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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264534, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793513

ABSTRACT

The lessening of food wastage, specifically among nations where about half of its worldwide quantity is produced, has turned to be a mammoth challenge for environmental, social and economic sustainability, and represents one of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) within the Agenda 2030. The quantity of food being thrown away in spite of being in an edible condition has become alarming in middle and high income countries. The COVID-19 lockdown strategy, both at local and international levels, has expressively altered work, life and food consumption behaviors globally, directing to food wastage as a multi sectoral issue. Pakistan has no exception to such manifestations. The main objective of this study is to analyze the perceptions of rural people of Pakistan regarding food wastage during the COVID-19 pandemic. To evaluate whether behavior about food wastage among rural households varied or not during the pandemic, a descriptive survey was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire and 963 responses were selected for further empirical investigations. The findings of the study reveal that food waste actually decreased in spite of an increased amount of purchased food during the lockdown. Our results highlight that the effect of the pandemic has led to reduction in food wastage among rural respondents, an increased consciousness for the morals of food waste, and awareness of environmental impacts of food wastage. The conclusions of this study highlight that rural consumers of Pakistan are emerging with a new level of responsiveness about food wastage with possible positive impact on the environment in terms of decreased greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and other pollutants. The study findings imply that this pandemic time provides a suitable window to raise awareness about food wastage among rural as well as urban households while contemplating effective strategies to overcome the issue of food wastage in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Consumer Behavior , Food Security , Refuse Disposal , Adult , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Female , Food/statistics & numerical data , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , History, 21st Century , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Perception/physiology , Refuse Disposal/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e055381, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779374

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study adapted WHO's 'Unity Study' protocol to estimate the population prevalence of antibodies to SARS CoV-2 and risk factors for developing SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: This population-based, age-stratified cross-sectional study was conducted at the level of households (HH). PARTICIPANTS: All ages and genders were eligible for the study (exclusion criteria: contraindications to venipuncture- however, no such case was encountered). 4998 HH out of 6599 consented (1 individual per HH). The proportion of male and female study participants was similar. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Following were the measured outcome measures- these were different from the planned indicators (i.e. two out of the three planned indicators were measured) due to operational reasons and time constraints: -Primary indicators: Seroprevalence (population and age specific).Secondary indicators: Population groups most at risk for SARS-CoV-2-infection. RESULTS: Overall seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 7.1%. 6.3% of individuals were IgG positive while IgM positivity was 1.9%. Seroprevalence in districts ranged from 0% (Ghotki) to 17% (Gilgit). The seroprevalence among different age groups ranged from 3.9% (0-9 years) to 10.1% (40-59 years). There were no significant differences in the overall seroprevalence for males and females. A history of contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case, urban residence and mask use were key risk factors for developing SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: This survey provides useful estimates for seroprevalence in the general population and information on risk factors for developing SARS-CoV-2 infection in the country. It is premised that similar studies need to be replicated at the population level on a regular basis to monitor the disease and immunity patterns related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
Telemed J E Health ; 28(2): 227-232, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778873

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) struck Pakistan with a magnitude that required micro- and macro-level adjustments at national and provincial levels. Access to medical consultation became a challenge; hospitals were flooded with cases beyond their capacity and transport was halted due to lockdown. Global Health Directorate of The Indus Health Network supported the provincial government by rolling out several walk-in community-based testing initiatives across Karachi. Results were conveyed to the patients through each district government. With a disproportionate rise in cases, an increasing delay in reporting results was observed. Methods: To help the district government bridge this gap, two physicians were engaged to convey timely results to patients who tested positive, through a helpline. Subsequently, proactive teleconsultation was initiated. We present a retrospective review of data collected during teleconsultation for COVID-19 cases identified through community-based testing between April 5 and June 10, 2020. Results: A total of 4,279 tests were conducted, revealing a 28% positivity rate (1,196 cases). Out of these, 752 (62.9%) baseline positive patients were contactable. Most patients identified either a close contact (46.8%) or a household contact (30.1%) as the source of infection. 41.8% patients were asymptomatic, 52.9% had mild to moderate illness, and 1.1% needed referral to the emergency department. 82.7% patients reported no comorbidities. Conclusion: The rapid surge of cases could not be handled by a small team and an institutional strategy of integration into an existing call center service was adopted. We share our insights to help develop evidence-based policies to effectively tackle current or future threats in similar settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Remote Consultation , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Cancer Invest ; 40(5): 401-405, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778718

ABSTRACT

The study is to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 in the Pediatric Oncology Units (POUs) of Pakistan. Data from 1 April 2019 to 30 June 2019 and 1 April 2020 to 30 June 2020 for the first and second cohort, respectively, in order to compare the registration, abandonment rate, and delay in treatment. Six hundred and thirty-four were registered cases, 379 and 255 in the first and second cohort, respectively, which was significantly different <0.005. Seventy-seven were abandoned, 45 and 32 in the first and second cohort, respectively. Fifty-nine COVID-19 positive cases, 24, 4, 27, and 4 were admitted, referred, home isolated, and leave against medical advice (LAMA), respectively. Delayed treatment and reduction in new cases were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 773704, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775978

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Quality-assured antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) depends upon the knowledge and skills of laboratory staff. In many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including Pakistan, such types of knowledge and skills are limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use openaccess online courses to improve the knowledge of laboratory staff involved in the detection and reporting of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Methodology: Seven online modules comprising 22 courses aimed at strengthening the laboratory detection of Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) were developed. The courses were uploaded onto the website www.parn.org.pk. Participants had an option of selecting courses of their interest. Online registration and completion of a pre-course assessment (pre-test) were essential for enrolment. However, participation in post-course assessment (post-test) was optional. The number of registered participants and the proportion of participants who completed each course were computed. A paired t-test was used to assess the increase between mean pre- and post-test scores. The association between the participants working in public vs. private laboratories and course completion rates were determined using the chi-square test. Results: A total of 227 participants from Pakistan (March 2018 to June 2020) were registered. The largest number of registered participants and the highest completion rate were noted for AST and biosafety courses, while quality-related courses attracted a lower interest. A comparison of pre- and post-test performance using the paired mean score for the individual courses showed a statistically significant (the value of p < 0.05) improvement in 13/20 assessed courses. A higher course completion rate was observed in participants from public vs. private sector laboratories (56.8 vs. 30.8%, the value of p = 0.005). Conclusions: Our study suggests a promising potential for open online courses (OOCs) toward addressing knowledge gaps in laboratory practice in resource limited settings.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Education, Distance , Professional Competence , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Humans , Internet , Laboratories , Pakistan
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 731272, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775862

ABSTRACT

Background: Loose bowels is a clinical sign of gastrointestinal transport channel proteins, channels, and physical and chemical boundaries being harmed, prompting issues of water and electrolyte transport in the intestinal system. It is still considered as a major reason for emergency visits to hospitals in low-middle income countries. Zinc is a suitable treatment along with ORS for diarrhea. KAP surveys are usually conducted to collect information about general or specific topics of a particular population. The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude, practices (KAP), and one health perspective regarding diarrhea among the participants from urban and rural populations of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods: Data was collected by conducting a survey among residents of twin cities over a period of 6 months (from July 2020 to December 2020). The questionnaire compromised socio-demographic features and the degree of KAP with respect to diarrhea management and control. One way ANOVA tests were applied to observe the demographic relationship and various factors influencing knowledge, attitude, practices, and one health perspective about diarrhea. Results: A total of 338 subjects participated in the study. Female subjects were in the majority with 63% while the rest were male. A majority of the participants were between 15-25 years of age and 79.6% participants were un-married. The leading ethnic group was Punjabi with 52.7%; the lowest ethnic group were of Sindhi ethnicity with 8.6%. Age has a significant association with respect to knowledge and attitude. Religion has a significant association with respect to knowledge, practices, and one health, while education/qualification has an association with knowledge. The rest of the variables found no association with each other. Conclusion: It is concluded from the recent study that most residents of the twin cities of Pakistan knew about diarrhea and had a good attitude and practices toward it. Age, religion, and education have different roles regarding different diseases in the population of Pakistan. The current study has its limitations as well. Parts of the study were conducted in the capital of Pakistan which is more developed as compared to other areas of Pakistan. It would be better to explore the remote areas of Pakistan where basic amenities of life such as education, wealth, and unemployment are not available. It is important to create more awareness among community members. They should be aware how dangerous these viruses and bacteria can be. Other parts of Pakistan should also be explored for better understanding that will help in making a nationwide health policy.


Subject(s)
One Health , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 669278, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771103

ABSTRACT

Brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic disease of ruminants. It causes severe health problems in humans and significant economic loss. Only a limited number of studies have been conducted in Pakistan to determine the prevalence of human brucellosis and related risk factors. The objectives of the current cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies in sera collected from symptomatic patients at three hospitals of Abbottabad using a commercial slide agglutination test (SAT) and to determine risk factors for brucellosis for these patients. Five hundred blood samples were collected. A questionnaire was filled in for each patient to obtain information on age, gender, living area, brucellosis associated symptoms, associated risk factors, pregnancy and abortion history. A total of 13.6% (n = 68) patients were found to be SAT positive and in 83.3% (n = 57) of these samples Brucella DNA was detected by genus specific RT-PCR for BCSP-31 gene. Statistical analysis was performed to determine odd ratios, risk ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p-values. The prevalence of brucellosis by SAT was reported to be higher in women (14.6%, n = 44) than in men (12.1%, n = 24). The age group 25-50 years was found to be at higher risk for brucellosis (14.5%, n = 50) "animal contact" was reported as the main risk factor followed by "consumption of raw animal products." Out of 131 pregnant women and 21 patients had abortion, the seropositivity of Brucellosis was 9.9% and 23.8%, respectively. The present study reports a striking prevalence of brucellosis among patients including pregnant women at three hospitals of Abbottabad. These findings may foster strategies for controlling human brucellosis at household level, raising of awareness about brucellosis in hospital and family doctors, and finally in setting up an eradication program in the dairy industry.


Subject(s)
Brucellosis , Animals , Brucellosis/diagnosis , Brucellosis/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Risk Factors
9.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266028, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease has become a global pandemic, and it continues to wreak havoc on global health and the economy. The development of vaccines may offer a potential eradication of COVID-19. This study evaluated the general knowledge, attitude, and perception of COVID-19 vaccines in the Pakistani population. METHODS: A self-reporting e-survey and questionnaire-based survey from vaccination centers of different cities of Pakistan among 502 participants were conducted. The questionnaire comprised four sections inquiring demographics, vaccination status, and perception or attitude towards the vaccine. Univariate logistic regression was applied to predict the knowledge, attitude and behavior of participants. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 50.8±20.3 years. 53% of the participants have both doses of vaccine administered. Pain on the site of injection (49.8%) was the most common symptom, followed by asthenia (43.0%), muscle pain (29.5%), and swelling (24.5%) on the site of vaccine administration. Females complain of more symptoms than males. More severe symptoms were reported after the first dose of vaccine administration; these symptoms subsided within a week for most participants. Overall, the respondents have a positive attitude towards the vaccine. 47.4% are sure about the vaccine's efficacy, 48.6% said getting vaccinated was their own decision, and 79.9% also recommended others to get vaccinated. CONCLUSION: The study concluded that the Pakistani population has a positive attitude but inadequate knowledge towards COVID-19 vaccines. Immediate awareness and vaccination education programs should be conducted by the authorities to complete the mass vaccination schedule.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
10.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(2): 398, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756503

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pakistan
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(3): 581-584, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754324

ABSTRACT

Augmentative and Alternative Communication is an aided or unaided means of communication which supports existing communication abilities of an individual or replaces natural speech due to any speech and language disorder. The deficit could be developmental or acquired such as autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, learning difficulties, dysarthria, dyspraxia or due to any acquired neurological condition such as aphasia and other degenerative disorders. Furthermore, it may be due to surgical procedures such as laryngectomy. Alternate means of communication have also been successfully used with COVID-19 patients. These tools may include pictures, symbols, signs or voice output devices. Parents of children with special needs and medical professionals have been reluctant in implementing the approach due to certain misconceptions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence for the use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication with a range of disorders in relation to in relation to Pakistan.


Subject(s)
Communication Aids for Disabled , Communication Disorders , Language Therapy , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , COVID-19/complications , Child , Communication , Communication Disorders/etiology , Communication Disorders/rehabilitation , Humans , Language Therapy/instrumentation , Language Therapy/methods , Pakistan , Speech , Speech Therapy/instrumentation , Speech Therapy/methods
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(3)2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753460

ABSTRACT

Genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 is imperative to explore the transmission, evolution, and also pathogenicity of viruses. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern posed a severe threat to the global public health efforts. To assess the potential consequence of these emerging variants on public health, continuous molecular epidemiology is of vital importance. The current study has been designed to investigate the major SARS-CoV-2 variants and emerging mutations in virus structural and non-structural proteins (NSP) during the fourth wave in September 2021 from the Punjab province of Pakistan. Twenty SARS-CoV-2 positive samples have been collected from major cities were subjected to next-generation sequencing. Among the 20 whole genomes (GenBank Accession SRR16294858-SRR16294877), 2 samples failed to be completely sequenced. These genome sequences harbored 207 non-synonymous mutations, among which 19 were unique to GISAID. The genome sequences were detected: Delta 21I, 21J variants (B.1.617.2). Mutation's spike_F157del, spike_P681R, spike_T478K, spike_T19R, spike_L452R, spike_D614G, spike_G142D, spike_E156G, and spike_R158del have been detected in all samples where K1086Q, E554K, and C1250W were unique in spike protein. These genomic sequences also harbored 129 non-synonymous mutations in NSP. The most common were NSP3_P1469S (N = 17), NSP3_A488S (N = 17), NSP3_P1228L (N = 17), NSP4_V167L (N = 17), NSP4_T492I (N = 17), NSP6_T77A (N = 17), NSP14_A394V (N = 17), NSP12_G671S (N = 18), and NSP13_P77L (N = 18). The mutation, F313Y in NSP12, detected in the current study, was found in a single isolate from Belgium. Numerous other unique mutations have been detected in the virus papain-like protease (NSP3), main protease (NSP5), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NSP12). The most common non-synonymous mutations in the spike protein were subjected to stability analysis, exhibiting a stabilizing effect on structures. The presence of Delta variants may affect therapeutic efforts and vaccine efficacy. Continuous genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Pakistan may be useful for better management of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mutation , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
13.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(1)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744626

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic spread, meeting the testing needs to control the spread of infection became a major challenge worldwide. In Pakistan, the lack of the requisite infrastructure and training compounded the acute shortage of testing kits and other consumables. Against this backdrop and to urgently improve province-wide access to high-quality COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing with rapid turnaround times, the Government of the Sindh (GoS) province of Pakistan entered into a public-private partnership with Indus Hospital & Health Network (IHHN). Under this partnership, the GoS undertook sample collection and Indus Hospital in Karachi, Sindh, centralized testing. We describe the implementation strategies adopted by the partnership, as well as the challenges, opportunities, and lessons learned. Notably, up to 40% and 22% of total COVID-19 PCRs done in Sindh in the first 2 months of the pandemic, respectively, were performed at Indus Hospital in Karachi, though this percentage declined gradually as other centers caught up with their testing capacities. The rapid scaling up was achieved through a combination of mechanisms and factors including building on preexisting partnerships between the GoS and IHHN, pooling resources and harnessing distinct and complementary roles, relocating existing resources, introducing automation and information technology system changes, establishing risk mitigation strategies, and introducing quality measures within testing processes. The primary outcome of the partnership was rapid province-wide access to quality COVID-19 PCR testing with short turnaround times and at no cost to the patient. Furthermore, implementation of the partnership goals established new mechanisms as well as strengthened existing ones to enable rapid response to the future global health security challenges in Sindh, Pakistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Global Health , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(4): 272, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739367

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic adversely affected human beings. The novel coronavirus has claimed millions of lives all over the globe. Most countries around the world, including Pakistan, restricted people's social activities and ordered strict lockdowns throughout the country, to control the fatality of the novel coronavirus. The persuaded lockdown impact on the local environment was estimated. In the present study, we assessed air quality changes in four cities of Pakistan, namely Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, and Peshawar, based on particulate matter (PM2.5), using "Temtop Airing 1000," which is capable of detecting and quantifying PM2.5. The Air Quality Index (AQI) was evaluated in three specific time spans: the COVID-19 pandemic pre- and post-lockdown period (January 1, 2020 to March 20, 2020, and May 16, 2020 to June 30, 2020 respectively), and the COVID-19 pandemic period (March 21 2020 to May 15, 2020). We compared land-monitored AQI levels for the above three periods of time. For validation, air quality was navigated by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) satellite during the first semester (January 1 to June 30) of 2019 and 2020. It is seen that the concentration of PM2.5 was considerably reduced in 2020 (more than 50%), ranging from ~ 0.05 to 0.3 kg⋅m3, compared to the same period in 2019. The results revealed that the AQI was considerably reduced during the lockdown period. This finding is a very promising as the inhabitants of the planet Earth can be guaranteed the possibility of a green environment in the future.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Environmental Restoration and Remediation , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 22(1): 82-90, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737468

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the anxiety and depression symptoms in healthcare professionals in Pakistan as a result of the coronavirus pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2020 and included six different hospitals in Pakistan. An English-language demographics questionnaire, a validated COVID-19 fear scale, depression scale PHQ-9 and anxiety scale GAD-7 were sent to doctors, nurses and paramedical staff via WhatsApp. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Student's t-test. Results: A total of 400 participants were included in this study (response rate: 80.0%); 263 (65.8%) were doctors and 137 (34.3%) were nurses and paramedical staff. Of the participants, 57.0% were less than 40 years old and 18.3% were aged above 50. Most of the participants (n = 262; 65.5 %) experienced moderate levels of fear and 16.5% (n = 66) experienced a high level of fear. Moreover, 19.5% feared death and 56.5% reported social media to be responsible for increasing their fears. On the depression PHQ-9 and anxiety GAD-7 scales, 21.8% (n = 87) reported moderate to severe depression and anxiety symptoms. A significant relationship was demonstrated between the depression level and age, education and profession (P <0.001 each). Similarly, anxiety and depression scores were strongly related to the availability of personal protective equipment (P <0.001). Conclusion: It was found that 21.8% of healthcare professionals are suffering from moderate to severe depression symptoms, 15.5% had moderate to severe anxiety, whereas 65.5% had moderate symptoms of fear. The predictors are age, education level and co-morbidities. These moderate to high levels of fear and anxiety and depression raise concerns about the psychological well-being of healthcare staff and should be addressed through different programmes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Adult , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology
17.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265328, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the era of COVID-19 where there is emphasis on the importance of wearing a mask, wearing it rightly is equally important. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of wearing a mask in the general population of a developing country at three major tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants of this cross-sectional study were patients and attendants at three major tertiary care hospital of Karachi Pakistan. Selected participants, through non-probability convenient sampling technique, were interviewed regarding knowledge, attitude, and practice of wearing mask using an Urdu translated version of a questionnaire used in an earlier study. Three summary scores (0 to 100) were computed to indicate participants' mask wearing practice, technique of putting it on, and technique of taking if off. Collected data were analyzed with the help of IBM SPSS version 19. RESULTS: A total of 370 selected individuals were interviewed, out of which 51.9% were male and mean age was 37.65±11.94 years. For more than 90% of the participants, wearing a face mask was a routine practicing during the pandemic. The mean practice score was 65.69±25.51, score for technique of putting on a face mask was 67.77±23.03, and score of technique of taking off a face mask was 51.01±29.23. Education level of participant tends to have positive relationship with all three scores, while presence of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as co-morbid had negative impact on mask wearing practice. CONCLUSION: We have observed suboptimal knowledge, attitude and practice of wearing mask among the selected individuals. There is a continued need to spread awareness and educate general population about the importance of using a face mask, as well as the proper technique of wearing and taking off a face mask.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/trends , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Knowledge , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 739761, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731859

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated support for continued learning in frontline practitioners through online digital mediums that are convenient and fast to maintain physical distancing. Nurses are already neglected professionals for support in training for infection control, leadership, and communication in Pakistan and other developing countries. For that reason, we aimed to deliver a WhatsApp-based intervention for continued learning in nurses who are currently working in both private and public sector. A 12-week intervention was delivered to 208 nurses (102 in the control group and 106 in the intervention group) who had been employed in the clinical setting during data collection. The analysis reveals that nurses in the intervention group show significantly better results for learning in "infection prevention and control" and "leadership and communication." Results of a content analysis based on participant's feedback also confirm that the WhatsApp-based intervention is a valuable tool for education. This study highlights the effectiveness of online-based digital interventions as a convenient training tool for awareness and management of infectious diseases, leadership, and communication during COVID-19 and beyond. Furthermore, this study emphasizes that group interventions with other healthcare practitioners and the role of on-going longer WhatsApp-based interventions can become integral tools to support continued learning and patient safety practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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