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Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1325-1326, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526997
Ann Intern Med ; 174(1): JC2, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526979


SOURCE CITATION: Lamontagne F, Agoritsas T, Macdonald H, et al. A living WHO guideline on drugs for covid-19. BMJ. 2020;370:m3379. 32887691.

Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Betacoronavirus , Critical Illness , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42(spe): e20200404, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1523507


ABSTRACT Objective To reflect on the exercise of Nursing's professional autonomy in times of pandemic. Method Theoretical reflection in the light of the Sociology of Professions proposed by Eliot Freidson. Using the author's main concepts, it was sought to understand the professional practice of Nursing in times when its protagonism in the care process becomes even more challenging. Results Although there are obstacles in the daily work, it is believed that an autonomous practice contributes satisfactorily to the performance of nurses, since by revealing all the potential and leadership they have, they allow their professional autonomy to be legitimized. Final Considerations The reflection clarified the importance of nurses to put their professional autonomy into practice, in order to achieve greater recognition and social appreciation of their work in times of pandemic.

RESUMEN Objetivo Reflexionar sobre el ejercicio de la autonomía profesional de la Enfermería en tiempos de pandemia. Método Reflexión teórica a la luz de la Sociología de las Profesiones propuesta por Eliot Freidson. Utilizando los conceptos principales de la autora, buscamos comprender la práctica profesional de la Enfermería en momentos en que su protagonismo en el proceso asistencial se vuelve aún más desafiante. Resultados Si bien existen obstáculos en el trabajo diario, se cree que una práctica autónoma contribuye satisfactoriamente al desempeño de las enfermeiras y los enfermeros, ya que al revelar todo el potencial y liderazgo que tienen, permiten legitimar su autonomía profesional. Consideraciones Finales La reflexión aclaró la importancia de que el enfermero ponga en práctica su autonomía profesional, con el fin de lograr un mayor reconocimiento y valoración social de su trabajo en tiempos de pandemia.

RESUMO Objetivo Refletir sobre o exercício da autonomia profissional da Enfermagem em tempos de pandemia. Método Reflexão teórica à luz da Sociologia das Profissões proposta por Eliot Freidson. Utilizando-se os principais conceitos do autor, buscou-se uma compreensão sobre o exercício profissional da Enfermagem em tempos onde seu protagonismo frente ao processo de cuidar torna-se ainda mais desafiador. Resultados Apesar de existirem obstáculos no cotidiano de trabalho, acredita-se que uma prática autônoma contribui de forma satisfatória para o desempenho de enfermeiras(os), pois, ao revelarem todo o potencial e liderança que possuem, permitem que sua autonomia profissional seja legitimada. Considerações Finais A reflexão esclareceu a importância de enfermeiras(os) colocarem em prática sua autonomia profissional, com o intuito de alcançarem um maior reconhecimento e valorização social do seu trabalho em tempos de pandemia.

Professional Practice , Professional Autonomy , Pandemics , Nurses , Sociology/education , Coronavirus Infections , Leadership , Nursing Care
Kardiologiia ; 61(9): 20-32, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in Russian, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527055


Aim      To study the effect of regular drug therapy for cardiovascular and other diseases preceding the COVID-19 infection on severity and outcome of COVID-19 based on data of the ACTIVE (Analysis of dynamics of Comorbidities in paTIents who surVived SARS-CoV-2 infEction) registry.Material and methods  The ACTIVE registry was created at the initiative of the Eurasian Association of Therapists. The registry includes 5 808 male and female patients diagnosed with COVID-19 treated in a hospital or at home with a due protection of patients' privacy (data of nasal and throat smears; antibody titer; typical CT imaging features). The register territory included 7 countries: the Russian Federation, the Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Moldova, and the Republic of Uzbekistan. The registry design: a closed, multicenter registry with two nonoverlapping arms (outpatient arm and in-patient arm). The registry scheduled 6 visits, 3 in-person visits during the acute period and 3 virtual visits (telephone calls) at 3, 6, and 12 mos. Patient enrollment started on June 29, 2020 and was completed on October 29, 2020. The registry completion is scheduled for October 29, 2022. The registry ID: NCT04492384. In this fragment of the study of registry data, the work group analyzed the effect of therapy for comorbidities at baseline on severity and outcomes of the novel coronavirus infection. The study population included only the patients who took their medicines on a regular basis while the comparison population consisted of noncompliant patients (irregular drug intake or not taking drugs at all despite indications for the treatment).Results The analysis of the ACTIVE registry database included 5808 patients. The vast majority of patients with COVID-19 had comorbidities with prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Medicines used for the treatment of COVID-19 comorbidities influenced the course of the infectious disease in different ways. A lower risk of fatal outcome was associated with the statin treatment in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD); with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor antagonists and with beta-blockers in patients with IHD, arterial hypertension, chronic heart failure (CHF), and atrial fibrillation; with oral anticoagulants (OAC), primarily direct OAC, clopidogrel/prasugrel/ticagrelor in patients with IHD; with oral antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM); and with long-acting insulins in patients with type 1 DM. A higher risk of fatal outcome was associated with the spironolactone treatment in patients with CHF and with inhaled corticosteroids (iCS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Conclusion      In the epoch of COVID-19 pandemic, a lower risk of severe course of the coronavirus infection was observed for patients with chronic noninfectious comorbidities highly compliant with the base treatment of the comorbidity.

COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
Br J Community Nurs ; 26(Sup6): S5, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527032
J Hosp Med ; 16(3): 180-181, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527022
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526853


Many people's life situations are changing as a result of restrictions being imposed by national governments to limit the spread of the virus. These may be associated with additional factors (emotional or financial, for example) that influence eating behavior and physical activity levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to show whether there is a relationship between a changing life situation during the pandemic and eating behavior as well as physical activity. An online survey was conducted between 28 April and 16 July 2020 with 921 participants from European countries and countries outside Europe (South and North America, Australia). An analysis of the obtained results showed an unfavorable relationship between a change in life situation during the pandemic and eating behavior as well as physical activity. This was observed mainly among students who returned to their family homes and respondents whose working hours increased. Students were more likely to snack between meals (51.13%, p < 0.001) and to consume more sweets (45.11%, p < 0.001) and savory snacks (30.83%, p < 0.001). Those whose working hours had increased, consumed morefast foods (13.57%, p < 0.05) during that time. On the other hand, the study results indicated that a change in life situation during the pandemic can also have a positive impact on eating behavior and physical activity. This was exhibited by individuals who transitioned to remote working. An improvement in the regularity of eating (38.86%, p < 0.001) was recorded for this group. The relationship between a change in life situation and eating behavior was further emphasized by the fact that people whose life situation had not changed were more likely to declare no change in the regularity of eating (62.86%, p < 0.001) and snacking (61.71%, p < 0.001). At the same time, they were less likely to exhibit a higher intake of sweets (22.29%, p < 0.01) and salty snacks (13.14%, p < 0.01). The study results indicated that a change in the nutritional situation during the pandemic may have had both negative and positive effects on eating behavior and physical activity. Finding these relationships may help identify groups that are particularly vulnerable to reduced diet quality and reduced levels of physical activity. Considering the immunomodulating effects of diets and the fact that physical activity is essential for maintaining good health, further research in this area is needed.

COVID-19 , Diet/methods , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Australia , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , North America , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , South America , Young Adult
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(11): 2324-2332, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526675


PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of motor imagery (MI) training on strength and power performances of professional athletes during a period of detraining caused by the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Thirty male professional basketball players (age, 26.1 ± 6.2 yr) were randomly assigned to three counterbalanced groups: two MI training groups, who completed imagery training by mentally rehearsing upper and lower limb resistance training exercises loaded with either 85% of one repetition maximum (85%1RM) or optimum power loads (OPL), or a control group. For six consecutive weeks, although all groups completed two weekly sessions of high-intensity running, only the MI groups performed three additional MI sessions a week. Maximal strength and power output were measured through 1RM and OPL assessments in the back squat and bench press exercises with a linear positioning transducer. Vertical jump and throwing capabilities were assessed with the countermovement jump and the seated medicine ball throw tests, respectively. Kinesthetic and visual imagery questionnaires, and chronometry and rating of perceived effort scores were collected to evaluate MI vividness, MI ability, and perceived effort. RESULTS: Physical performances improved significantly following both MI protocols (range, ~2% to ~9%), but were reduced in the control group, compared with preintervention (P ≤ 0.016). Moreover, interactions (time-protocol) were identified between the two MI groups (P ≤ 0.001). Whereas the 85%1RM led to greater effects on maximal strength measures than the OPL, the latter induced superior responses on measures of lower limb power. These findings were mirrored by corresponding cognitive and psychophysiological responses. CONCLUSIONS: During periods of forced detraining, MI practice seems to be a viable tool to maintain and increase physical performance capacity among professional athletes.

Athletic Performance/physiology , Imagery, Psychotherapy , Muscle Strength , Resistance Training/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , Humans , Lower Extremity/physiology , Male , Pandemics , Perception/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Upper Extremity/physiology
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(4)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526192


BACKGROUND: Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, its terrible infectiousness has caused great panic, anxiety and poor sleep quality to the vulnerable adolescent populations. METHODS: This cross-sectional online survey recruited 10 569 Chinese junior and senior high school adolescents during 31 January to 9 February 2020. Basic socio-demographic information, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Fear of negative evaluation (FNE) were included in the survey. The χ2 and logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with poor sleep quality. RESULTS: The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 18.6% in the Chinese adolescent population. The average score of PSQI was 3.39 (SD = 2.64), which was significantly correlated with scores for anxiety (r = 0.50, p < 0.01), and FNE (r = 0.36, p < 0.01). Adjusted logistic regression indicated that gender (females) and education (senior high school) were associated with poor sleep quality, while living in Hubei Province and time spent on the COVID-19 information were inversely associated with poor sleep quality. Having a family member or friend infected/suspected and spending time on electronics were associated with higher odds of having poor sleep quality. Adolescents with anxiety were 8 times, and those with FNE were three times more likely than ones without anxiety or FNE to have poor sleep quality. In addition, the number of meals, exercise time and diet quality were also significantly associated with sleep quality. (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality was common during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chinese adolescents. Understanding several factors associated with the poor sleep quality will offer some important insights into determining potential interventions to improve sleep quality during the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires
Pain Med ; 22(9): 1891-1896, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526191

Pain , Pandemics , Humans
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(11): 3045-3058, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526166


OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on health systems. The WHO Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Surveillance and Quality Assessment Collaborating Centres Network conducted a survey to assess the effects of COVID-19 on AMR surveillance, prevention and control. METHODS: From October to December 2020, WHO Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) national focal points completed a questionnaire, including Likert scales and open-ended questions. Data were descriptively analysed, income/regional differences were assessed and free-text questions were thematically analysed. RESULTS: Seventy-three countries across income levels participated. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 67% reported limited ability to work with AMR partnerships; decreases in funding were frequently reported by low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; P < 0.01). Reduced availability of nursing, medical and public health staff for AMR was reported by 71%, 69% and 64%, respectively, whereas 67% reported stable cleaning staff availability. The majority (58%) reported reduced reagents/consumables, particularly LMICs (P < 0.01). Decreased numbers of cultures, elective procedures, chronically ill admissions and outpatients and increased ICU admissions reported could bias AMR data. Reported overall infection prevention and control (IPC) improvement could decrease AMR rates, whereas increases in selected inappropriate IPC practices and antimicrobial prescribing could increase rates. Most did not yet have complete data on changing AMR rates due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first survey to explore the global impact of COVID-19 on AMR among GLASS countries. Responses highlight important actions to help ensure that AMR remains a global health priority, including engaging with GLASS to facilitate reliable AMR surveillance data, seizing the opportunity to develop more sustainable IPC programmes, promoting integrated antibiotic stewardship guidance, leveraging increased laboratory capabilities and other system-strengthening efforts.

Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
Prev Med ; 153: 106852, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525993


Limited research has been conducted on the mental health concerns of frontline and essential workers and their children during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (U.S.). This study examined the association between working on the frontlines in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic (March to July 2020) and personal crisis text concerns (e.g., self-harm, suicidal thoughts, anxiety/stress, and substance abuse) for frontline essential workers and the children of frontline workers. We used a novel data set from a crisis texting service, Crisis Text Line (CTL), that is widely used throughout the U.S. Generalized Estimating Equations examined the individual association between eight specific crisis types (Depression, Stress/Anxiety, Self-Harm, Suicidal Thoughts, Substance Abuse, Isolation, Relationship Issues, and Abuse) and being in frontline work or being a child of a frontline worker during the early phase of the pandemic. Using CTL concerns as a proxy for the prevalence of mental health issues, we found that children of workers, specifically the youngest demographic (13 years and under), females, and non-conforming youth had a higher risk of specific crisis events during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, Hispanic children of workers reported higher rates of stress/anxiety, whereas African American children of workers had higher rates of abuse and depression. Frontline workers had a higher risk of suicidal thoughts, and the risk of crisis events was generally highest for non-binary, transgender, and male users. Increases in CTL usage among frontline workers were noted across 7-28 days after spikes in local COVID-19 cases. The research to date has focused on the mental health of frontline essential workers, but our study highlights troubling trends in psychological stress among children of these workers. Supportive interventions and mental health resources are needed not only for frontline essential workers, but for their children too.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
Prev Med ; 153: 106845, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525992


As overdose mortality is spiking during the COVID-19 pandemic, few race/ethnicity-stratified trends are available. This is of particular concern as overdose mortality was increasing most rapidly in Black and Latinx communities prior to the pandemic. We used quarterly, age-standardized overdose mortality rates from California to assess trends by race/ethnicity and drug involved over time. Rates from 2020 Q2-Q4 were compared to expected trends based on ARIMA forecasting models fit using data from 2006 to 2020 Q1. In 2020 Q2-Q4 overdose death rates rose by 49.8% from 2019, exceeding an expected increase of 11.5% (95%CI: 0.5%-22.5%). Rates significantly exceeded forecasted trends for all racial/ethnic groups. Black/African American individuals saw an increase of 52.4% from 2019, compared to 42.6% among their White counterparts. The absolute Black-White overdose mortality gap rose from 0.7 higher per 100,000 for Black individuals in 2018 to 4.8 in 2019, and further increased to 9.9 during the pandemic. Black overdose mortality in California was therefore 34.3% higher than that of White individuals in 2020 Q2-Q4. This reflects growing methamphetamine-, cocaine-, and fentanyl-involved deaths among Black communities. Growing racial disparities in overdose must be understood in the context of the unequal social and economic fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic, during which time Black communities have been subjected to the dual burden of disproportionate COVID-19 deaths and rising overdose mortality. Increased investments are required to ameliorate racial/ethnic disparities in substance use treatment, harm reduction, and the structural drivers of overdose, as part of the COVID-19 response and post-pandemic recovery efforts.

COVID-19 , Ethnic Groups , California/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Vaccine ; 39(47): 6876-6882, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525977


OBJECTIVE: Vaccine shortage and supply-chain challenges have caused limited access by many resource-limited countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. One of the primary decisions for a vaccine-ordering decision-maker is how to allocate the limited resources between different types of vaccines effectively. We studied the tradeoff between efficacy and reach of the two vaccine types that become available at different times. METHODS: We extended a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Deceased (SIR-D) model with vaccination, ran extensive simulations with different settings, and compared the level of infection attack rate (IAR) under different reach ratios between two vaccine types under different resource allocation decisions. RESULTS: We found that when there were limited resources, allocating resources to a vaccine with high efficacy that became available earlier than a vaccine with lower efficacy did not always lead to a lower IAR, particularly if the former could vaccinate less than 42.5% of the population (with the selected study parameters) who could have received the latter. Sensitivity analyses showed that this result stayed robust under different study parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that a vaccine with lower resource requirements (wider reach) can significantly contribute to reducing IAR, even if it becomes available later in the pandemic, compared to a higher efficacy vaccine that becomes available earlier but requires more resources. Limited resource in vaccine distribution is significant challenge in many parts of the world that needs to be addressed to improve the global access to life-saving vaccines. Understanding the tradeoffs between efficacy and reach is critical for resource allocation decisions between different vaccine types for improving health outcomes.

COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Resource Allocation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 32(12): 953-955, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525961
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(11): 2567-2576, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525954


The significant morbidity and mortality of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) prompted a global race to develop new therapies. These include interventions using cell- or cell-derived products, several of which are being tested in well-designed, properly controlled clinical trials. Yet, the search for cell-based COVID-19 treatments has also been fraught with hyperbolic claims; flouting of crucial regulatory, scientific, and ethical norms; and distorted communication of research findings. In this paper, we critically examine ethical issues and public communication challenges related to the development of cell-based therapeutics for COVID-19. Drawing on the lessons learned from this ongoing process, we argue against the rushed development of cell-based interventions. We conclude by outlining ways to improve the ethical conduct of cell-based clinical investigations and public communication of therapeutic claims.

COVID-19/therapy , Communication , Pandemics/ethics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stem Cell Transplantation/ethics , Therapeutics/ethics , Humans
J Natl Med Assoc ; 113(2): 218-219, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525857

Politics , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1720-1726, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525854


Being considered minor vexations, fungal infections hinder the life of about 15% of the world population superficially, with rare threats to life in case of invasive sepsis. A significant rise in the intrusive mycoses due to machiavellian fungal species is observed over the years due to increased pathology and fatality in people battling life-threatening diseases. Individuals undergoing therapy with immune suppressive drugs plus recovering from viral infections have shown to develop fungal sepsis as secondary infections while recovering or after. Currently, the whole world is fighting against the fright of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and corticosteroids being the primitive therapeutic to combat the COVID-19 inflammation, leads to an immune-compromised state, thereby allowing the not so harmful fungi to violate the immune barrier and flourish in the host. A wide range of fungal co-infection is observed in the survivors and patients of COVID-19. Fungal species of Candida, Aspergillus and Mucorales, are burdening the lives of COVID-19 patients/survivors in the form of Yellow/Green, White and Black fungus. This is the first article of its kind to assemble note on fungal infections seen in the current human health scenario till date and provides a strong message to the clinicians, researchers and physicians around the world "non-pathological fungus should not be dismissed as contaminants, they can quell immunocompromised hosts".

COVID-19 , Mycoses , Humans , Mycoses/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors