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2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 321, 2023 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is a key tool against COVID-19. However, in many settings it is not clear how acceptable COVID-19 vaccination is among the general population, or how hesitancy correlates with risk of disease acquisition. In this study we conducted a nationally representative survey in Pakistan to measure vaccination perceptions and social contacts in the context of COVID-19 control measures and vaccination programmes. METHODS: We conducted a vaccine perception and social contact survey with 3,658 respondents across five provinces in Pakistan, between 31 May and 29 June 2021. Respondents were asked a series of vaccine perceptions questions, to report all direct physical and non-physical contacts made the previous day, and a number of other questions regarding the social and economic impact of COVID-19 and control measures. We examined variation in perceptions and contact patterns by geographic and demographic factors. We describe knowledge, experiences and perceived risks of COVID-19. We explored variation in contact patterns by individual characteristics and vaccine hesitancy, and compared to patterns from non-pandemic periods. RESULTS: Self-reported adherence to self-isolation guidelines was poor, and 51% of respondents did not know where to access a COVID-19 test. Although 48.1% of participants agreed that they would get a vaccine if offered, vaccine hesitancy was higher than in previous surveys, and greatest in Sindh and Baluchistan provinces and among respondents of lower socioeconomic status. Participants reported a median of 5 contacts the previous day (IQR: 3-5, mean 14.0, 95%CI: 13.2, 14.9). There were no substantial differences in the number of contacts reported by individual characteristics, but contacts varied substantially among respondents reporting more or less vaccine hesitancy. Contacts were highly assortative, particularly outside the household where 97% of men's contacts were with other men. We estimate that social contacts were 9% lower than before the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Although the perceived risk of COVID-19 in Pakistan is low in the general population, around half of participants in this survey indicated they would get vaccinated if offered. Vaccine impact studies which do not account for correlation between social contacts and vaccine hesitancy may incorrectly estimate the impact of vaccines, for example, if unvaccinated people have more contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Vaccination
3.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1160964, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317377

ABSTRACT

Background: Community engagement has shown to be fundamental component of the response to previous disease outbreaks. This study aimed co-design and implement a culturally appropriate COVID-19 risk communication and community engagement strategy with a resource-poor rural community in Northwest Pakistan. Methods: Participatory Action Research (PAR) was conducted from January 2021 to March 2022. Five PAR meetings took place with community members (n = 30) to: (1) explore how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted on the community; (2) identify challenges to limit the spread of the virus; (3) identify and implement solutions to these challenges; and (4) highlight the enablers, challenges and knowledge of the cultural context needed to optimize safety during emergencies. Focus group discussions (N = 6) with community members not involved in the PAR meetings (N = 50) and children of the community (N = 26) were conducted following the PAR meetings. Thematic analysis of the PAR and focus group data was conducted. Results: Delivery of messages on how to keep families safe, provision of personal protective equipment and improved water systems were part of the strategies taken by the community to create awareness and reduce the spread of COVID-19. Nine themes were identified: Attitudes to the pandemic: From skepticism to acceptance, Changing attitudes about vaccination: rumors and trust, COVID-19 and Faith, Social impact of the pandemic, Access to water, Resource mobilization: personal protective equipment, Spaces where collaborative effort can bring to solutions, Agents of change, and Empowerment of women. Discussion: The participatory approach of this research allowed understanding of the challenges faced by the community to engage in behavior change strategies to reduce the spread of COVID-19 and enabled the community to find sustainable solutions. Engagement with the community empowered men and women to be agents of change and promoted necessary precautionary actions to reduce the risk of infection within their community. Conclusion: Participatory approach highlighted the importance of engaging with and integrating to local culture and values to overcome challenges such as gender imbalance and distrust. Findings of this study are relevant to others working in diverse cultural settings in similar crises events regardless of particular cultural variations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Child , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Rural Population , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Services Research , Communication
4.
J Glob Health ; 13: 06014, 2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315591

ABSTRACT

Background: The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) covers Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. We conducted a comparative analysis of the trade-off between the health policies for the prevention of COVID-19 spread and the impact of these policies on the economies and livelihoods of the South Asia populations. Methods: We analyzed COVID-19 data on epidemiology, public health and health policy, health system capacity, and macroeconomic indicators from January 2020 to March 2021 to determine temporal trends by conducting joinpoint regression analysis using average weekly percent change (AWPC). Results: Bangladesh had the highest statistically significant AWPC for new COVID-19 cases (17.0; 95% CI = 7.7-27.1, P < 0.001), followed by the Maldives (12.9; 95% CI = 5.3-21.0, P < 0.001) and India (10.0; 95% CI = 8.4-11.5, P < 0.001). The AWPC for COVID-19 deaths was significant for India (6.5; 95% CI = 4.3-8.9, P < 0.001) and Bangladesh (6.1; 95% CI = 3.7-8.5, P < 0.001). Nepal (55.79%), and India (34.91%) had the second- and third-highest increase in unemployment, while Afghanistan (6.83%) and Pakistan (16.83%) had the lowest. The rate of change of real GDP had the highest decrease for Maldives (557.51%), and India (297.03%); Pakistan (46.46%) and Bangladesh (70.80%), however, had the lowest decrease. The government response stringency index for Pakistan had a see-saw pattern with a sharp decline followed by an increase in the government health policy restrictions that approximated the test-positivity trend. Conclusions: Unlike developed economies, the South Asian developing countries experienced a trade-off between health policy and their economies during the COVID-19 pandemic. South Asian countries (Nepal and India), with extended periods of lockdowns and a mismatch between temporal trends of government response stringency index and the test-positivity or disease incidence, had higher adverse economic effects, unemployment, and burden of COVID-19. Pakistan demonstrated targeted lockdowns with a rapid see-saw pattern of government health policy response that approximated the test-positivity trend and resulted in lesser adverse economic effects, unemployment, and burden of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Asia, Southern , Communicable Disease Control , India/epidemiology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Health Policy
5.
PeerJ ; 11: e14727, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300126

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally, there is an increased risk of COVID-19 infection among front-line health workers (FHW). This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of FHW of Pakistan after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: A population web-based survey on COVID-19 vaccine was conducted on 635 FHW in Pakistan between April 15, 2021, and July 15, 2021. The survey focused on four main sections consisting of socio-demographic data, knowledge, attitude, and practices after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. The data was analyzed on SPSS. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Overall, 60% of FHW were nervous before getting vaccinated, with the leading reason to get vaccinated being their concern to protect themselves and their community (53.4%). A majority of FHW had fear about the unseen side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine (59.7%) used in Pakistan, with the most common side effect reported as soreness at the injection site (39%). It has been noted that almost all of the FHW observed preventive practices after getting vaccinated. The results showed that married respondents had favorable practices towards COVID-19 vaccines (B = 0.53, p < 0.01) (B, unstandardized regression coefficient). It was also found that more informational sources (B = 0.19, p < 0.01), higher knowledge of vaccination (B = 0.15, p < 0.001), and favorable attitude toward vaccine (B = 0.12, p < 0.001) significantly predicted favorable practices toward COVID-19 vaccination. Conclusion: The findings reflect that FHW, though they were worried about its side effects, have good knowledge and a positive attitude after getting the COVID-19 vaccine. This study is significant as the FHWs are a symbol for guidance, a reliable source of information, and an encouraging means of receiving COVID-19 vaccine for the general public. This study also reported that post-vaccination side effects were mild which will aid in reducing the vaccine hesitancy among the general Pakistani population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pakistan/epidemiology , Vaccination/psychology
6.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 236: 103924, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Pakistan, the fourth wave of COVID-19 is causing an increasing number of positive cases. This fourth wave may be a risky aspect of mental health issues for COVID-19 patients. This quantitative study is designed to understand the stigmatization, and panic disorder and to explore the mediating role of death anxiety among patients of COVID-19 during the fourth wave of novel coronavirus. METHODS: The study was conducted using a correlational research design. The survey was carried out by utilizing a questionnaire with a convenient sample technique. The sample of the study was comprised of 139 patients with COVID-19. Data were collected through Stigma Scale for Chronic Illnesses (SSCI), The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), and Death Anxiety Inventory. RESULTS: Results show that stigma is significantly positively related to panic disorder and death anxiety. Furthermore, panic disorder is also significantly positively related to death anxiety. Results also indicate that stigmatization is a significant positive predictor for death anxiety and panic disorder. Moreover, results indicate that death anxiety has a mediating role in the relationship between stigmatization and panic disorder with age and gender as covariates. CONCLUSION: This study would be helpful for people around the world to understand this threatening contagious virus so they wouldn't stigmatize infected ones. Additional research is required for the sustainable improvement of anxiety over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Panic Disorder , Humans , Panic Disorder/epidemiology , Panic Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stereotyping , Pandemics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
9.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(11): 2150-2153, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude of violence against healthcare workers in a rural setting, and the consequences of this violence on their personal and professional lives. METHODS: The descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted in 4 rural districts of the Sindh province of Pakistan from February to December 2019, and comprised healthcare workers, including doctors, nurses, support staff and field workers. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of the 1622 subjects, 929(57.3%) were males and 693(42.7%) were females. The overall mean age was 35.55+/-10.05 years. The largest cluster was that of doctors 396(24.4%), followed by technicians 202(12.5%). Overall, 522(32.2%) subjects had a professional experience of 1-5 years. Violence at workplace in any form was experienced by 693(42.7%) subjects. Verbal violence had been experienced by 396(24.4%) subjects, while 228(14.1%) had witnessed it. The corresponding numbers for physical violence were 122(7.5%) and 22(1.4%). Verbal violence was more prevalent compared to physical violence (p<0.01). The major effect was that the healthcare workers remained alert 537(33.1%), felt frustrated 524(32.3%) and disturbed 503(31%). Also, 272(16.8%) subjects were planning to migrate or quit the profession. CONCLUSIONS: Violence was found to be a significant issue in rural Sindh.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Violence , Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pakistan/epidemiology , Physical Abuse , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1084017, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288344

ABSTRACT

Background: The elevated risk of serious complications like myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination, especially in adolescent has been reported in some instances that need to be tested in regional populations and different ethnicity groups. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the side effects, hesitancy, and effectiveness outcomes following COVID-19 vaccination among children in Pakistan. Methods: The study was planned using a cross-sectional design and data from Children and Adolescents (CA) was collected through a convenient sampling method using a validated questionnaire between February to July 2022. A total of 1,108 CA between the age of 12-18 years who received one or two doses of vaccine were selected and data were collected through direct interviews with respondents. Results: The results showed that among 99.8% of respondents who received the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine, 72.3% of respondents were partially vaccinated (with one dose) while 27.7% were fully vaccinated (with two doses). COVID vaccination regime had a favorable safety profile in children as compared to adults. Vaccine hesitancy in children was reported to be 52.4% and the most common reasons for hesitance were the assumption that the vaccine is not safe (23.7%), the vaccine is not required (19.6%) and the vaccine is not effective (10.4%). The reported side effects were mainly mild (88.5%) followed by moderate (10.6%) and only 0.8% were of severe intensity. Post-vaccination local side effects of mild intensity were common with an onset of an average of 24 h (68%) and a duration of 2-3 days (60.6%). The reported side effects were significantly associated with gender (p = 0.00) while age had no significant effect on the occurrence of side effects. Overall, the vaccine was well tolerated by children and adolescents and was effective in preventing the reoccurrence of COVID-19 infection in 99.9% of participants. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccine by Pfizer approved by the FDA for use in CA 12-18 years of age was well tolerated with a good safety profile and no serious adverse drug reactions were reported. The vaccine side effects were mild (88.5%) and lasted for an average of 2-3 days only (60.4%). The vaccine was effective in safeguarding Children against COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Child , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pakistan/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
11.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(4): 817-822, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We tested the utility of mini-pool PCR testing for the rational use of PCR consumables in screening for CoViD-19. METHODS: After pilot experiments, 3-samples pool size was selected. One step RT-PCR was performed. The samples in the mini-pool having COVID gene amplification were tested individually. RESULTS: 1548 samples tested in 516 mini-pools resulted 396 mini-pools as negative and 120 as positive. Upon individual testing, 110 samples tested positive and 9 were inconclusive. 876 PCR reactions were performed to test 1548 samples, saving 43% PCR reagents. Centres with low prevalence resulted in most saving on reagents (50%), while centres with high prevalence resulted in more test reactions. Testing of individual samples resulted in delays in reporting. CONCLUSIONS: Pooling can increase lab capacity, however, pooling delays results and cause degradation of samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Pakistan/epidemiology , Specimen Handling/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , RNA, Viral
12.
Mol Biol Rep ; 50(5): 4309-4316, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a serious public health emergency of global concern. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) peptidase domain is important for the cellular entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Germline variants in ACE2 peptidase domain may influence the susceptibility for SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity in the host population. ACE2 genetic analysis among Caucasians showed inconclusive results. This is the first Asian study investigating the contribution of ACE2 germline variants to SARS-CoV-2 infection in Pakistani population. METHODS: In total, 442 individuals, including SARS-CoV-2-positive (n = 225) and SARS-CoV-2-negative (n = 217) were screened for germline variants in ACE2 peptidase domain (exons 2, 3, 9, and 10) using high resolution melting and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analyses followed by DNA sequencing of variant fragments. The identified variant was analyzed by in silico tools for potential effect on ACE2 protein. RESULTS: A missense variant, p.Lys26Arg, was identified in one SARS-CoV-2-positive (1/225; 0.4%) and three SARS-CoV-2-negative (3/217; 1.4%) individuals. No significant difference in the minor allele frequency of this variant was found among SARS-CoV-2-positive and SARS-CoV-2-negative individuals (1/313; 0.3% versus 3/328; 0.9%; P = 0.624), respectively. The SARS-CoV-2-positive patient carrying p.Lys26Arg showed mild COVID-19 disease symptoms. It was predicted as benign variant by in silico tool. No variant was detected in ACE2 residues important for binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. CONCLUSION: The p.Lys26Arg variant may have no association with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility in Pakistani population. Whole ACE2 gene screening is warranted to clarify its role in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
13.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 35(2)2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272303
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 12(1): 18, 2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the Omicron variant presents a formidable challenge for control and prevention worldwide, especially for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Hence, taking Kazakhstan and Pakistan as examples, this study aims to explore COVID-19 transmission with the Omicron variant at different contact, quarantine and test rates. METHODS: A disease dynamic model was applied, the population was segmented, and three time stages for Omicron transmission were established: the initial outbreak, a period of stabilization, and a second outbreak. The impact of population contact, quarantine and testing on the disease are analyzed in five scenarios to analysis their impacts on the disease. Four statistical metrics are employed to quantify the model's performance, including the correlation coefficient (CC), normalized absolute error, normalized root mean square error and distance between indices of simulation and observation (DISO). RESULTS: Our model has high performance in simulating COVID-19 transmission in Kazakhstan and Pakistan with high CC values greater than 0.9 and DISO values less than 0.5. Compared with the present measures (baseline), decreasing (increasing) the contact rates or increasing (decreasing) the quarantined rates can reduce (increase) the peak values of daily new cases and forward (delay) the peak value times (decreasing 842 and forward 2 days for Kazakhstan). The impact of the test rates on the disease are weak. When the start time of stage II is 6 days, the daily new cases are more than 8 and 5 times the rate for Kazakhstan and Pakistan, respectively (29,573 vs. 3259; 7398 vs. 1108). The impact of the start times of stage III on the disease are contradictory to those of stage II. CONCLUSIONS: For the two LMICs, Kazakhstan and Pakistan, stronger control and prevention measures can be more effective in combating COVID-19. Therefore, to reduce Omicron transmission, strict management of population movement should be employed. Moreover, the timely application of these strategies also plays a key role in disease control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Kazakhstan/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology
15.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(Suppl 1)(4): S1021-S1026, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250266

ABSTRACT

Abstract: There are number of emerging studies that link the air leak syndrome (ALS) with COVID 19 disease but still data to explain the association, incidence and outcome in these patients is lacking. We aim to understand the risk factors and clinical outcome of these air leakage events in COVID 19 patients admitted to our institution. Methods: This is a single-centered case series conducted at the COVID unit of the SMBBIT in Karachi, Pakistan. Data collection was done from April 24, 2020 to June 10, 2021. Results: There were 19 patients with severe COVID pneumonia who developed air leaks. Most common finding was subcutaneous emphysema 94%. Four patients (21%) didn't receive positive pressure ventilation in any form. Median time of developing air leak from admission is 5 [2-9] and from PPV is 2 [1-3] days. There was high percentage of mortality 84.5 % in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Risk Factors , Pakistan/epidemiology
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13): S69-S75, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248261

ABSTRACT

We conducted 4,863 mobile phone and 1,715 face-to-face interviews of adults >18 years residing in Pakistan during June 2021-January 2022 that focused on opinions and practices related to COVID-19. Of those surveyed, 26.3% thought COVID-19 was inevitable, and 16.8% had tested for COVID-19. Survey participants who considered COVID-19 an inevitability shared such traits as urban residency, concerns about COVID-19, and belief that the virus is a serious medical threat. Survey respondents who had undergone COVID-19 testing shared similarities regarding employment status, education, mental health screening, and the consideration of COVID-19 as an inevitable disease. From this survey, we modeled suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases and found nearly 3 times as many suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases than had been reported. Our research also suggested undertesting for COVID-19 even in the presence of COVID-19 symptoms. Further research might help uncover the reasons behind undertesting and underreporting of COVID-19 in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Phone , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Phenotype
17.
Vet Med Sci ; 9(2): 982-984, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266230

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a viral disease that affects farm animals including water buffalo. It is caused by the contagious LSD virus, a member of the Poxiviridae family's Capripox genus. Skin sores are thought to be the most common site of infection since the virus may live for lengthy periods in lesions or scabs. The first clinical indications of LSD were described in Zambia, in 1929. Pakistan has also been afflicted by LSD, with a high number of animals infected at many cattle ranches in Karachi, 190,000 cases of LSD have been reported nationwide, with greater than 7500 deaths attributable to the illness. LSD has a huge influence on Pakistan's economic status, resulting in the loss of cattle and a decrease in milk output. The Ministry of Research and National Food Safety in Pakistan has formed a working group to create a framework for controlling the spread of LSD in cattle and buffalo. Official and private veterinarians, both field and slaughterhouse, veterinary students, farmers, cattle merchants, cattle truck drivers, and artificial inseminators should all participate in awareness efforts.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Cattle , Animals , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Milk , Animals, Domestic , Buffaloes , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology
18.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 73(3): 663-667, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281373

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease has resulted in public health crisis all over the world. We describe the case series of a family, who travelled together to a mass gathering in Iraq, toured Syria, Lebanon, and Doha and returned to Karachi. The data describes the demographic and clinical features of these six members. There were three males and three females. One developed severe disease and died. Incubation period was between 8-14 days. Four patients were symptomatic, had diabetes mellitus and hypertension; and presented with fever. They also had bilateral airspace opacifications on chest X-ray. Our study describes familial clustering of SARS-CoV-2 and its person-to-person transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pakistan/epidemiology , Travel , Death , China
19.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 56(2): 357-364, 2022 Apr.
Article in Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284937

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection emerged in China at the end of 2019 and caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The lymphopenia seen in COVID-19 increases the incidence of susceptibility to other microorganisms and may cause co-infections. As the signs and symptoms of the diseases overlap with other infectious diseases and due to the intensity in health services, the diagnosis of co-infections becomes difficult and the treatment may be delayed. Therefore, infections accompanying COVID-19 cause an increase in morbidity and mortality.The isolation and quarantine measures taken during the COVID-19 process have reduced the number of infections transmitted from person to person. However, there was no significant decrease in diseases transmitted by food, such as salmonellosis. During the pandemic, salmonellosis continued to be a problem, especially in endemic areas such as Pakistan, and an increase in Salmonella infections associated with backyard poultry has been reported in countries such as the United States. A co-infection of COVID-19 and enteric fever associated with travel to Pakistan was reported for the first time in the literature in February 2021. In this case report, the first co-infection of COVID-19 and Salmonella in our country was presented. A 56-yearold male patient with no known systemic disease was admitted to the hospital with fever, shortness of breath, weakness and myalgia lasting for three days. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test was positive. The patient has been hospitalized and favipiravir, moxifloxacin, and methylprednisolone were started. Blood cultures were taken from the patient whose clinical picture worsened and fever continued despite of the medical treatment. Salmonella enterica spp. enterica was isolated and ceftriaxone treatment was started. The patient's anamnesis was deepened, but no diarrhea, abdominal pain, suspicious food consumption, travel history were determined. From the second day of the ceftriaxone treatment, the patient's fever decreased and no growth was detected in the control blood cultures. Ceftriaxone treatment was completed in 14 days and the patient was discharged on the 28th day. Approximately 87-95% of Salmonella strains isolated in our country are S.enterica spp. enterica, and S.enterica spp. enterica was also isolated in our case. Salmonella infections most commonly present as gastroenteritis, but the risk of bacteremia increases in case of immunosuppression. Although there was no additional disease in our case, it was considered that the infection in the form of bacteremia occurred due to an immunosuppression caused by COVID-19. In this context; drawing blood cultures of patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 is very important in terms of detecting co-infections and superinfections, and administering appropriate antibiotic therapy at appropriate treatment times. Presentation of first case of Salmonella bacteremia and simultaneous COVID-19 infection in our country was the strong side of our report. In addition, our case is also important as being the first SARS-CoV-2 and Salmonella co-infection unrelated to Pakistan in the literature. The limitation of our case was that S.enterica spp. enterica detected in the blood culture could not be subtyped and the stool culture could not be examined. However, this does not constitute a diagnostic requirement. In addition, the patient's pre-COVID-19 Salmonella carrier status was also unknown. As a result, patients become vulnerable to other infections due to the lymphopenia seen in COVID-19. Therefore, Salmonella bacteremia can be seen with SARS-CoV-2 infection without a comorbid condition. Drawing blood cultures in hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of COVID-19 is very important in terms of detecting concomitant infections in a short time. In patients whose clinical condition does not improve and fever continues despite of treatment, blood cultures should be taken, especially in the case of an advanced immunosuppresive treatment plan, and it should always be kept in mind that secondary infections and co-infections may occur.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Lymphopenia , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella enterica , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Salmonella Infections/diagnosis , Salmonella Infections/drug therapy , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology
20.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248281, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242124

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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