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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(36): 5240-5249, 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055461

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause pancreatic damage, both directly to the pancreas via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors (the transmembrane proteins required for SARS-CoV-2 entry, which are highly expressed by pancreatic cells) and indirectly through locoregional vasculitis and thrombosis. Despite that, there is no clear evidence that SARS-CoV-2 is an etiological agent of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive patients often recognizes biliary or alcoholic etiology. The prevalence of acute pancreatitis in COVID-19 positive patients is not exactly known. However, COVID-19 positive patients with acute pancreatitis have a higher mortality and an increased risk of intensive care unit admission and necrosis compared to COVID-19 negative patients. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is the most frequent cause of death in COVID-19 positive patients and concomitant acute pancreatitis. In this article, we reported recent evidence on the correlation between COVID-19 infection and acute pancreatitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pancreas , Pancreatitis/diagnosis , Pancreatitis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Transplantation ; 106(7): 1421-1429, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is associated with high mortality among transplant recipients. Comparative data that define humoral responses to the Oxford-AstraZeneca (AZ) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccines are limited. METHODS: We recruited 920 kidney transplant patients receiving at least 1 dose of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine, excluding patients with virus pre-exposure. Serological status was determined with the COVID-SeroKlir ELISA (Kantaro-EKF Diagnostics). Patients with a corrected antibody level of <0.7 AU/mL were considered seronegative. RESULTS: Four hundred ninety-five AZ and 141 Pfizer patients had a sample analyzed after first dose and 593 after second dose (346 AZ versus 247 Pfizer). After first dose, 25.7% of patients seroconverted (26.6% AZ, 22.8% Pfizer). After second dose, 148 (42.8%) of AZ seroconverted compared with 130 (52.6%) of Pfizer (P = 0.02; hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.06). When negative responders were excluded, Pfizer patients were shown to have significantly higher response than AZ patients (median 2.6 versus 1.78 AU/mL, P = 0.005).Patients on mycophenolate had a reduced seroconversion rate (42.2% versus 61.4%; P < 0.001; hazard ratio, 2.17) and reduced antibody levels (0.47 versus 1.22 AU/mL, P = 0.001), and this effect was dose dependent (P = 0.05). Prednisolone reduced the seroconversion from 58.2% to 43.6% (P = 0.03) among Pfizer but not AZ recipients. Regression analysis showed that antibody levels were reduced by older age (P = 0.002), mycophenolate (P < 0.001), AZ vaccine (versus Pfizer, P = 0.001), and male gender (P = 0.02). Sixteen of 17 serious postvaccine infections occurred to patients who did not seroconvert. CONCLUSIONS: Both seroconversion and antibody levels are lower in AZ compared with Pfizer vaccinated recipients following 2 vaccine doses. Mycophenolate was associated with lower antibody responses in a dose-dependent manner. Serious postvaccine infections occurred among seronegative recipients.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Kidney , Male , Pancreas , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 47(8): 2584-2603, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971678

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous pancreatic interventions performed by abdominal radiologists play important diagnostic and therapeutic roles in the management of a wide range of pancreatic pathology. While often performed with endoscopy, pancreatic mass biopsy obtained via a percutaneous approach may serve as the only feasible option for diagnosis in patients with post-surgical anatomy, severe cardiopulmonary conditions, or prior non-diagnostic endoscopic attempts. Biopsy of pancreatic transplants are commonly performed percutaneously due to inaccessible location of the allograft by endoscopy, usually in the right lower quadrant or pelvis. Percutaneous drainage of collections in acute pancreatitis is primarily indicated for infection with clinical deterioration and may be performed alone or in combination with endoscopic drainage. Post-surgical pancreatic collections related to pancreatic duct fistula or leak also often warrant therapeutic percutaneous drainage. Knowledge of appropriate indications, strategies of approach, technique, and complications associated with these procedures is critical for a successful clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Biopsy , Drainage/methods , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Humans , Pancreas/diagnostic imaging , Pancreas/pathology , Pancreas/surgery , Pancreatic Ducts/pathology , Pancreatitis/complications , Treatment Outcome
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113456, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966381

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone acts as an immunosuppressive drug and has been used recently in the management of specific coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases; however, various adverse effects could limit its use. In this work, we studied the mitigation effects of black pepper oil (BP oil) on glycemic parameters, dyslipidemia, oxidative and nitrosative stress and pancreatic fibrosis in dexamethasone-treated rats. Animals were divided into five groups that were treated with vehicle, dexamethasone (10 mg/kg, SC) or black pepper oil (BP oil, 0.5 mL, or 1 mL/kg) or metformin (50 mg/kg) plus dexamethasone for 4 consecutive days. Serum insulin, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were higher in the dexamethasone group vs the control group and decreased in BP oil and metformin groups relative to the dexamethasone group. Pancreatic nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase and malondialdehyde levels were increased in the dexamethasone group vs the control group and decreased in BP oil and metformin groups relative to the dexamethasone group. Pancreatic endothelial nitric oxide synthase and reduced glutathione were declined in the dexamethasone group vs the control group. They were increased in BP oil and metformin groups relative to the dexamethasone group. Moreover, the pancreatic islets diameter and collagen deposition were assessed and found to be higher in the dexamethasone group vs the control group. BP oil and metformin groups showed to regress this effect. In conclusion, BP oil may alleviate hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and pancreatic structural derangements and fibrosis by suppressing oxidative stress, increasing endogenous antioxidant levels, modulating nitric oxide signaling, preventing pancreatic stellate cells transition and collagen deposition.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone , Metformin , Pancreas , Piper nigrum , Plant Oils , Animals , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Fibrosis , Insulin Resistance , Metformin/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pancreas/drug effects , Pancreas/pathology , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Wistar
5.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(19): 2034-2056, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954147

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Recent studies have revealed COVID-19-attributed acute pancreatitis (AP). However, clinical characteristics of COVID-19-attributed AP remain unclear. We performed a narrative review to elucidate relation between COVID-19 and AP using the PubMed database. Some basic and pathological reports revealed expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2, key proteins that aid in the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into the pancreas. The experimental and pathological evaluation suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infects human endocrine and exocrine pancreas cells, and thus, SARS-CoV-2 may have a direct involvement in pancreatic disorders. Additionally, systemic inflammation, especially in children, may cause AP. Levels of immune mediators associated with AP, including interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-10, interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor-α are higher in the plasma of patients with COVID-19, that suggests an indirect involvement of the pancreas. In real-world settings, some clinical features of AP complicate COVID-19, such as a high complication rate of pancreatic necrosis, severe AP, and high mortality. However, clinical features of COVID-19-attributed AP remain uncertain due to insufficient research on etiologies of AP. Therefore, high-quality clinical studies and case reports that specify methods for differential diagnoses of other etiologies of AP are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Pancreas , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 13(6): e00478, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912229

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of cross-sectional imaging for detection of pancreatic cancer (PDAC) in patients with new-onset hyperglycemia and diabetes (NOD). METHODS: We conducted a prospective pilot study from November 2018 to March 2020 within an integrated health system. Patients aged 50-85 years with newly elevated glycemic parameters without a history of diabetes were invited to complete a 3-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography pancreas protocol scan while participating in the Prospective Study to Establish a NOD Cohort. Abnormal pancreatic findings, incidental extrapancreatic findings, and subsequent clinical evaluation were identified. Variability in clinical reporting between medical centers based on descriptors of pancreatic duct and parenchyma was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 130 of 147 participants (88.4%) consented to imaging; 93 scans were completed (before COVID-19 stay-at-home order). The median age was 62.4 years (interquartile range 56.3-68.8), 37.6% women; Hispanic (39.8%), White (29.0%), Black (14.0%), and Asian (13.3%). One (1.1%) case of PDAC (stage IV) was diagnosed, 12 of 93 participants (12.9%) had additional pancreatic findings: 5 fatty infiltration, 3 cysts, 2 atrophy, 1 divisum, and 1 calcification. There were 57 extrapancreatic findings among 52 of 93 (56%) unique patients; 12 of 57 (21.1%) prompted clinical evaluation with 2 additional malignancies diagnosed (nonsmall cell lung and renal oncocytoma). Reports from 1 participating medical center more frequently provided description of pancreatic parenchyma and ducts (92.9% vs 18.4%), P < 0.0001. DISCUSSION: High proportion of incidental findings and variability in clinical reports are challenges to be addressed for a successful NOD-based early detection strategy for PDAC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal , Diabetes Mellitus , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreas/diagnostic imaging , Pancreas/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies
7.
Transplantation ; 106(9): 1860-1866, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since November 2021, a new variant of concern (VOC), the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineage B.1.1.529 (Omicron) has emerged as the dominant coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection worldwide. We describe the clinical presentation, risk factors, and outcomes in a cohort of kidney and kidney pancreas transplant recipients with COVID-19 caused by Omicron infection. METHODS: We included all kidney and kidney pancreas transplant recipients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infections between December 26, 2021, and January 14, 2022, in a single transplant center in Australia. Identification of the VOC Omicron was confirmed using phylogenetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 sequences. RESULTS: Forty-one patients with kidney (6 living and 33 deceased) and kidney pancreas transplants were diagnosed with the VOC Omicron (lineage B.1.1.529/BA.1) infection during the study period. The mean age (SD) at the time of diagnosis was 52 (11.1) y; 40 (out of 41) (98%) had received at least 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccine. Cough was the most frequent symptom (80.5%), followed by myalgia (70.7%), sore throat (63.4%), and fever (58.5%). After a follow-up time of 30 d, 1 (2.4%) patient died, 2 (4.9%) experienced multiorgan failure, and 5 (12.2%) had respiratory failure; 11 (26.8%) patients developed other superimposed infections. Compared with recipients who did not receive sotrovimab antibody therapy, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for hospitalization among patients who received sotrovimab was 0.05 (0.005-0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Despite double or triple dose vaccination, VOC Omicron infections in kidney and kidney pancreas transplant recipients are not necessarily mild. Hospitalization rates remained high (around 56%), and sotrovimab use may prevent hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Kidney , Pancreas , Phylogeny , Risk Factors , Transplant Recipients
8.
Andes Pediatr ; 92(6): 917-923, 2021 Dec.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836525

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The recent discovery of SARS-CoV-2 and the disease COVID-19 which affects different organs and systems, mainly the respiratory one, representing a new challenge for physicians. Pancreatic affection is barely described, with only a few cases reported in the literature. OBJECTIVE: to communicate a case of acute pancreatitis associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, to contribute to the knowledge of this new virus and its possible forms of presentation. CLINICAL CASE: An eleven-year-old male adolescent, with no history of contact with people confirmed or suspected of COVID-19, was admitted to the hospital with a 3-day history of periumbilical and epigastric abdominal pain, vomiting, and absence of stools, with no other symptoms. The laboratory tests showed increased pancreatic enzymes. Com puted tomography was compatible with acute edematous pancreatitis, without signs of biliary patho logy, diagnosing acute pancreatitis, at the same time that SARS-CoV-2 was isolated in the respiratory tract. Other possible differential diagnoses and history of epidemiological contact were ruled out. The patient was managed in the Critical Patient Unit with support measures. He evolved favorably, without respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection can be associated with atypical presentations, including acute pancreatitis. The physiopathological mechanism of pancreatic damage is not yet clear. Physicians should be aware of the COVID-19 involvement of other systems, beyond the respiratory one.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Male , Pancreas , Pancreatitis/complications , Pancreatitis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Transplant Proc ; 54(4): 917-924, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805274

ABSTRACT

Solid graft recipients are at an increased risk of serious complications and death. Out of 130 outpatient recipients of pancreas grafts at our Clinic, 20 patients (15.73%) had a confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (SARS-CoV-2). Each patient had a different course of the disease, and the forms of infection varied from mild to severe and lethal. According to recommendations, after confirmation of the infection, mycophenolate mofetil was withdrawn and the immunosuppression was based on steroids and a calcineurin inhibitor. In this study, we performed an analysis of the course of COVID-19 infection in patients after pancreatic transplantation. Twenty pancreas recipients were confirmed to have COVID-19 infections; 4 of whom required hospitalization owing to severe complications. Patients reported weakness, excessive intensity of fatigue, shortness of breath with exertion, cough, and periodically increased temperature. Weakness and fatigue persisted in these patients for about 6 weeks. In 2 patients there was a need for oxygen supplementation and empirical antibiotic. Mortality was 5%, and there was 1 graftectomy. Deterioration of either kidney or pancreas graft were not observed in any other patients. The course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in solid graft recipients is similar to that of the rest of the population. Because of immunosuppression, recipients were accustomed to avoiding crowds and complying with obligations to wear masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Pancreas , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 59: 174-175, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803388
11.
Transplant Proc ; 54(4): 925-929, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799692

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was a real test of doctors' abilities to adapt and respond to patients' needs. The course of infection varied from influenza-like symptoms to severe infections with multi-organ failure and death. Therefore, the possibility of vaccination against the COVID-19 virus brought great hope. Since 2004, 240 pancreas and pancreas with kidney (simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation, pancreas after kidney, pancreas transplants alone) transplants were performed in our center. Currently, 130 transplant patients are under the care of the transplant clinic. All patients were informed about the possibility of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with the mRNA vaccine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the development of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in patients who had previously undergone transplantation. Fifty-three patients were vaccinated with the full double dose and 37 patients received an additional third dose. The level of antibodies in the IgM and IgG classes was assessed in patients' serum. The level of antibodies was assessed before administration of the vaccine and then after administration of the first and second doses. Most patients had no response to vaccination after 1 dose of the vaccine and 21 patients achieved therapeutic antibody levels after the full dose of vaccination. However, the highest titer of immunoglobulins was found in recipients who received the third dose. The use of vaccinations is safe and can protect the group of patients after pancreas transplantation from serious complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection despite the use of immunosuppressive drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Pancreas , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1115-1125, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799501

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common underlying diseases that may aggravates COVID-19. In the present study, we explored islet function, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and pathological changes in the pancreas of patients with COVID-19. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and the C-peptide release test demonstrated a decrease in glucose-stimulated C-peptide secretory capacity and an increase in HbA1c levels in patients with COVID-19. The prediabetic conditions appeared to be more significant in the severe group than in the moderate group. SARS-CoV-2 receptors (ACE2, CD147, TMPRSS2 and neuropilin-1) were expressed in pancreatic tissue. In addition to SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein and virus RNA, coronavirus-like particles were present in the autophagolysosomes of pancreatic acinar cells of a patient with COVID-19. Furthermore, the expression and distribution of various proteins in pancreatic islets of patients with COVID-19 were altered. These data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 in the pancreas may directly or indirectly impair islet function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , C-Peptide/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Humans , Pancreas , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10109, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792858

ABSTRACT

Background: Antiviral drugs have shown little impact in patient infected with acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Especially for immunocompromised persons positive for SARS-CoV-2, novel treatments are warranted. Recently, the U.S. FDA has granted an emergency use authorization (EUA) to two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) targeting the viral spike protein: bamlanivimab and casivirimab and imdevimab. As per the EUA, all SARS-CoV-2 positive organ transplant recipients can receive mAb treatment. Patients and methods: We queried our center's transplant registry to identify SARS-CoV-2 infected recipients treated with single doses of either Bamlanivimab or casivirimab/imdevimab up to May 31, 2021. We analyzed clinical outcomes, renal function and virus-specific antibodies. The co-primary endpoints were hospitalization due to COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negativity. Results: Thirteen patients at a median interval of 55 (IQR, 26-110) months from transplant were treated: 8 with bamlanivimab and 5 with casivirimab/imdevimab. In all, 4/13 (31%) patients were hospitalized at some time, while 11/13 (85%) achieved PCR negativity. 2/4 hospitalized patients received mAb as rescue treatment. Overall mortality was 23%, with one death attributable to transplant-associated lymphoma. All six patients infected with the B 1.1.7 variant were alive at last contact. Conclusion: mAb treatment appears effective when administered early to SARS-CoV-2-infected transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Humans , Kidney/physiology , Pancreas , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
14.
Interdiscip Sci ; 14(4): 863-878, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782989

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the lungs, heart, kidney, intestine, olfactory epithelia, liver, and pancreas and brings forward multi-organ dysfunctions (MODs). However, mechanistic details of SARS-CoV-2-induced MODs are unclear. Here, we have investigated the role of pancreatic secretory proteins to mechanistically link COVID-19 with MODs using single-cell transcriptome analysis. Secretory proteins were identified using the Human Protein Atlas. Gene ontology, pathway, and disease enrichment analyses were used to highlight the role of upregulated pancreatic secretory proteins (secretome). We show that SARS-CoV-2 infection shifts the expression profile of pancreatic endocrine cells to acinar and ductal cell-specific profiles, resulting in increased expression of acinar and ductal cell-specific genes. Among all the secretory proteins, the upregulated expression of IL1B, AGT, ALB, SPP1, CRP, SERPINA1, C3, TFRC, TNFSF10, and MIF was mainly associated with disease of diverse organs. Extensive literature and experimental evidence are used to validate the association of the upregulated pancreatic secretome with the coagulation cascade, complement activation, renin-angiotensinogen system dysregulation, endothelial cell injury and thrombosis, immune system dysregulation, and fibrosis. Our finding suggests the influence of an upregulated secretome on multi-organ systems such as nervous, cardiovascular, immune, digestive, and urogenital systems. Our study provides evidence that an upregulated pancreatic secretome is a possible cause of SARS-CoV-2-induced MODs. This finding may have a significant impact on the clinical setting regarding the prevention of SARS-CoV-2-induced MODs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensinogen , Multiple Organ Failure , Renin , Secretome , Pancreas , Gene Expression Profiling
17.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 31(4): 389-398, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A total of 148 surgeries were performed in our center on patients with pancreatic cancer in 2020. In 2019, 263 such procedures were performed (77.7% more) in this facility. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on pancreatic cancer surgery type, number and outcome in our center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective data analysis of medical documentation in a hospital database from January 2019 till December 2020. RESULTS: In 2020, we observed an increase of tumors localized in the tail of the pancreas (P) - 29 cases (19.9%) in 2020 compared to 26 cases (9.9%) in 2019 (p = 0.005). In 2020, our patients presented with much greater advancement of the disease illustrated by the increased tumor size (median 3.5 cm in 2020 compared to 3.0 cm in 2019), although it did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.073). In 2020, we performed more palliative procedures, e.g., bypassing anastomoses (17 (11.6%) in 2020 compared to 8 (3%) in 2019 (p < 0.001)), more open biopsies of P (21 (14.4%) in 2020 compared to 21 (7.9%) in 2019 (p = 0.041)), and more percutaneous biopsies of P (7 (4.8%) in 2020 and 0 in 2019 (p = 0.001)). We observed a significant decrease in the number of Whipple procedures (53 (36.3%) in 2020 and 125 (47.5%) in 2019 (p = 0.037)). The most common histopathological finding was adenocarcinoma of the P, accounting for 50% in 2020 and almost 52% of all tumor cases in 2019. In a group of 148 patients operated on due to a P tumor during the COVID-19 pandemic, only 6 patients died, which resulted in a mortality rate of 4.1% compared to 13.4% mortality rate in 2019 (34 deaths/263 patients; p = 0.005). We observed less leakage of gastrointestinal anastomosis (0/148 in 2020 and 10/263 in 2019 (p = 0.038)). CONCLUSIONS: Particular attention should be paid to patients with an aggressive type of cancer who have completed neoadjuvant therapy, as they are unable to undergo other therapeutic options. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive cancer patients should be postponed until recovery. Relatively few postoperative complications and low all-cause mortality are the result of a more careful selection of oncological patients before the admission to the surgical ward, as well as a ompliance with the principles of planning the procedure and organization of the operating theater during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Humans , Pancreas , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
HPB (Oxford) ; 24(10): 1668-1678, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection upon HPB cancer surgery perioperative outcomes is unclear. Establishing risk is key to individualising treatment pathways. We aimed to identify the mortality rate and complications risk for HPB cancer elective surgery during the pandemic. METHODS: International, prospective, multicentre study of consecutive adult patients undergoing elective HPB cancer operations during the initial SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Primary outcome was 30-day perioperative mortality. Secondary outcomes included major and surgery-specific 30-day complications. Multilevel cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models estimated association of SARS-CoV-2 and postoperative outcomes. RESULTS: Among 2038 patients (259 hospitals, 49 countries; liver n = 1080; pancreas n = 958) some 6.2%, n = 127, contracted perioperative SARS-CoV-2. Perioperative mortality (9.4%, 12/127 vs 2.6%, 49/1911) and major complications (29.1%, 37/127 vs 13.2%, 253/1911) were higher with SARS-CoV-2 infection, persisting when age, sex and comorbidity were accounted for (HR survival 4.15, 95% CI 1.64 to 10.49; OR major complications 3.41, 95% CI 1.72 to 6.75). SARS-CoV-2 was associated with late postoperative bleeding (11.0% vs 4.2%) and grade B/C postoperative pancreatic fistula (17.9% vs 8.6%). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with significantly higher perioperative morbidity and mortality. Patients without SARS-CoV-2 had acceptable morbidity and mortality rates, highlighting the need to protect patients to enable safe ongoing surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Pancreas , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Liver , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications
19.
HPB (Oxford) ; 24(8): 1217-1222, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive inflammatory disorder of the pancreas. Sarcopenia is a degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength and is commonly associated with chronic pancreatitis. Regular physical activity and adequate functional fitness have been found to ameliorate the risk and effects of sarcopenia in other chronic diseases. The objective of this systematic review was to collate all the published evidence which has examined any type of physical activity as an intervention in the chronic pancreatitis patient population. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The search strategy was designed by the medical librarian (DM) for Embase and then modified for the other search platforms. Two of the researchers (BM) and (AM) then performed the literature search using the databases Embase, Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science. RESULTS: An electronic identified a total of 571 references imported to Covidence as 420 when the duplicates (151) were removed. 420 titles were screened and 390 were removed as not relevant from their titles. 30 full text papers were selected and from these, only one full text paper was deemed suitable for inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: There is currently insufficient evidence to advise physical activity in the chronic pancreatitis population. However, given the evidence to support physical activity in many other chronic diseases this review highlights the need for urgent investigation of physical activity as an intervention on this specific patient population.


Subject(s)
Pancreatitis, Chronic , Sarcopenia , Chronic Disease , Exercise , Humans , Pancreas , Pancreatitis, Chronic/complications , Pancreatitis, Chronic/diagnosis , Pancreatitis, Chronic/therapy , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/etiology
20.
Cell Rep ; 38(11): 110508, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700144

ABSTRACT

Concerns that infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may cause new-onset diabetes persist in an evolving research landscape, and precise risk assessment is hampered by, at times, conflicting evidence. Here, leveraging comprehensive single-cell analyses of in vitro SARS-CoV-2-infected human pancreatic islets, we demonstrate that productive infection is strictly dependent on the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 and targets practically all pancreatic cell types. Importantly, the infection remains highly circumscribed and largely non-cytopathic and, despite a high viral burden in infected subsets, promotes only modest cellular perturbations and inflammatory responses. Similar experimental outcomes are also observed after islet infection with endemic coronaviruses. Thus, the limits of pancreatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, even under in vitro conditions of enhanced virus exposure, challenge the proposition that in vivo targeting of ß cells by SARS-CoV-2 precipitates new-onset diabetes. Whether restricted pancreatic damage and immunological alterations accrued by COVID-19 increase cumulative diabetes risk, however, remains to be evaluated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Humans , Pancreas , SARS-CoV-2
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