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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692289

ABSTRACT

In the 21st century, three highly pathogenic betacoronaviruses have emerged, with an alarming rate of human morbidity and case fatality. Genomic information has been widely used to understand the pathogenesis, animal origin and mode of transmission of coronaviruses in the aftermath of the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks. Furthermore, genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis have had an unprecedented relevance in the battle against the 2019-2020 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the newest and most devastating outbreak caused by a coronavirus in the history of mankind. Here, we review how genomic information has been used to tackle outbreaks caused by emerging, highly pathogenic, betacoronavirus strains, emphasizing on SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We focus on shared genomic features of the betacoronaviruses and the application of genomic information to phylogenetic analysis, molecular epidemiology and the design of diagnostic systems, potential drugs and vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Design , Genes, Viral , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS Virus/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e21163, 2020 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an unprecedented worldwide public health crisis that requires new management approaches. COVIDApp is a mobile app that was adapted for the management of institutionalized individuals in long-term care facilities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to report the implementation of this innovative tool for the management of long-term care facility residents as a high-risk population, specifically for early identification and self-isolation of suspected cases, remote monitoring of mild cases, and real-time monitoring of the progression of the infection. METHODS: COVIDApp was implemented in 196 care centers in collaboration with 64 primary care teams. The following parameters of COVID-19 were reported daily: signs/symptoms; diagnosis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; absence of symptoms for ≥14 days; total deaths; and number of health care workers isolated with suspected COVID-19. The number of at-risk centers was also described. RESULTS: Data were recorded from 10,347 institutionalized individuals and up to 4000 health care workers between April 1 and 30, 2020. A rapid increase in suspected cases was seen until day 6 but decreased during the last two weeks (from 1084 to 282 cases). The number of confirmed cases increased from 419 (day 6) to 1293 (day 22) and remained stable during the last week. Of the 10,347 institutionalized individuals, 5,090 (49,2%) remained asymptomatic for ≥14 days. A total of 854/10,347 deaths (8.3%) were reported; 383 of these deaths (44.8%) were suspected/confirmed cases. The number of isolated health care workers remained high over the 30 days, while the number of suspected cases decreased during the last 2 weeks. The number of high-risk long-term care facilities decreased from 19/196 (9.5%) to 3/196 (1.5%). CONCLUSIONS: COVIDApp can help clinicians rapidly detect and remotely monitor suspected and confirmed cases of COVID-19 among institutionalized individuals, thus limiting the risk of spreading the virus. The platform shows the progression of infection in real time and can aid in designing new monitoring strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Homes for the Aged , Mobile Applications , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diffusion of Innovation , Humans , Long-Term Care , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(8)2020 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688452

ABSTRACT

During an epidemic, almost all healthcare facilities restrict the visiting of patients to prevent disease transmission. For hospices with terminally ill patients, the trade-off between compassion and infection control becomes a difficult decision. This study aimed to survey the changes in visiting policy for all 76 hospice wards in Taiwan during the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. The altered visiting policies were assessed by the number of visitors per patient allowed at one time, the daily number of visiting slots, the number of hours open daily, and requisites for hospice ward entry. The differences in visiting policies between hospice wards and ordinary wards were also investigated. Data were collected by reviewing the official website of each hospital and were supplemented by phone calls in cases where no information was posted on the website. One quarter (n = 20) of hospice wards had different visiting policies to those of ordinary wards in the same hospital. Only one hospice ward operated an open policy, and in contrast, nine (11.8%) stopped visits entirely. Among the 67 hospice wards that allowed visiting, at most, two visitors at one time per patient were allowed in 46 (68.6%), one visiting time daily was allowed in 32 (47.8%), one hour of visiting per day was allowed in 29 (43.3%), and checking of identity and travel history was carried out in 12 wards (17.9%). During the COVID-19 pandemic, nearly all hospice wards in Taiwan changed their visiting policies, but the degree of restriction varied. Further studies could measure the impacts of visiting policy changes on patients and healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hospices/organization & administration , Organizational Policy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patients' Rooms/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Visitors to Patients , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Health Care Surveys , Hospices/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan
7.
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 207-213, 2020 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-687634

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic, a possible explanation for the high heterogeneity of infection/mortality rates across involved countries was hinted in the prevalence of tuberculosis vaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). A systematic review was therefore performed on May 2, 2020. A total of 13 articles were ultimately retrieved, 12 of them as preprint papers. All articles were ecological studies of low quality. Most of them did not include main confounding factors (i.e. demographic of the assessed countries, share of peo- ple residing in urban settings, etc.), and simply assessed the differences among incidence/mortality of COVID-19 with vaccination rates or by having vs. having not any vaccination policy for BCG. Even though all studies shared the very same information sources (i.e. international registries for BCG vaccination rates and open source data for COVID-19 epidemics), results were conflicting, with later studies apparently denying any true correlation between COVID-19 occurrence and BCG vaccination rates and/or policies. As a consequence, there is no sound evidence to recommend BCG vaccination for the prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Mycobacterium bovis/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
10.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 44: 102775, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-686472

ABSTRACT

Prior to the Covid-19 global pandemic, we reviewed literature and identified comprehensive evidence of the efficacy of blended learning for pre-registration nursing students who learn across distances and/or via satellite campuses. Following a methodological framework, a scoping literature review was undertaken. We searched six databases (EBSCOHOST (CINHAL plus; Education research Complete; Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre); Google Scholar; EMBASE (Ovid) [ERIC (Ovid); Medline (Ovid)]; PubMed: ProQuest Education Journals & ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source) for the period 2005-December 2015. Critical appraisal for critiquing qualitative and quantitative studies was undertaken, as was a thematic analysis. Twenty-eight articles were included for review, which reported nursing research (n = 23) and student experiences of blended learning in higher education (n = 5). Four key themes were identified in the literature: active learning, technological barriers, support, and communication. The results suggest that when delivered purposefully, blended learning can positively influence and impact on the achievements of students, especially when utilised to manage and support distance education. Further research is needed about satellite campuses with student nurses, to assist with the development of future educational practice.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration , Learning , Students, Nursing/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Nursing Education Research , Nursing Evaluation Research , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
12.
Cardiol Young ; 30(7): 946-954, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-685828

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel betacoronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an unexpected outbreak affecting people of all ages. The first data showed that COVID-19 could cause severe pulmonary disease, cardiac injury, and death in adults, especially the elderly and those with concomitant diseases. Currently, it was demonstrated that severe COVID-19 may also develop in neonatal age, although rarely. Newborns with CHD are known to be at high risk for increased morbidity from viral lower respiratory tract infections because of underlying anatomical cardiac lesions. There are limited data on the implications of COVID-19 on patients with cardiovascular disease, especially for those with CHD. Herein, we aimed to summarise the COVID-19-specific perioperative management issues for newborns with CHD by combining available data from the perspectives of neonatology and paediatric cardiovascular surgery.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perioperative Care , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
13.
Riv Psichiatr ; 55(3): 131-136, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-685352

ABSTRACT

CoViD-19 pandemic is causing serious consequences on mental health, consequences that are considered that bad that World Health Organization has affirmed that mental health defence is priority in this particular moment of development of pandemic. In light of this alertness, what we are interested in approaching in this work, is the specific stress condition caused by pandemic, which underlies and precedes the described classification of diseases and which is going towards an increase in the entire world, including Italy. The stress caused by pandemic is a new condition in comparison with what is known in clinical practice and with what is included in the classification of mental disorder. The ongoing stress condition and the mixture of different types of unconventional stress, which not only hits the present but also disrupts the future, create an entirely new form of clinical condition given by pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
14.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(7): 715-719, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-682347

ABSTRACT

AIM: To clarify the association of cluster number and size of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in long-term care (LTC) hospitals/facilities, general medical/welfare facilities and non-medical/welfare facilities with morbidity and mortality in 47 prefectures during 16 January to 9 May 2020 in Japan. METHODS: Information on COVID-19 clusters (n ≥2), and morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 was collected. RESULTS: A total of 381 clusters with 3786 infected cases were collected, accounting for 23.9% of 15 852 cumulated cases on 9 May 2020. Although the cluster number (/107 subjects) in LTC hospitals/facilities was significantly smaller compared with those in the other two groups, the cluster size in LTC hospitals/facilities was significantly larger than that in non-medical/welfare facilities. Cluster numbers in general medical/welfare facilities and in non-medical/welfare facilities were significantly positively correlated with morbidity (/105 ), indicating relatively early identification of clusters in these facilities. Unlike in these facilities, cluster size in LTC hospitals/facilities was significantly positively correlated with morbidity, indicating that clusters in LTC hospitals/facilities were finally identified after already having grown to a large size in areas where infection was prevalent. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that both cluster number and cluster size only in LTC hospitals/facilities were independently associated with higher mortality (≥median 0.64/105 subjects) after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive efforts against COVID-19 outbreaks even at the early phase of the epidemic are critically important in LTC hospitals/facilities, as both the larger number and size of clusters only in LTC hospitals/facilities were independently linked to higher mortality in prefectures in Japan. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 715-719.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Hospitals, Chronic Disease/statistics & numerical data , Long-Term Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Skilled Nursing Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Japan/epidemiology , Long-Term Care/methods , Long-Term Care/organization & administration , Long-Term Care/trends , Male , Mortality , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
17.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; July 1, 2020. 17 p.
Non-conventional in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-677331

ABSTRACT

La pandemia de COVID-19 es una amenaza de gran proporción tanto para la salud física como para la salud mental y el bienestar de sociedades enteras que se han visto gravemente afectadas por esta crisis, siendo ésta una prioridad que debe abordarse con urgencia (1). La adversidad asociada con las consecuencias socioeconómicas, el miedo al virus y su propagación, así como las preocupaciones asociadas, tienen un impacto indudable en la salud mental de la población. Este documento describe las intervenciones de salud mental y apoyo psicosocial (SMAPS) fundamentales que se recomienda desarrollar de manera intersectorial en los países y en las comunidades. Para ello se propone utilizar como marco de referencia la pirámide de intervenciones para los servicios de SMAPS (2)del Comité Permanente entre Organismos (IASC). La pirámide ilustra diferentes niveles de apoyo que varían desde la integración de sociales, de seguridad y relativas a las necesidades básicas, hasta la prestación de servicios especializados para el manejo de condiciones más graves, así como la dimensión probable de demanda para cada unode los niveles establecidos.


The COVID-19 pandemic is a major threat both to physical and mental health and to the well-being of entire societies that have been critically affected by this crisis, making it a priority that must be urgently addressed. Hardships associated with socioeconomic effects, fear of the virus and its spread, and other related concerns have an unquestionable impact on the mental health of the population. This document describes the essential interventions in mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) that should be developed on an intersectoral basis in countries and communities. Its frame of reference is the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) intervention pyramid for MHPSS services. The pyramid shows different levels of support, ranging from social considerations, safety, and basic needs, to the provision of specialized services for the management of more severe conditions, as well as the probable volume of demand at each established level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Mental Health Services/organization & administration
19.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; jun. 2, 2020. 3 p.
Non-conventional in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-677315

ABSTRACT

La situación que enfrentamos es grave, pero siempre y cuando nuestro enfoque para derrotar al virus se base en la solidaridad, no debemos perder las esperanzas. Debemos trabajar juntos, compartir recursos y aplicar las estrategias comprobadas que hemos aprendido en el camino: esa es la salida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Pan American Health Organization , Americas/epidemiology
20.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; jun. 19, 2020. 10 p.
Non-conventional in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-677312

ABSTRACT

La pandemia de COVID-19 nos enfrenta a la urgencia moral de llevar a cabo investigaciones rigurosas tan pronto como sea posible para producir evidencia sobre la seguridad y eficacia de las intervenciones para tratar o prevenir la COVID-19 (1). Sin embargo, al igual que en emergencias anteriores, caracterizadas por una alta mortalidad y la ausencia de tratamientos seguros y eficaces, las intervenciones que no han sido probadas previamente para COVID-19 se están proporcionando fuera de protocolos de investigación con seres humanos. En circunstancias ordinarias, las intervenciones se prueban primero en investigaciones que tienen como objetivo principal producir conocimiento. Existen procedimientos para garantizar que los participantes de las investigaciones estén debidamente protegidos y se reúnan datos de calidad. Una vez que se han completado los estudios necesarios y se ha comprobado que las intervenciones son seguras y eficaces, mediante procesos rigurosos dirigidos por una Autoridad Reguladora Nacional (ARN), se autorizan y pueden proporcionarse a los pacientes para tratar o prevenir enfermedades.


The COVID-19 pandemic presents us with the moral urgency to conduct rigorous research as soon as possible to produce evidence about the safety and efficacy of interventions to treat or prevent COVID-19. However, as in previous emergencies, marked by high mortality and the absence of safe and efficacious treatments, interventions that have not been previously proven for COVID-19 are being offered outside of protocols of research with human subjects. Since the safety and efficacy of these interventions have not been proven yet, their risk-benefit profile is unknown. Yet in the exceptional circumstances of the pandemic, they are being offered as an attempt to advance access to interventions that may benefit patients. As recommended by the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization, unproven interventions should be offered within research protocols, and specifically within randomized controlled trials capable of assessing safety and efficacy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Pan American Health Organization , Ethics, Institutional , Patient Care/standards
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