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Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(6): e15-e17, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461907
Am J Public Health ; 111(10): 1815-1823, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394653


The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has a major precedent almost exactly a century ago: the world-famous H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, sometimes known to the general public as the Spanish flu. From a history of medicine perspective, it is possible to underline many potential common traits between the two. In this article, hygiene and prophylaxis strategies are analyzed in a review of the most popular Italian general medical journals at the time of Spanish flu, Il Policlinico being the most representative of them. The analysis included 40 original journal articles as well as important references to the most influential coeval national manuals and international journals. The main issues in the context of public hygiene are prophylaxis with quinine and quinine derivatives, vaccinations, face masks, disinfection, and social distancing. We draw a comparison between these and the most recent international World Health Organization and Italian national guidelines on the topic. Sadly, little has changed since those times in terms of most of the prevention techniques, even with technical improvements, showing how shortsighted doctors and physicians can be when dealing with medical history. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1815-1823.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Pandemics/history , Public Health Administration/history , History, 20th Century , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/prevention & control , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 846-851, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389719


In the last 50 years we have experienced two big pandemics, the HIV pandemic and the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Both pandemics are caused by RNA viruses and have reached us from animals. These two viruses are different in the transmission mode and in the symptoms they generate. However, they have important similarities: the fear in the population, increase in proinflammatory cytokines that generate intestinal microbiota modifications or NETosis production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils, among others. They have been implicated in the clinical, prognostic and therapeutic attitudes.

COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Pandemics/history , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Fear , Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/immunology , HIV-1/isolation & purification , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Mortality , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1105-1133, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381356


SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent of the current pandemic worldwide and its associated disease COVID-19. In this review, we have analyzed SARS-CoV-2 characteristics and those ones of other well-known RNA viruses viz. HIV, HCV and Influenza viruses, collecting their historical data, clinical manifestations and pathogenetic mechanisms. The aim of the work is obtaining useful insights and lessons for a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2. These pathogens present a distinct mode of transmission, as SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza viruses are airborne, whereas HIV and HCV are bloodborne. However, these viruses exhibit some potential similar clinical manifestations and pathogenetic mechanisms and their understanding may contribute to establishing preventive measures and new therapies against SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19/history , Pandemics/history , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Climate , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genome, Viral , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mutation , RNA Viruses/pathogenicity , RNA Viruses/physiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/history , Reinfection/transmission , Reinfection/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/history , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Virus Replication
Rev. baiana enferm ; 35: e42883, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1365898


Objetivo: compreender as percepções dos profissionais de enfermagem em relação aos possíveis desfechos decorrentes da pandemia da COVID-19 para a profissão. Método: estudo de abordagem qualitativa, fundamentada na História Oral, mediante entrevista e aplicação de um questionário socioeconômico/profissional, realizado na unidade de internação de uma instituição de saúde de grande porte, localizada no município de São Paulo, capital do estado de São Paulo. Resultados: foram extraídas das entrevistas duas categorias relevantes: Crença no fortalecimento da enfermagem no pós-pandemia e Descrença na melhora da imagem da enfermagem no pós-pandemia. Considerações finais: as identidades profissionais são construídas mediante as interações sociais entre o eu (indivíduo) e o outro (grupos sociais e institucionais). Esta interação é marcada por conflitos que resultam na reconstrução desta identidade e com possíveis reflexos na prática profissional.

Objetivo: comprender las percepciones de los profesionales de enfermería sobre los posibles resultados derivados de la pandemia de COVID-19 para la profesión Método: estudio cualitativo, basado en la Historia Oral, a través de entrevistas y aplicación de un cuestionario socioeconómico/profesional, realizado en la unidad de hospitalización de una gran institución de salud, ubicada en la ciudad de São Paulo, capital del estado de São Paulo. Resultados: de las entrevistas se extrajeron dos categorías relevantes: Creencia en el fortalecimiento de la enfermería en el post-pandemia e Incredulidad en el mejoramiento de la imagen de enfermería en el post-pandemia. Consideraciones finales: las identidades profesionales se construyen a través de interacciones sociales entre la yo (individuo) y el otro (grupos sociales e institucionales). Esta interacción está marcada por conflictos que resultan en la reconstrucción de esta identidad y con posibles reflejos en la práctica profesional.

Objective: to understand the perceptions of nursing professionals in relation to possible outcomes resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic for the profession. Method: qualitative study, based on Oral History, through interviews and application of a socioeconomic/professional questionnaire, conducted in the hospitalization unit of a large health institution, located in the city of São Paulo, capital of the state of São Paulo. Results: two relevant categories were extracted from the interviews: Belief in the strengthening of nursing in the post-pandemic and Disbelief in the improvement of nursing image in the post-pandemic. Final considerations: professional identities are constructed through social interactions between the me (subject) and the other (social and institutional groups). This interaction is marked by conflicts that result in the reconstruction of this identity and with possible reflexes in professional practice.

Humans , Perception , Social Identification , Nursing/trends , Pandemics/history , COVID-19/nursing
Am J Public Health ; 111(7): 1267-1272, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350205


Both the 1918 influenza pandemic and the 2019‒2021 COVID-19 pandemic are among the most disastrous infectious disease emergences of modern times. In addition to similarities in their clinical, pathological, and epidemiological features, the two pandemics, separated by more than a century, were each met with essentially the same, or very similar, public health responses, and elicited research efforts to control them with vaccines, therapeutics, and other medical approaches. Both pandemics had lasting, if at times invisible, psychosocial effects related to loss and hardship. In considering these two deadly pandemics, we ask: what lessons have we learned over the span of a century, and how are we applying those lessons to the challenges of COVID-19?

COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/history , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/pathology , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza, Human/history , Public Health/history
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 879-883, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1341554


Resumen El desarrollo de la pandemia de la covid-19 ha motivado un renovado interés por la gripe de 1918-1919 para buscar elementos que facilitaran la comprensión de la experiencia presente, pero también como oportunidad para reevaluar la grave crisis sanitaria del siglo XX a la luz de lo que estamos viviendo. En este contexto y con ese objetivo se inserta esta reflexión histórica sobre estos dos fenómenos pandémicos, que muestra los paralelismos existentes y la necesidad de una toma de conciencia de que nuestro modelo de sociedad está en crisis y se requiere una transformación profunda.

Abstract The rise of the covid-19 pandemic has led to renewed interest in the 1918-1919 influenza in search of aspects that might help us understand the current situation, but also as an opportunity to re-evaluate the serious twentieth-century health crisis in light of what we are experiencing now. In this context and with that goal, this historical reflection shows the parallels that exist and the need for a realization that our model of society is undergoing a crisis and requires profound transformation.

Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics/history , COVID-19/history , Influenza Vaccines/history , Hygiene/history , Denial, Psychological , World War I , Economics , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/history , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , Military Personnel/history
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 875-878, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1341553


Resumo A partir de contribuições teóricas do campo da história das ciências, o presente texto debate aspectos das etapas das pandemias entendidas como fenômeno social e como tem ocorrido o processo de interiorização da covid-19 na Amazônia. A chegada da doença aos vastos territórios da floresta tem deixado mais evidente o processo de acesso diferenciado à saúde pública, com concentração de serviços e profissionais nas maiores cidades da região Norte. O crescimento dos índices do coronavírus na floresta evidencia, portanto, as desigualdades sociais históricas da região e os problemas no acesso à cidadania na sociedade brasileira.

Abstract This text uses theoretical contributions from the history of science to discuss aspects of the stages of pandemics understood as social phenomena and how covid-19 moved into the interior of the Amazon region. The arrival of this disease in the vast forest territory made differentiated access to public health more evident, with services and professionals concentrated in the larger cities in the north of Brazil. The rise in coronavirus rates within the forest consequently highlights the history of social inequalities in the region and problems accessing citizenship in Brazilian society.

Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Forests , Pandemics/history , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Poverty , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Indians, South American , Public Health/history , Cities , Influenza, Human/etiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission
Nat Med ; 27(3): 396-400, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319038


Fourteen months into the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, we identify key lessons in the global and national responses to the pandemic. The World Health Organization has played a pivotal technical, normative and coordinating role, but has been constrained by its lack of authority over sovereign member states. Many governments also mistakenly attempted to manage COVID-19 like influenza, resulting in repeated lockdowns, high excess morbidity and mortality, and poor economic recovery. Despite the incredible speed of the development and approval of effective and safe vaccines, the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants means that all countries will have to rely on a globally coordinated public health effort for several years to defeat this pandemic.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Global Health , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Global Health/history , Global Health/trends , Government , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics/history , Public Health/history , Public Health/methods , Public Health/trends , Public Health Administration/methods , Public Health Administration/standards , Public Health Administration/trends , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 5-8, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300685


Pandemics have ravished the globe periodically, often associated with war, at times commencing as fever and rash, beginning in recorded history in the crowded walled city of Athens during the Peloponnesian War as described in great detail by the Athenian historian and military general Thucydides in 430 BCE. As the world now faces the first major pandemic of the 21st century, we focus on the "plague" commencing in Athens in 430 BCE and the 2 pandemics of the more recent century, which killed more than one million, the Spanish flu of 1918 and the Asian flu of 1957. The latter linked with successful vaccine development thanks to the heroic efforts of microbiologist Maurice Hilleman. We now look back and then forward to the viral infection coronavirus disease 2019 now devastating the world.

Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics/history , Armed Conflicts/history , Asia , Greece , History, Ancient , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology