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1.
Health Promot Int ; 36(5): 1324-1333, 2021 Oct 13.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107483

ABSTRACT

Global shifts toward a disease-oriented, vertical approach to health has involved limiting the right for communities to participate in decision-making. Ecuador's authoritarian legacy has forced civil society and social organizations to adopt 'coping strategies', while large protests recently derived into violent struggles. The country has been severely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic amid corruption scandals involving hospital and food purchases by government during the response. This study critically examines how Ecuador's government took into consideration 'community participation' as a value and tenet of health promotion. Our systematic textual analysis focuses on 53 consecutive resolutions by the National Emergency Operations Committee (EOC) leading the decision-making processes, which, explicitly requires community participation. Results show that the 'lifecycle' of the central government's evolving policy framing centered on law enforcement and the private sector, followed by the social sector. Further, there is no evidence of stakeholders from civil society or organizations taking part in decision-making. Having legitimized the exclusion of community participation in Ecuador's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is possible that the government will fail to consider the wider social implications of its impact. In particular, the limits to local governments becoming informed and making decisions without mediation by the National EOC will further impede community participation in health decision-making in the future. This implies that local knowledge and experiences will also not inform health policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Participation , Ecuador , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 535-544, 2020 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spain is one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Serological surveys are a valuable tool to assess the extent of the epidemic, given the existence of asymptomatic cases and little access to diagnostic tests. This nationwide population-based study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Spain at national and regional level. METHODS: 35 883 households were selected from municipal rolls using two-stage random sampling stratified by province and municipality size, with all residents invited to participate. From April 27 to May 11, 2020, 61 075 participants (75·1% of all contacted individuals within selected households) answered a questionnaire on history of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and risk factors, received a point-of-care antibody test, and, if agreed, donated a blood sample for additional testing with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Prevalences of IgG antibodies were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification to allow for differences in non-response rates based on age group, sex, and census-tract income. Using results for both tests, we calculated a seroprevalence range maximising either specificity (positive for both tests) or sensitivity (positive for either test). FINDINGS: Seroprevalence was 5·0% (95% CI 4·7-5·4) by the point-of-care test and 4·6% (4·3-5·0) by immunoassay, with a specificity-sensitivity range of 3·7% (3·3-4·0; both tests positive) to 6·2% (5·8-6·6; either test positive), with no differences by sex and lower seroprevalence in children younger than 10 years (<3·1% by the point-of-care test). There was substantial geographical variability, with higher prevalence around Madrid (>10%) and lower in coastal areas (<3%). Seroprevalence among 195 participants with positive PCR more than 14 days before the study visit ranged from 87·6% (81·1-92·1; both tests positive) to 91·8% (86·3-95·3; either test positive). In 7273 individuals with anosmia or at least three symptoms, seroprevalence ranged from 15·3% (13·8-16·8) to 19·3% (17·7-21·0). Around a third of seropositive participants were asymptomatic, ranging from 21·9% (19·1-24·9) to 35·8% (33·1-38·5). Only 19·5% (16·3-23·2) of symptomatic participants who were seropositive by both the point-of-care test and immunoassay reported a previous PCR test. INTERPRETATION: The majority of the Spanish population is seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in hotspot areas. Most PCR-confirmed cases have detectable antibodies, but a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 did not have a PCR test and at least a third of infections determined by serology were asymptomatic. These results emphasise the need for maintaining public health measures to avoid a new epidemic wave. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Health, Institute of Health Carlos III, and Spanish National Health System.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2875-2884, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of the novel corona virus (SARS-Cov-2) in the late 2019 and not only the endoscopy practice and training but also the health care systems around the globe suffers. This systematic review focused the impact of Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) on the endoscopy practice. METHODS: A web search of different databases combining different search terms describing the endoscopy practice and the COVID-19 pandemic was done. Articles were screened for selection of relevant articles in two steps: title and abstract step and full-text screening step, by two independent reviewers and any debate was solved by a third reviewer. RESULTS: Final studies included in qualitative synthesis were 47. The data shown in the relevant articles were evident for marked reduction in the volume of endoscopy, marked affection of colorectal cancer screening, impairments in the workflow, deficiency in personal protective equipment (PPE) and increased likelihood of catching the infection among both the staff and the patients. CONCLUSION: The main outcomes from this review are rescheduling of endoscopy procedures to be suitable with the situation of COVID-19 pandemic in each Country. Also, the endorsement of the importance of PPE use for health care workers and screening of COVID-19 infection pre-procedure.Key messagesThe data focussing Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and COVID-19 emerged from different areas around the globe. The data presented on the published studies were heterogeneous. However, there were remarkable reductions in the volume of GI endoscopy worldwideStaff reallocation added a burden to endoscopy practiceThere was a real risk for COVID-19 spread among both the staff and the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
5.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(6): 2825-2834, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106540

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians and researchers have increasingly used remote online assessments to pursue their activities, but mostly with tests not validated for videoconference administration. This study aims to validate the remote online administration of picture description in Canadian French neurotypical speakers and to explore the thematic unit (TU) checklist recently developed. METHOD: Spoken discourse elicited through the picture description task of the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised (WAB-R) was collected from Canadian French neurotypical speakers from Québec aged between 50 and 79 years old. Forty-seven participants completed the task in person, and 49 participants completed the task by videoconference. Videos of each discourse sample were transcribed using CHAT conventions. Microstructural variables were extracted using the CLAN (Computerized Language ANalysis) program, whereas thematic informativeness was scored for each sample using TUs. Chi-square tests were conducted to compare both groups on each TU; t tests were also performed on the total score of TUs and microstructural variables. RESULTS: Groups were matched on sex, age, and education variables. The t tests revealed no intergroup difference for the total TU score and for the microstructural variables (e.g., mean length of utterances and number of words per minute). Chi-square tests showed no significant intergroup difference for all 16 TUs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support remote online assessment of the picnic scene of the WAB-R picture description in Canadian French neurotypical speakers. These results also validate the 16 TUs most consistently produced. The use of videoconference could promote and improve the recruitment of participants who are usually less accessible, such as people using assistive mobility technologies. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.21476961.


Subject(s)
Aphasia , COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Language , Pandemics , Canada , Videoconferencing
6.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 23: e67, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world since the initial outbreak in Wuhan, China. With the emergence of the Omicron variant, South Africa is presently the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Healthcare workers have been at the forefront of the pandemic in terms of screening, early detection and clinical management of suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases. Since the beginning of the outbreak, little has been reported on how healthcare workers have experienced the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa, particularly within a low-income, rural primary care context. METHODS: The purpose of the present qualitative study design was to explore primary healthcare practitioners' experiences regarding the COVID-19 pandemic at two selected primary healthcare facilities within a low-income rural context in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data were collected from a purposive sample of 15 participants, which consisted of nurses, physiotherapists, pharmacists, community caregivers, social workers and clinical associates. The participants were both men and women who were all above the age of 20. Data were collected through individual, in-depth face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed manually by thematic analysis following Tech's steps of data analysis. RESULTS: Participants reported personal, occupational and community-related experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa. Personal experiences of COVID-19 yielded superordinate themes of psychological distress, self-stigma, disruption of the social norm, Epiphany and conflict of interest. Occupational experiences yielded superordinate themes of staff infections, COVID-19-related courtesy stigma, resource constraints and poor dissemination of information. Community-related experiences were related to struggles with societal issues, clinician-patient relations and COVID-19 mismanagement of patients. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that primary healthcare practitioners' experiences around COVID-19 are attributed to the catastrophic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic with the multitude of psychosocial consequences forming the essence of these experiences. Ensuring availability of reliable sources of information regarding the pandemic as well as psychosocial support could be valuable in helping healthcare workers cope with living and working during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Humans , Female , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel/psychology , Qualitative Research , Primary Health Care
7.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 23: e56, 2022 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106284

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted healthcare worldwide. It has altered service delivery and posed challenges to practitioners in relation to workload, well-being and support. Within primary care, changes in physicians' activities have been identified and innovative work solutions implemented. However, evidence is lacking regarding the impact of the pandemic on pharmacy personnel who work in primary care. AIM: To explore the impact of the pandemic on the working practice (including the type of services provided) and job satisfaction of pharmacists and pharmacy technicians within Scottish general practice. Due to the stressful nature of the pandemic, we hypothesise that job satisfaction will have been negatively affected. METHODS: An online questionnaire was distributed in May-July 2021, approximately 15 months since initial lockdown measures in the UK. The questionnaire was informed by previous literature and underwent expert review and piloting. Analysis involved descriptive statistics, non-parametric statistical tests and thematic analysis. RESULTS: 180 participants responded (approximated 16.1% response rate): 134 pharmacists (74.4%) and 46 technicians (25.6%). Responses indicated greater involvement with administrative tasks and a reduction in the provision of clinical services, which was negatively perceived by pharmacists. There was an increase in remote working, although most participants continued to have a physical presence within general practices. Face-to-face interactions with patients reduced, which was negatively perceived by participants, and telephone consults were considered efficient yet less effective. Professional development activities were challenged by increased workloads and reduced support available. Although workplace stress was apparent, there was no indication of widespread job dissatisfaction. CONCLUSION: The pandemic has impacted pharmacists and technicians, but it is unknown if changes will be permanent, and there is a need to understand which changes should continue. Future research should explore the impact of altered service delivery, including remote working, on patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Primary Health Care
8.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6575-6580, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the trends of HPV vaccination between 03/2019-09/2021 and whether the impact of the COVID pandemic on HPV vaccination varied by race/ethnicity and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI). METHODS: Electronic medical records at Kaiser Permanente Southern California were used to assess monthly volume of HPV vaccine doses administered among children aged 9-12.9yrs, and up-to-date coverage (% vaccinated) by age 13 between 03/2019-09/2021. Modified Poisson models were used to evaluate the interactions between race/ethnicity, NDI and the pandemic periods on HPV vaccine coverage. RESULTS: HPV vaccine doses administered in 2020/2021 have returned to the 2019 level after the initial drop. The average up-to-date coverage in 05/2021-09/2021 (54.8%) remained lower than the pre-pandemic level (58.5%). The associations between race/ethnicity, NDI and HPV vaccine coverage did not vary due to the pandemic. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine promotion efforts are needed to address COVID-19 pandemic's lasting impact on HPV vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Ethnicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Social Class , California/epidemiology
9.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6649-6657, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106118

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vaccine hesitancy in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic is a major public health concern in the US. Cancer patients are especially vulnerable to adverse COVID-19 outcomes and require targeted prevention efforts against COVID-19. METHODS: We used longitudinal survey data from patients seen at Moffitt Cancer Center to identify attitudes, beliefs, and sociodemographic factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination acceptance among cancer patients. Patients with confirmed invasive cancer diagnosis through Cancer Registry data were asked about vaccine acceptance through the question "Now that a COVID-19 vaccine is available, are you likely to get it?" and dichotomized into high accepters (already received it, would get it when available) and low accepters (waiting for a doctor to recommend it, waiting until more people received it, not likely to get it). RESULTS: Most patients (86.8% of 5,814) were high accepters of the COVID-19 vaccine. High accepters had more confidence in the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine than low accepters. Multivariable logistic regression showed older individuals (70-89 vs.18-49: OR:2.57, 95% CI:1.33-4.86), those with greater perceived severity of COVID-19 infection (very serious vs. not at all serious: OR:2.55, 95% CI:1.76-3.70), practicing more risk mitigation behaviors (per one standard deviation OR:1.75, 95% CI:1.57-1.95), and history of receiving the flu shot versus not (OR:6.56, 95% CI:5.25-8.20) had higher odds of vaccine acceptance. Individuals living with more than one other person (vs. alone: OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.79) and those who were more socioeconomically disadvantaged (per 10 percentile points: OR: 0.89, 95 %CI: 0.85, 0.93) had lower odds of reporting vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSION: Most patients with cancer have or would receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Those who are less likely to accept the vaccine have more concerns regarding effectiveness and side effects, are younger, more socioeconomically disadvantaged, and have lower perceptions of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination
10.
Prim Care ; 49(4): 609-619, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105732

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, providers and patients explored the use of telehealth on a wide and rapid scale. Reflecting on how prenatal providers and pregnant patients used telehealth during the pandemic and afterward, we review existing and new lessons learned from the pandemic. This article summarizes international and national guidelines on prenatal care, presents practice examples on how telehealth and remote patient monitoring were used during the COVID-19 pandemic, and offers lessons learned and suggestions for future care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Prenatal Care , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(5): 847-864, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105693

ABSTRACT

Adolescent Medicine addresses the health care of adolescents, young adults, and their families. Adolescent psychology constitutes an important part. The COVID-19 pandemic has given insight into adolescent needs, bringing the focus on prevention rather than mere correction. One needs to factor in the unique aspects of adolescence, their need to impress peers and gain acceptance, and their unique information processing, not calculating trade-offs between risk and reward the way adults might, in a linear, rational, logical, and verbal manner. The article focuses on the need for collaborative training among the various stakeholders in Child and Adolescent Mental Health.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Medicine , COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics , Psychology, Adolescent , Young Adult
12.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(3): 547-571, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105692

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. More than 5 million children have been infected in the United States. Risk factors for more severe disease progression include obesity, pulmonary disease, gastrointestinal disorders, and neurologic comorbidities. Children with COVID-19 are admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit because of severe acute COVID-19 illness or COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The delta surge of 2021 was responsible for an increased disease burden in children and points to the key role of vaccinating children against this sometimes-deadly disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States/epidemiology
13.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 57(4): 551-562, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104622

ABSTRACT

Despite the unprecedented obstacles created by the COVID-19 pandemic, nursing professional development practitioners and nurse educators successfully harnessed educational technology to disseminate an extraordinary amount of vital information needed to provide care to a society in crisis. The agile adoption of educational technology allowed rapid access and dissemination of information that carried institutions through the uncharted waters of the pandemic and created a roadmap for mass education techniques to guide not only future disaster preparedness and crisis intervention but also application of nursing education in all arenas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing , Humans , Pandemics , Faculty, Nursing , Technology
14.
Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am ; 34(4): 481-490, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104621

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected individuals with kidney disease causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Sars-coV-2 infection has been linked to the development of acute kidney injury and worsening of underlying kidney function. Multiple challenges were encountered during the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in valuable lessons learned for future pandemics, public health emergencies, and disasters related to the care of individuals with kidney disease. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exposed the extensive need for more nurses to be knowledgeable about the care of kidney disease and able to provide specialized nephrology care.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(3): 490-521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101976

ABSTRACT

The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections provided a rich source of new data and comprehensive reviews on antiviral therapy. For COVID-19, intramuscular sotrovimab was noninferior to intravenous sotrovimab, serostatus did not predict the efficacy of sotrovimab, and molnupiravir appeared safe and modestly effective in decreasing hospitalization rates. Trials from low- and middle-income countries provided data to support transitioning those on first-line therapy with or without virologic suppression and those virologically suppressed on second-line therapy to dolutegravir-based regimens. Additional data supported the use of lenacapavir as a long-acting antiretroviral drug. Data across the United States demonstrate the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the HIV care continuum, although enhanced outreach efforts and decentralization of antiretroviral therapy delivery were associated with improvements in care engagement outcomes. Researchers described potential mechanisms for the emergence of integrase strand transfer inhibitor resistance. Studies on proviral genotyping high-lighted the limitations of its use in predicting clinically significant resistance. Several studies looked at the epidemiology and treatment of hepatitis C and B and the status of current hepatitis C virus elimination efforts. Data presented on HIV, COVID-19, and maternal and pediatric health included 2-year virologic outcome data of very early antiretroviral therapy in potentially reducing the latent HIV reservoir in infants with HIV. Data presented on COVID-19 and HIV therapeutics in children included SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in children younger than 12 years of age, remdesivir in hospitalized infants and children, and long-acting therapies for HIV treatment in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Child , Humans , United States/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Latency , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Psychopharmacol Bull ; 52(4): 8-30, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101824

ABSTRACT

Objective: In a phase 2 study, pimavanserin demonstrated efficacy as adjunctive treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). Subsequently, two phase 3 studies (NCT03968159 in the US; NCT03999918 in Europe) were initiated to examine the efficacy and safety of adjunctive pimavanserin in subjects with MDD and inadequate response to antidepressant treatment. Studies were combined with a prespecified statistical analysis plan owing to recruitment challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Experimental design: The randomized, double-blind studies enrolled 298 patients with MDD and inadequate response to current antidepressants. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to pimavanserin or placebo added to current antidepressant for 6 weeks. Primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 5 in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 17-item version (HAM-D-17). Principal observations: There was no effect of pimavanserin in change from baseline to week 5 in the HAM-D-17 (pimavanserin [n = 138]: least-squares mean [LSM] [standard error {SE}], -9.0 [0.58]; placebo [n = 135]: -8.1 [0.58]; mixed-effects model for repeated measures LSM [SE] difference, -0.9 [0.82], P = 0.2956). Nominal improvement with pimavanserin was observed on 2 secondary endpoints: Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 58.1% of pimavanserin-treated and 54.7% of placebo-treated patients. Conclusions: Adjunctive pimavanserin did not significantly improve depressive symptoms, although pimavanserin was well tolerated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Humans , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Pandemics , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 563-569, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100779

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare professionals are one of the groups most affected by a pandemic that affects the whole world. This study aimed to determine the anxiety level of emergency medical services professionals in Ankara, Turkey after the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the first part of the survey, the participants of the study were asked about their socio-demographic characteristics and their contact with the COVID-19 patients. In the second part, a survey with 20 questions that determined the state anxiety level derived from the State Anxiety Inventory was performed after obtaining verbal consent. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 33.1±6.9, while 52.7% of all participants were males. In this study, the mean STAI Anxiety Score was 50.7±11.6. Anxiety scores were higher in females and those who had family members at risk of COVID-19 infection (p<0.05). The majority of those who had family members at risk of the infection started to stay in guesthouses instead of going home. Participants were worried about transmitting the infection to their family members (p<0.05). They felt more anxious when treating COVID-19 diagnosed or other patients (p<0.05). In addition, they thought that their anxiety level increased in general (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic caused an anxiety increase in EMS workers in Turkey. Protecting the physical and mental health of the EMS employees who work at the front line against the COVID-19 pandemic and who have a high risk of infection, and ensuring their efficient work should be the main priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Anxiety/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
18.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 557-562, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100778

ABSTRACT

The world is amidst the COVID-19 pandemic that has used social distancing as a tool for containing the virus from spreading exponentially among other individuals. Previous literature suggests that human contact and attachment is a key for well-being which is why punishments like solitary confinement in detention centers like jail has always been debated as being torturous (Wolfendal 2020). With this notion, anxiety and stress may become more prevalent in individuals who experience self-isolation or are under a forced lockdown. For health-care workers like doctors and psychologists, who advocate for physical health, mental health and wellbeing; the challenges might increase during the pandemic phase as they are expected to go through the crises just like others while simultaneously contributing in rendering services related to dealing with physical and psychological health issues present in patients and clients with their continued practice from either on-site or online platforms. Although all health care professional's training inoculates the ill effects of compassion fatigue by other's overwhelming situations and discussions but they might still be prone to vicarious burnout, trauma and stress. Hence, they may become exposed to being at risk of experiencing anxiety more than the general population. This review discusses facets of the importance of self-care as mental health first aid tool for health care professionals including doctors and psychologists using research and supportive techniques to help them process stress and anxiety during and after the global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care
19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 549-556, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health of medical workers treating patients with COVID-19 is an issue of increasing concern worldwide. The available data on stress and anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 are relatively limited and have not been evaluated in Russia yet. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional anonymous survey included 1,090 healthcare workers. Stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics - 9 (SAVE-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder - 7 (GAD-7) scales. Logistic regression, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin two component factor model, Cronbach's alpha and ROC-analysis were performed to determine the influence of different variables, internal structure and consistency, sensitivity and specificity of SAVE-9 compared with GAD-7. RESULTS: The median scores on the GAD-7 and SAVE-9 were 5 and 14, respectively. 535 (49.1%) respondents had moderate and 239 (21.9%) had severe anxiety according to SAVE-9. 134 participants (12.3%) had severe anxiety, 144 (13.2%) had moderate according to GAD-7. The component model revealed two-factor structure of SAVE-9: "anxiety and somatic concern" and "social stress". Female gender (OR - 0.98, p=0.04) and younger age (OR - 0.65, p=0.04) were associated with higher level of anxiety according to regression model. The total score of SAVE-9 with a high degree of confidence predicted the GAD-7 value in comparative ROC analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers in Russia reported high rates of stress and anxiety. The Russian version of the SAVE-9 displayed a good ratio of sensitivity to specificity compared with GAD-7 and can be recommended as a screening instrument for detection of stress and anxiety in healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 536-548, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many research has indicated that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, health care workers are under greatly increased pressure and at increased risk for the development of mental health problems. Furthermore, previous research has indicated that psychiatrists are exposed to a number of unique stressors that may increase their risk for poor mental health. The aims of the present study were to assess the level of COVID-19 related concerns, psychological distress and life satisfaction among psychiatrists and other physicians during the first period of the pandemic and to examine whether individual differences in COVID-19 concerns, psychological flexibility, psychological resilience and coping behaviors account for differences in mental health indicators. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of N=725 physicians, among whom 22.8% were psychiatrists. This study was conducted online during the first lockdown in Croatia and collected data regarding COVID-19 related concerns, coping behaviors and mental health indicators (Psychological Distress and Life Satisfaction). RESULTS: Physicians of other specialties had higher scores on a measure of COVID-19 anxiety than psychiatrists (p=0.012). In addition, a number of differences in coping behaviors are evident. Specifically, psychiatrists were less likely than physicians of other specializations to believe that being informed about COVID-19 is an effective coping strategy (p=0.013), but more prone to using sedatives and drugs as a coping strategy (p=0.002; p=0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatrists are at special risk for substance abuse. Younger age, psychological inflexibility, low resilience and greater COVID-19 concerns might act as specific risk factors for distress. Our findings highlight the need for promoting a healthy lifestyle and psychological flexibility as universal protective factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Psychiatry , Communicable Disease Control , Croatia , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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