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1.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(3): 197-205, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222316

ABSTRACT

Objective: Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and pharyngeal associated lymphoid tissue are thought to influence the manifestations of COVID-19. We aimed to determine whether a previous history of tonsillectomy, as a surrogate indicator of a dysfunctional pharyngeal associated lymphoid tissue, could predict the presentation and course of COVID-19. Methods: Multicentric cross-sectional observational study involving seven hospitals in Northern and Central Italy. Data on the clinical course and signs and symptoms of the infection were collected from 779 adults who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and analysed in relation to previous tonsillectomy, together with demographic and anamnestic data. Results: Patients with previous tonsillectomy showed a greater risk of fever, temperature higher than 39°C, chills and malaise. No significant differences in hospital admissions were found. Conclusions: A previous history of tonsillectomy, as a surrogate indicator of immunological dysfunction of the pharyngeal associated lymphoid tissue, could predict a more intense systemic manifestation of COVID-19. These results could provide a simple clinical marker to discriminate suspected carriers and to delineate more precise prognostic models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Palatine Tonsil , Tonsillectomy/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Palatine Tonsil/surgery , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066839

ABSTRACT

Two patients suffering from chronic recurrent tonsillitis were reported. The first patient was confirmed infected with COVID-19, 3 weeks prior to tonsillectomy. The detritus and tonsil specimen were further analysed through real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and revealed amplification of the fragment N and ORF1ab genes of SARS-CoV-2. The second patient had a negative IgM and positive IgG antibody for COVID-19; however, the nasopharyngeal swab indicated negative for SARS-CoV-2. Tonsillectomy was performed 2 weeks after the swab; the tonsil specimen was analysed through RT-PCR and revealed amplification of the N2 and RdRp gene of SARS-CoV-2. According to both results, the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 gene remains to be detected in tonsil and/or detritus after 2-3 weeks after recovery. Hence, it is suggested that it is necessary to use adequate protection when performing tonsillectomy on early recovered patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, tonsillectomy would be more advisable to be performed after the fourth week after recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Palatine Tonsil/virology , Tonsillitis/complications , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Palatine Tonsil/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Tonsillectomy/methods , Tonsillitis/surgery , Young Adult
3.
Nat Med ; 27(1): 125-135, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023963

ABSTRACT

Most of what we know about adaptive immunity has come from inbred mouse studies, using methods that are often difficult or impossible to confirm in humans. In addition, vaccine responses in mice are often poorly predictive of responses to those same vaccines in humans. Here we use human tonsils, readily available lymphoid organs, to develop a functional organotypic system that recapitulates key germinal center features in vitro, including the production of antigen-specific antibodies, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation, plasmablast differentiation and class-switch recombination. We use this system to define the essential cellular components necessary to produce an influenza vaccine response. We also show that it can be used to evaluate humoral immune responses to two priming antigens, rabies vaccine and an adenovirus-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine, and to assess the effects of different adjuvants. This system should prove useful for studying critical mechanisms underlying adaptive immunity in much greater depth than previously possible and to rapidly test vaccine candidates and adjuvants in an entirely human system.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Palatine Tonsil/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Germinal Center/cytology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Lymphoid Tissue/immunology , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/immunology , Rabies Vaccines/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971145

ABSTRACT

A 70-year-old man presented with gradually worsening throat discomfort. He had no prior diagnosis of cancer and no travel history of note. Examination revealed a right-sided painless neck lump. He underwent an MRI of the neck, revealing a gadolinium-enhancing tonsillar mass and two brain lesions. Biopsy of the tonsil lesion was in keeping with an epithelial neoplasm, suggesting metastatic renal cell carcinoma. This was confirmed following a staging CT, which revealed a left renal mass and lung metastases. Due to his brain metastases, the patient has been started on the tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib. A brief discussion on the diagnostic evaluation of a tonsil mass as a rare presentation of renal cell cancer follows this report.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms/secondary , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Aged , Anilides/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/drug therapy , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Palatine Tonsil/drug effects , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
6.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 47(4): 559-564, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to detect, analyze and discuss the different ear nose throat (ENT) manifestations those were reported in COVID19 positive patients in the reviewed and published literatures. METHODS: We performed a search in the PubMed databases, Web of Science, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, and Cochrane Library using the keywords; COVID-19, Novel coronavirus, corona, 2019-nCoV, SARS-CoV-2, ENT, ear, nose, throat, otorhinolaryngology, ORL, pharynx, ORL, smell, larynx, different ENT related symptoms. We reviewed published and peer reviewed studies that reported the ENT manifestations in COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed positive patients. RESULTS: within the included 1773 COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed positive patients, the most common ENT manifestations of COVID-19 were sore throat (11.3%) and headache (10.7%). While the other reported ENT manifestations were pharyngeal erythema (5.3%), nasal congestion (4.1%), runny nose or rhinorrhea (2.1%), upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (1.9%), and tonsil enlargement (1.3%). CONCLUSION: ENT manifestations for COVID-19 are not common as fever and cough. But, a universal questionnaire using well-defined COVID-19 manifestations is needed to make the COVID-19 data precisely defined, complete and homogenous.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adenoids , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Erythema/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Myalgia/physiopathology , Nasal Obstruction/physiopathology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/physiopathology , Palatine Tonsil , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
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