arborization of the pectoralis major muscle was the largest in the middle sections of the muscle belly. DISCUSSION: The results indicate that botulinum neurotoxin should be applied to the pectoralis major in certain regions. The regions of major arborization are optimal as the most effective and most reliable points for injecting botulinum neurotoxin.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins , Mammaplasty , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular/methods , Pain , Pectoralis Muscles/surgery
17.
J Affect Disord ; 302: 435-439, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630756

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Among the most investigated theories explaining suicidal behavior there are the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) by Thomas E. Joiner and the one focused on the construct of psychological pain (or psychache, or mental pain). OBJECTIVE: Since it remains unclear whether these two different theories correlate with each other in the explanation of suicidal risk, we used a network analysis approach to investigate the complex interplay between both IPTS and psychological pain theories and history of suicidal planning and/or suicide attempt (SP/SA). METHODS: A sample of 1,586 university students from various Italian universities was recruited between April 24th, 2020 and February 23rd, 2021, hence during the COVID-19 pandemic. To be included subjects should have been university students and aged between 18 and 35 years old. RESULTS: Within a network that included the core factors from both models (IPTS and psychological pain), higher fearlessness about death (Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale-Fearlessness About Death, ACSS-FAD) and higher psychological pain (Psychache Scale) were the variables most strongly associated with history of SP/SA. CONCLUSIONS: Considering a large number of variables, history of SP/SA was explained in particular by fearlessness about death and psychological pain in university students. Hence these aspects should be targeted in the treatment for suicide prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Pain/psychology , Pandemics , Psychological Theory , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicidal Ideation , Young Adult
19.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 47(2): 144-145, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597058
20.
PLoS Med ; 18(11): e1003829, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic in North America has been driven by an increase in the use and potency of prescription opioids, with ensuing excessive opioid-related deaths. Internationally, there are lower rates of opioid-related mortality, possibly because of differences in prescribing and health system policies. Our aim was to compare opioid prescribing rates in patients without cancer, across 5 centers in 4 countries. In addition, we evaluated differences in the type, strength, and starting dose of medication and whether these characteristics changed over time. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study of adults who are new users of opioids without prior cancer. Electronic health records and administrative health records from Boston (United States), Quebec and Alberta (Canada), United Kingdom, and Taiwan were used to identify patients between 2006 and 2015. Standard dosages in morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) were calculated according to The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Age- and sex-standardized opioid prescribing rates were calculated for each jurisdiction. Of the 2,542,890 patients included, 44,690 were from Boston (US), 1,420,136 Alberta, 26,871 Quebec (Canada), 1,012,939 UK, and 38,254 Taiwan. The highest standardized opioid prescribing rates in 2014 were observed in Alberta at 66/1,000 persons compared to 52, 51, and 18/1,000 in the UK, US, and Quebec, respectively. The median MME/day (IQR) at initiation was highest in Boston at 38 (20 to 45); followed by Quebec, 27 (18 to 43); Alberta, 23 (9 to 38); UK, 12 (7 to 20); and Taiwan, 8 (4 to 11). Oxycodone was the first prescribed opioid in 65% of patients in the US cohort compared to 14% in Quebec, 4% in Alberta, 0.1% in the UK, and none in Taiwan. One of the limitations was that data were not available from all centers for the entirety of the 10-year period. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed substantial differences in opioid prescribing practices for non-cancer pain between jurisdictions. The preference to start patients on higher MME/day and more potent opioids in North America may be a contributing cause to the opioid epidemic.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Pain/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Canada , Cohort Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morphine/administration & dosage , Morphine/therapeutic use , Taiwan , United Kingdom , United States , Young Adult
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