Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 525
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261381, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638694

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought forth a major landscape shock in the mobility sector. Due to its recentness, researchers have just started studying and understanding the implications of this crisis on mobility. We contribute by combining mobility data from various sources to bring a novel angle to understanding mobility patterns during Covid-19. The goal is to expose relations between mobility and Covid-19 variables and understand them by using our data. This is crucial information for governments to understand and address the underlying root causes of the impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Marketing/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology
3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260015, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523446

ABSTRACT

State governments in the U.S. have been facing difficult decisions involving tradeoffs between economic and health-related outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite evidence of the effectiveness of government-mandated restrictions mitigating the spread of contagion, these orders are stigmatized due to undesirable economic consequences. This tradeoff resulted in state governments employing mandates at widely different ways. We compare the different policies states implemented during periods of restriction ("lockdown") and reopening with indicators of COVID-19 spread and consumer card spending at each state during the first "wave" of the pandemic in the U.S. between March and August 2020. We find that while some states enacted reopening decisions when the incidence rate of COVID-19 was minimal or sustained in its relative decline, other states relaxed socioeconomic restrictions near their highest incidence and prevalence rates experienced so far. Nevertheless, all states experienced similar trends in consumer card spending recovery, which was strongly correlated with reopening policies following the lockdowns and relatively independent from COVID-19 incidence rates at the time. Our findings suggest that consumer card spending patterns can be attributed to government mandates rather than COVID-19 incidence in the states. We estimate the recovery in states that reopened in late April was more than the recovery in states that did not reopen in the same period- 15% for consumer card spending and 18% for spending by high income households. This result highlights the important role of state policies in minimizing health impacts while promoting economic recovery and helps planning effective interventions in subsequent waves and immunization efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Pandemics/economics , Policy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , United States/epidemiology
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21174, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493227

ABSTRACT

Lockdowns implemented to address the COVID-19 pandemic have disrupted human mobility flows around the globe to an unprecedented extent and with economic consequences which are unevenly distributed across territories, firms and individuals. Here we study socioeconomic determinants of mobility disruption during both the lockdown and the recovery phases in Italy. For this purpose, we analyze a massive data set on Italian mobility from February to October 2020 and we combine it with detailed data on pre-existing local socioeconomic features of Italian administrative units. Using a set of unsupervised and supervised learning techniques, we reliably show that the least and the most affected areas persistently belong to two different clusters. Notably, the former cluster features significantly higher income per capita and lower income inequality than the latter. This distinction persists once the lockdown is lifted. The least affected areas display a swift (V-shaped) recovery in mobility patterns, while poorer, most affected areas experience a much slower (U-shaped) recovery: as of October 2020, their mobility was still significantly lower than pre-lockdown levels. These results are then detailed and confirmed with a quantile regression analysis. Our findings show that economic segregation has, thus, strengthened during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/economics , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Income , Italy/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Pandemics/economics , Poverty , Quarantine/economics , Regression Analysis , Socioeconomic Factors , Travel
5.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258309, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477533

ABSTRACT

Examining the spread of macroeconomic phenomena between countries has become increasingly popular after the 2008 economic crisis, but the recent COVID-19 pandemic rendered this issue much more relevant as it shed more light on the risks arising from strongly interconnected economies. This paper intends to extend previous studies in this line by examining the relationship between trade openness and business cycle synchronization. It extends the scope of previous analyses in three areas. First, we use a Granger-causality approach to identify synchronization. Second, trade is broken down to the sector level and third, we distinguish between upstream and downstream connections. These developments allow for a directed approach in the analysis. We use conditional logit regressions to estimate the effect of trade openness on the probability of shock-transmission. The results presented in this study contribute to the literature in two ways. First, in addition to revealing a positive effect of aggregate two-way trade on shock-contagion, it also points out that this overall effect hides diverse behavior in specific trading sectors as well as upstream and downstream channels. Second, while some sectors are not significant channels of shock-transmission in either directions, upstream channels seem to be important in agriculture while downstream channels dominate machinery and other manufactures. Also, there are sectors (chemicals and related products) trade in which affects shock-transmission negatively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Economic Development , Models, Economic , Pandemics/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans
6.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 601, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic represents one of the most massive health emergencies in the last century and has caused millions of deaths worldwide and a massive economic and social burden. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the COVID-19 pandemic-during the Italian lockdown period between 8 March and 4 May 2020-influenced orthopaedic access for traumatic events to the Emergency Department (ER). METHODS: A retrospective review of the admission to the emergency room and the discharge of the trauma patients' records was performed during the period between 8 March and 4 May 2020 (block in Italy), compared to the same period of the previous year (2019). Patients accesses, admissions, days of hospitalisation, frequency, fracture site, number and type of surgery, the time between admission and surgery, days of hospitalisation, and treatment cost according to the diagnosis-related group were collected. Chi-Square and ANOVA test were used to compare the groups. RESULTS: No significant statistical difference was found for the number of emergency room visits and orthopaedic hospitalisations (p < 0.53) between the year 2019 (9.5%) and 2020 (10.81%). The total number of surgeries in 2019 was 119, while in 2020, this was just 48 (p < 0.48). A significant decrease in the mean cost of orthopaedic hospitalisations was detected in 2020 compared (261.431 euros, equal to - 52.07%) relative to the same period in 2019 (p = 0.005). Although all the surgical performances have suffered a major decline, the most frequent surgery in 2020 was intramedullary femoral nailing. CONCLUSION: We detected a decrease in traumatic occasions during the lockdown period, with a decrease in fractures in each district and a consequent decrease in the diagnosis-related group (DRG).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Orthopedic Procedures/economics , Patient Admission/economics , Tertiary Care Centers/economics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Costs and Cost Analysis/trends , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Orthopedic Procedures/trends , Pandemics/economics , Patient Admission/trends , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers/trends , Young Adult
7.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463780

ABSTRACT

Peruvian households have experienced one of the most prevalent economic shocks due to COVID-19, significantly increasing their vulnerability to food insecurity (FI). To understand the vulnerability characteristics of these households among the Peruvian young population, including the role of the government's response through emergency cash transfer, we analysed longitudinal data from the Young Lives study (n = 2026), a study that follows the livelihoods of two birth cohorts currently aged 18 to 27 years old. FI was assessed using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale. Household characteristics were collected before and during the COVID-19 outbreak in Peru to characterise participants' vulnerability to FI. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between government support and participants' vulnerability characteristics to FI. During the period under study (March to December 2020), 24% (95% CI: 22.1-25.9%) of the participants experienced FI. Families in the top wealth tercile were 49% less likely to experience FI. Larger families (>5 members) and those with increased household expenses and decreased income due to COVID-19 were more likely to experience FI (by 35%, 39% and 42%, respectively). There was no significant association between government support and FI (p = 0.768). We conclude that pre-pandemic socioeconomic status, family size, and the economic disruption during COVID-19 contribute to the risk of FI among the Peruvian young population, while government support insufficiently curtailed the risk to these households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Financial Support , Food Insecurity/economics , Food Supply/economics , Government , Pandemics/economics , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Food Supply/methods , Humans , Income , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Peru , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258379, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463316

ABSTRACT

During the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, Non-Pharmaceutical and Pharmaceutical treatments were alternative strategies for governments to intervene. Though many of these intervention methods proved to be effective to stop the spread of COVID-19, i.e., lockdown and curfew, they also posed risk to the economy; in such a scenario, an analysis on how to strike a balance becomes urgent. Our research leverages the mobility big data from the University of Maryland COVID-19 Impact Analysis Platform and employs the Generalized Additive Model (GAM), to understand how the social demographic variables, NPTs (Non-Pharmaceutical Treatments) and PTs (Pharmaceutical Treatments) affect the New Death Rate (NDR) at county-level. We also portray the mutual and interactive effects of NPTs and PTs on NDR. Our results show that there exists a specific usage rate of PTs where its marginal effect starts to suppress the NDR growth, and this specific rate can be reduced through implementing the NPTs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/economics , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
9.
Phys Rev E ; 103(1): L010301, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455434

ABSTRACT

During a pandemic, there are conflicting demands that arise from public health and socioeconomic costs. Lockdowns are a common way of containing infections, but they adversely affect the economy. We study the question of how to minimize the socioeconomic damage of a lockdown while still containing infections. Our analysis is based on the SIR model, which we analyze using a clock set by the virus. This use of the "virus time" permits a clean mathematical formulation of our problem. We optimize the socioeconomic cost for a fixed health cost and arrive at a strategy for navigating the pandemic. This involves adjusting the level of lockdowns in a controlled manner so as to minimize the socioeconomic cost.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/economics , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256407, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398933

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted the economy and human lives worldwide, particularly the vulnerable low-income population. We employ a large panel data of 5.6 million daily transactions from 2.6 million debit cards owned by the low-income population in the U.S. to quantify the joint impacts of the state lockdowns and stimulus payments on this population's spending along the inter-temporal, geo-spatial, and cross-categorical dimensions. Leveraging the difference-in-differences analyses at the per card and zip code levels, we uncover three key findings. (1) Inter-temporally, the state lockdowns diminished the daily average spending relative to the same period in 2019 by $3.9 per card and $2,214 per zip code, whereas the stimulus payments elevated the daily average spending by $15.7 per card and $3,307 per zip code. (2) Spatial heterogeneity prevailed: Democratic zip codes displayed much more volatile dynamics, with an initial decline three times that of Republican zip codes, followed by a higher rebound and a net gain after the stimulus payments; also, Southwest exhibited the highest initial decline whereas Southeast had the largest net gain after the stimulus payments. (3) Across 26 categories, the stimulus payments promoted spending in those categories that enhanced public health and charitable donations, reduced food insecurity and digital divide, while having also stimulated non-essential and even undesirable categories, such as liquor and cigar. In addition, spatial association analysis was employed to identify spatial dependency and local hot spots of spending changes at the county level. Overall, these analyses reveal the imperative need for more geo- and category-targeted stimulus programs, as well as more effective and strategic policy communications, to protect and promote the well-being of the low-income population during public health and economic crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Pandemics/economics , Poverty/economics , Health Expenditures , Humans , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States
14.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 148(4): 899-906, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398200

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In the wake of the death toll resulting from coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), in addition to the economic turmoil and strain on our health care systems, plastic surgeons are taking a hard look at their role in crisis preparedness and how they can contribute to crisis response policies in their own health care teams. Leaders in the specialty are charged with developing new clinical policies, identifying weaknesses in crisis preparation, and ensuring survival of private practices that face untenable financial challenges. It is critical that plastic surgery builds on the lessons learned over the past tumultuous year to emerge stronger and more prepared for subsequent waves of COVID-19. In addition, this global health crisis presents a timely opportunity to reexamine how plastic surgeons can display effective leadership during times of uncertainty and stress. Some may choose to emulate the traits and policies of leaders who are navigating the COVID-19 crisis effectively. Specifically, the national leaders who offer empathy, transparent communication, and decisive action have maintained high public approval throughout the COVID-19 crisis, while aggressively controlling viral spread. Crises are an inevitable aspect of modern society and medicine. Plastic surgeons can learn from this pandemic to better prepare for future turmoil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Leadership , Professional Role , Surgery, Plastic/organization & administration , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Team/economics , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surgeons/organization & administration , Surgery, Plastic/economics , Uncertainty
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239113, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383734

ABSTRACT

Social distancing interventions can be effective against epidemics but are potentially detrimental for the economy. Businesses that rely heavily on face-to-face communication or close physical proximity when producing a product or providing a service are particularly vulnerable. There is, however, no systematic evidence about the role of human interactions across different lines of business and about which will be the most limited by social distancing. Here we provide theory-based measures of the reliance of U.S. businesses on human interaction, detailed by industry and geographic location. We find that, before the pandemic hit, 43 million workers worked in occupations that rely heavily on face-to-face communication or require close physical proximity to other workers. Many of these workers lost their jobs since. Consistently with our model, employment losses have been largest in sectors that rely heavily on customer contact and where these contacts dropped the most: retail, hotels and restaurants, arts and entertainment and schools. Our results can help quantify the economic costs of social distancing.


Subject(s)
Commerce/trends , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Employment/trends , Infection Control/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Commerce/standards , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Datasets as Topic , Employment/economics , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0252794, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381276

ABSTRACT

While there has been much speculation on how the pandemic has affected work location patterns and home location choices, there is sparse evidence regarding the impacts that COVID-19 has had on amenity visits in American cities, which typically constitute over half of all urban trips. Using aggregate app-based GPS positioning data from smartphone users, this study traces the changes in amenity visits in Somerville, MA from January 2019 to December 2020, describing how visits to particular types of amenities have changed as a result of business closures during the public health emergency. Has the pandemic fundamentally shifted amenity-oriented travel behavior or is consumer behavior returning to pre-pandemic trends? To address this question, we calibrate discrete choice models that are suited to Census block-group level analysis for each of the 24 months in a two-year period, and use them to analyze how visitors' behavioral responses to various attributes of amenity clusters have shifted during different phases of the pandemic. Our findings suggest that in the first few months of the pandemic, amenity-visiting preferences significantly diverged from expected patterns. Even though overall trip volumes remained far below normal levels throughout the remainder of the year, preferences towards specific cluster attributes mostly returned to expected levels by September 2020. We also construct two scenarios to explore the implications of another shutdown and a full reopening, based on November 2020 consumer behavior. While government restrictions have played an important role in reducing visits to amenity clusters, our results imply that cautionary consumer behavior has played an important role as well, suggesting a likely long and slow path to economic recovery. By drawing on mobile phone location data and behavioral modeling, this paper offers timely insights to help decision-makers understand how this unprecedented health emergency is affecting amenity-related trips and where the greatest needs for intervention and support may exist.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Consumer Behavior/economics , Pandemics/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Travel/economics , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Humans , Massachusetts/epidemiology , United States
18.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256736, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379842

ABSTRACT

This article examines cross-national differences in growth of deaths by COVID-19 over time in the first phase of the pandemic, during the time period of 31st December 2019 to 2nd April 2020. We seek to understand and explain country level reaction in the initial period of the pandemic. We explore socio-economic and socio-political country characteristics as determinants of deaths per day and we examine whether country characteristics act as moderating factors for different growth patterns of deaths per day over time. The country characteristics include variables about economy, globalization, health care and demography. We examine data published by the European Center of Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) in combination with World Bank data and a webscraping approach. Using a conditional growth model specified as a multilevel regression model with deaths by COVID-19 per day as the outcome variable, we show that economic variables are not significantly associated with decrease or increase of deaths by COVID-19. In contrast, variables about national health care mitigate the impact of the pandemic. Demography shows expected effects with an increase of growth of deaths in countries with a higher percentage of people older than 65 years. Globalization predicts the death toll as well: Social interaction between people is deadly on a short-term scale (in the form of tourism). Our results mirror frequent demands for global investment in national health systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Socioeconomic Factors , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Delivery of Health Care , Demography , Humans , Logistic Models , Pandemics/economics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , Tourism
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379373

ABSTRACT

Drawing on past pandemics, scholars have suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic will bring about fertility decline. Evidence from actual birth data has so far been scarce. This brief report uses data on vital statistics from a selection of high-income countries, including the United States. The pandemic has been accompanied by a significant drop in crude birth rates beyond that predicted by past trends in 7 out of the 22 countries considered, with particularly strong declines in southern Europe: Italy (-9.1%), Spain (-8.4%), and Portugal (-6.6%). Substantial heterogeneities are, however, observed.


Subject(s)
Birth Rate , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/economics , Population Growth , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology
20.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374475

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has had serious repercussions on the global economy, work force, and food systems. In Lebanon, the pandemic overlapped with an economic crisis, which threatened to exacerbate food insecurity (FI). The present study aims to evaluate the trends and projections of FI in Lebanon due to overlapping health and economic crises. Data from Gallup World Poll (GWP) 2015-2017 surveys conducted in Lebanon on nationally representative adults (n = 3000) were used to assess FI trends and explore its sociodemographic correlates. Predictive models were performed to forecast trends in FI (2018-2022), using GWP data along with income reduction scenarios to estimate the impact of the pandemic and economic crises. Pre crises, trend analyses showed that FI could reach 27% considering wave year and income. Post crises, FI was estimated to reach on average 36% to 39%, considering 50-70% income reduction scenarios among Lebanese population. FI projections are expected to be higher among females compared to males and among older adults compared to younger ones (p < 0.05). These alarming findings call for emergency food security policies and evidence-based programs to mitigate the burden of multiple crises on the FI of Lebanese households and promote resilience for future shocks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Economic Recession/trends , Food Insecurity/economics , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/economics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Economic Recession/statistics & numerical data , Female , Food Supply/economics , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Resilience, Psychological , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...