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2.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 26(2): 145-149, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650594

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sedation for pain medicine procedures provides a unique challenge for proceduralists. Many patients dealing with pain are on chronic opioids and require higher doses of sedation for adequate procedural comfort. Chronic pain patients have various comorbidities including depression, neuropsychiatric disorders, peripheral vascular disease, and renal impairment, among others [1]. These confounding variables make the overall treatment of their pain condition much more challenging. RECENT FINDINGS: For patients requiring intravenous (IV) sedation for their pain procedures, the constant need for access may render them a "difficult stick" over time. Another factor to consider is the increasing requirements by the hospital system needing IV sedatives and analgesics in the intensive care unit and operating rooms during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Sublingual sufentanil (SST) provides an excellent analgesic option for patients undergoing interventional pain procedures. The use of SST allows hospitals to preserve IV agents for more critical areas and mitigates the difficulty of obtaining IV access in patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sufentanil , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Humans , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sufentanil/therapeutic use , Tablets
3.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 736, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have assessed provider knowledge and factors associated with opioid misuse; similar studies evaluating patient knowledge are lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of understanding regarding opioid use in orthopaedic trauma patients. We also sought to determine the demographic factors and clinical and personal experiences associated with level of understanding. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-six adult orthopaedic trauma surgery patients across two clinical sites of an academic institution participated in an internet-based survey (2352 invited, 7.1% response rate). Demographic, clinical, and personal experience variables, as well as perceptions surrounding opioid use were collected. Relationships between patient characteristics and opioid perceptions were identified using univariate and multivariable logistic regressions. Alpha = 0.05. RESULTS: Excellent recognition (> 85% correct) of common opioids, side effects, withdrawal symptoms, and disposal methods was demonstrated by 29%, 10%, 30%, and 2.4% of patients; poor recognition (< 55%) by 11%, 56%, 33%, and 52% of patients, respectively. Compared with white patients, non-white patients had 7.8 times greater odds (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-31) of perceiving addiction discrepancy (p = 0.004). Employed patients with higher education levels were less likely to have excellent understanding of side effects (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.06, 95% CI 0.006-0.56; p = 0.01) and to understand that dependence can occur within 2 weeks (aOR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.86; p = 0.03) than unemployed patients. Patients in the second least disadvantaged ADI quartile were more knowledgeable about side effects (aOR 8.8, 95% CI 1.7-46) and withdrawal symptoms (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0-7.2; p = 0.046) than those in the least disadvantaged quartile. Patients who knew someone who was dependent or overdosed on opioids were less likely to perceive addiction discrepancy (aOR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.76; p = 0.02) as well as more likely to have excellent knowledge of withdrawal symptoms (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.5, p = 0.03) and to understand that dependence can develop within 2 weeks (aOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.5-9.8, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Level of understanding regarding opioid use is low among orthopaedic trauma surgery patients. Clinical and personal experiences with opioids, in addition to demographics, should be emphasized in the clinical history.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Orthopedic Procedures/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Opioid-Related Disorders , Young Adult
4.
Orthop Nurs ; 40(6): 366-374, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546088

ABSTRACT

The United States is facing an opioid epidemic that has only worsened with the COVID-19 pandemic. There is little evidence regarding patterns of opioid use among patients with total hip replacement (THR). Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has put forward guidelines for prescribing opioids, it does not include guidance specifically for THR patients suffering from presurgical and postsurgical pain. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare presurgical and postsurgical opioid rates, (2) compare presurgical and postsurgical morphine milligram equivalents (MME), and (3) determine whether having a presurgical opioid prescription predicts the receipt of postsurgical opioid prescriptions among patients undergoing THR surgery. Retrospective cohort analysis of 4,405 patients undergoing THR at a major academic medical center in the United States from April 30, 2015, to April 30, 2018, was done. Patient characteristics, opioid rates, and average MME/day/person were described. Logistic regression was used to determine whether presurgical opioid prescription and opioid risk level predicted postsurgical opioid prescribing. Median age was 64 years (range = 18-85 years); patients were primarily Caucasian/White (78.8%) and female (54.7%). Opioid prescription rates in this sample for the 12-month presurgical and postsurgical periods were 66.1% and 95.6%, respectively. Oxycodone was the most common opioid prescribed in both periods. Among those prescribed an opioid, moderate/high risk for overdose and/or death was 6.3% presurgery and 19.8% postsurgery. Patients with a comorbidity were two times more likely to receive an opioid prescription in the postsurgical period. The median average MME/day/person was 26.5 (range = 0.3-180.0) for patients with an opioid prescribed during the presurgery period and 40.4 (range = 1.5-270.0) during the postsurgery period. Opioid use, regardless of strength, in the presurgical period as well as having one or more comorbidities predicted opioid use in the postsurgical period.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Prescriptions , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Young Adult
5.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 66(2): 288-294, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing lumbar discectomy usually suffer from moderate to severe pain during the postoperative period. Multimodal, or balanced analgesia, is the leading treatment principle for managing postoperative pain. The rationale is to achieve optimal pain treatment through additive or synergistic effects of several non-opioid analgesics, and thereby, reducing the need for postoperative opioids, facilitating early mobilization and functional rehabilitation. For discectomy surgery, evidence of both the benefit and harm of different analgesic interventions is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to investigate the benefits and harms of analgesic interventions in adult patients after lumbar discectomy. METHODS: This protocol for a systematic review is written according to The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines. We will search The Cochrane Library's CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrails.gov for published and ongoing trials. All randomized clinical trials assessing the postoperative analgesics effect of an intervention with a control or no-intervention group undergoing lumbar discectomy will be included. Two authors will independently screen trials for inclusion using Covidence, extract data and assess the risk of bias using Cochrane's risk-of-bias 2 tool. We will analyse the data using Review Manager and Trial Sequential Analysis. Meta-analysis will be performed according to the Cochrane guidelines. We will present our primary findings in a 'summary of findings' table and evaluate the overall certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will assess the benefits and harms of analgesic interventions after lumbar discectomy and have the potential to improve best practices and advance research.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic , Pain, Postoperative , Adult , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Diskectomy , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Systematic Reviews as Topic
6.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(7): 1052-1060, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504094

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare discharge opioid refills, prescribed morphine equivalent dose and quantity, and longitudinal patient-reported outcomes before and after implementation of a tiered opioid prescribing algorithm among women undergoing open gynecologic surgery within an enhanced recovery after surgery program. METHODS: We compared opioid prescriptions, clinical outcomes, and patient-reported outcomes among 273 women. Post-discharge symptom burden was collected up to 42 days after discharge using the validated 27-item MD Anderson Symptom Inventory and analyzed using linear mixed effects models and Kaplan-Meier curves for symptom recovery. RESULTS: Among 113 pre-implementation and 160 post-implementation patients there was no difference in opioid refills (9.7% vs 11.3%, p=0.84). The post-implementation cohort had a significant reduction in median morphine equivalent dose (112.5 mg vs 225 mg, p<0.01), with no difference in median hospital length of stay (3 days vs 3 days, p=1.0) or 30-day readmission rate (9.4% vs 7.1%, p=0.66). There was no difference in patient-reported pain between the pre- and post-implementation cohorts on the day of discharge (severity 4.93 vs 5.14, p=0.53) or in any patient-reported symptoms, interference measures, or composite scores by post-discharge day 7. The median recovery time for most symptoms was 7 days, except for pain (14 days), fatigue (18 days), and physical interference (21 days), with no differences between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: After implementation of a tiered opioid prescribing algorithm, the quantity and dose of discharge opioids prescribed decreased with no change in post-operative refills and without negatively impacting patient-reported symptom burden or interference, which can be used to educate and reassure patients and providers.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Patient Discharge/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(10): 1505-1513, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multimodal analgesia is the leading principle for managing postoperative pain. Recent guidelines recommend combinations of paracetamol and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for most surgeries. Glucocorticoids have been used for decades due to their potent anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. Subsequently, glucocorticoids may improve postoperative analgesia. We will perform a systematic review to assess benefits and harms of adding glucocorticoids to paracetamol and NSAIDs. We expect to uncover pros and cons of the addition of glucocorticoid to the basic standard regimen of paracetamol and NSAIDs for postoperative analgesia. METHOD: This protocol for a systematic review was written according to the The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines. We will search for trials in the following electronic databases: Medline, CENTRAL, CDSR and Embase. Two authors will independently screen trials for inclusion using Covidence, extract data and assess risk of bias using Cochrane's ROB 2 tool. We will analyse data using Review Manager and Trial Sequential Analysis. Meta-analysis will be performed according to the Cochrane guidelines and results will be validated according to the eight-step procedure suggested by Jakobsen et al We will present our primary findings in a 'summary of findings' table. We will evaluate the overall certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. DISCUSSION: This review will aim to explore the combination of glucocorticoids together with paracetamol and NSAIDs for postoperative pain. We will attempt to provide reliable evidence regarding the role of glucocorticoids as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen in combination with paracetamol and NSAID.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Systematic Reviews as Topic
8.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(1): 128-134, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-operative pain treatment with ketamine has been demonstrated to have post-operative opioid-sparing and anti-hyperalgesic effects. However, evidence regarding the beneficial and harmful effects and the optimal dose and timing of perioperative treatment with ketamine for patients undergoing spinal surgery is unclear. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the analgesic, serious and non-serious adverse effects of perioperative pain treatment with ketamine for patients undergoing spinal surgery. METHODS: This protocol for a systematic review is written according to The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines. We will search Embase, CENTRAL, PubMed, WHO's ICTRP, EU Clinical Trial Register and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify relevant randomised clinical trials. We will include all randomised clinical trials assessing perioperative ketamine treatment versus placebo or no intervention for patients undergoing spinal surgery. Two authors will independently screen trials for inclusion using Covidence, extract data and assess risk of bias using Cochrane's RoB tool. We will analyse data using Review Manager and Trial Sequential Analysis. Meta-analysis will be performed according to the Cochrane guidelines and results will be validated according to the eight-step procedure suggested by Jakobsen et al. We will present our primary findings in a 'summary of findings' table. We will evaluate the overall certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will assess the beneficial and harmful effects of perioperative pain treatment with ketamine for patients undergoing spinal surgery and have the potential to inform best practice and advance research.


Subject(s)
Ketamine , Humans , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Systematic Reviews as Topic
9.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 43(2): 394-403, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453813

ABSTRACT

Background Duloxetine is currently approved for chronic pain management; however, despite some evidence, its utility in acute, postoperative pain remains unclear Aim of the review This systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine if duloxetine 60 mg given perioperatively, is safe and effective at reducing postoperative opioid consumption and reported pain following elective orthopedic surgery. Method CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane Central Registry for Clinical Trials, Google Scholar, and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched using a predetermined search strategy from inception to January 15, 2019. Covidence.org was used to screen, select, and extract data by two independent reviewers. Individual study bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Opioid consumption data were converted to oral morphine milligram equivalents (MME) and exported to RevMan where meta-analysis was conducted using a DerSimonian and Laird random effects model. Results Six randomized-controlled trials were included in the literature review of postoperative pain and adverse effects. Five studies were utilized for the meta-analysis of postoperative opioid consumption; totaling 314 patients. Postoperative pain analysis showed variable statistical significance with overall lower pain scores with duloxetine. Adverse effects included an increase in insomnia with duloxetine but lower rates of nausea and vomiting. Meta-analysis revealed statistically significant [mean difference (95% CI)] lower total opioid use with duloxetine postoperatively at 24 h [- 31.9 MME (- 54.22 to - 9.6), p = 0.005], 48 h [- 30.90 MME (- 59.66 to - 2.15), p = 0.04] and overall [- 31.68 MME (- 46.62 to - 16.74), p < 0.0001]. Conclusion These results suggest that adding perioperative administration duloxetine 60 mg to a multimodal analgesia regimen within the orthopedic surgery setting significantly lowers total postoperative opioid consumption and reduces pain without significant adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Orthopedic Procedures , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Duloxetine Hydrochloride , Humans , Orthopedic Procedures/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5189, 2020 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454803

ABSTRACT

Stapled hemorrhoidopexy has a few advantages such as less postoperative pain and faster recovery compared with conventional hemorrhoidectomy. There are two major devices used for stapled hemorrhoidopexy, PPH stapler (Ethicon EndoSurgery) and DST stapler (Covidien). This study was conducted to investigate the postoperative outcomes among patients with grade III and IV hemorrhoids who underwent hemorrhoidopexy with either of these two devices. A total of 242 consecutive patients underwent stapled hemorrhoidopexy with either PPH stapler (110 patients) or DST stapler (132 patients) at a single center in 2017. We performed a retrospective case-control study to compare the short-term postoperative outcomes and the complications between these two groups. After matching the cases in terms of age, gender, and the grade of hemorrhoids, there were 100 patients in each group (PPH versus DST). There were no significant differences in the postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score and analgesic usage. Among complications, the incidence of anorectal stricture was significantly higher in the DST group (p = 0.02). Evaluation of the mucosal specimen showed that the total surface area, the muscle/mucosa ratio and the surface area of the muscle were also significantly higher in the DST group (p = 0.03). Further analysis of the DST group demonstrated that patients with anorectal stricture after surgery are younger than patients without anorectal stricture, and higher muscle/mucosa ratio (p = 0.03) and a higher surface area of the muscle (p = 0.03) also measured in the surgical specimen. The two devices provide similar outcomes of postoperative recovery. Patients who underwent DST stapled hemorrhoidopexy had a higher incidence rate of stricture, larger area of muscle excision, and higher muscle/mucosa ratio in the surgical specimen. Further investigation is warranted for a better understanding of the correlation between muscle excision and anorectal stricture.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhoidectomy/instrumentation , Hemorrhoids/surgery , Surgical Staplers , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Anal Canal/pathology , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anus Diseases/etiology , Constriction, Pathologic/etiology , Equipment Design , Female , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Isoxazoles/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Retention/etiology
11.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(3): 147-164, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429175

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify the proportion of patients with continued opioid use after total hip or knee arthroplasty. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis searched Embase, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts for articles published from January 1, 2009, to May 26, 2021. The search terms (opioid, postoperative, hospital discharge, total hip or knee arthroplasty, and treatment duration) were based on 5 key concepts. We included studies of adults who underwent total hip or knee arthroplasty, with at least 3 months postoperative follow-up. RESULTS: There were 30 studies included. Of these, 17 reported on outcomes of total hip arthroplasty and 19 reported on outcomes of total knee arthroplasty, with some reporting on outcomes of both procedures. In patients having total hip arthroplasty, rates of postoperative opioid use at various time points were as follows: at 3 months, 20% (95% CI, 13%-26%); at 6 months, 17% (95% CI, 12%-21%); at 9 months, 19% (95% CI, 13%-24%); and at 12 months, 16% (95% CI, 15%-16%). In patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty, rates of postoperative opioid use were as follows: at 3 months, 26% (95% CI, 19%-33%); at 6 months, 20% (95% CI, 17%-24%); at 9 months, 23% (95% CI, 17%-28%); and at 12 months, 21% (95% CI, 12%-29%). Opioid naïve patients were less likely to have continued postoperative opioid use than those who were opioid tolerant preoperatively. CONCLUSION: Over 1 in 5 patients continued opioid use for longer than 3 months after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Clinicians should be aware of this trajectory of opioid consumption after surgery.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Opioid-Related Disorders , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Humans , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/epidemiology
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049676, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356947

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with either surgery-related or patient-related risk factors are at an increased risk of acute and chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) and long-term opioid use. To improve recovery, prevent CPSP and decrease opioid use, we need to identify these patients before surgery and provide a multidisciplinary pain management strategy throughout hospital admission and follow-up in the postdischarge period. We hypothesise that a multidisciplinary transitional pain service (TPS) improves quality of recovery and reduce the incidence of CPSP and opioid consumption. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We aim to investigate the effectiveness of implementation of a TPS for patients at risk of developing CPSP. The trial design is a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial (RCT). After stratification for sex, patients are randomly assigned to the TPS or standard of care (SOC) group. Our primary outcome is the quality of recovery, measured at the morning of the third postoperative day, employing the quality of recovery (QoR)-15 questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are the incidence of CPSP, opioid consumption and patient-reported outcome measures at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. We need to enrol 176 patients to detect a minimal clinical important difference of 8 points on the QoR-15 score. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained by the accredited medical research ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam (2020_211) on 15 October 2020. Protocol version 3.2 was approved on 25 January 2020. The trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, NL9115. The results will be disseminated by open access publication in a peer-reviewed journal.Trial registration number NL9115.


Subject(s)
Standard of Care , Trust , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Humans , Pain Management , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
13.
Arthroscopy ; 36(11): 2840-2842, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008018

ABSTRACT

Opioid pain medications continue to play a role in postoperative pain control following elective arthroscopic surgery. Recent evidence suggests that patients who consume opioids preoperatively are at risk for inferior patient-reported outcomes. They are also more likely to consume opioids for longer periods of time following surgery relative to their opioid-naïve counterparts. However, limited evidence currently exists regarding whether discontinuing opioid use in anticipation of surgery avoids these deleterious effects. Orthopaedic surgeons have an obligation to limit the number of opioids necessary to control postoperative pain.


Subject(s)
Arthroscopy , Opioid-Related Disorders , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Humans , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Writing
14.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev ; 4(12): e20.00100, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983932

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) presents a nonstandard anesthetic approach initially described for use in hand surgery that has gained interest and utilization across a variety of orthopaedic procedures. In response to operating room resource constraints imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, our orthopaedic service rapidly adopted and expanded its use of WALANT. METHODS: A retrospective review of 16 consecutive cases performed by 7 surgeons was conducted. Patient demographics, surgical details, and perioperative outcomes were assessed. The primary end point was WALANT failure, defined as intraoperative conversion to general anesthesia. RESULTS: No instances of WALANT failure requiring conversion to general anesthesia occurred. In recovery, one patient (6%) required narcotics for pain control, and the average postoperative pain numeric rating scale was 0.6. The maximum pain score experienced was 4 in the patient requiring postoperative narcotics. The average time in recovery was 42 minutes and ranged from 8 to 118 minutes. CONCLUSION: The WALANT technique was safely and effectively used in 16 cases across multiple orthopaedic subspecialties, including three procedures not previously described in the literature. WALANT techniques hold promise for use in future disaster scenarios and should be evaluated for potential incorporation into routine orthopaedic surgical care.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Local/methods , COVID-19 , Operating Rooms/organization & administration , Orthopedic Procedures , Adult , Aged , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Female , Hemostatics/administration & dosage , Humans , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Narcotics/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Young Adult
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