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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(2): 167-170, 2021 Feb 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468519

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic shows the defects of current public health law system and the necessity of the amendment to Law on Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases. The institutional design of the prevention and control of emerging communicable disease shall be modified and Principle of Preventive Legislation shall be determined. Following the multicultural coordination in the pandemic prevention and control, the responsibilities of the central and local government shall be clarified and the functions of the experts and the public need to work fully and effectively. Current pandemic information release system shall be reformed to solve the conflict of laws and the information direct system shall be optimized. Principle of proportionality shall be obeyed to protect the appropriateness, necessity and balance of the pandemic prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e29025, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measuring public response during COVID-19 is an important way of ensuring the suitability and effectiveness of epidemic response efforts. An analysis of social media provides an approximation of public sentiment during an emergency like the current pandemic. The measures introduced across the globe to help curtail the spread of the coronavirus have led to the development of a situation labeled as a "perfect storm," triggering a wave of domestic violence. As people use social media to communicate their experiences, analyzing public discourse and sentiment on social platforms offers a way to understand concerns and issues related to domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study was based on an analysis of public discourse and sentiment related to domestic violence during the stay-at-home periods of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia in 2020. It aimed to understand the more personal self-reported experiences, emotions, and reactions toward domestic violence that were not always classified or collected by official public bodies during the pandemic. METHODS: We searched social media and news posts in Australia using key terms related to domestic violence and COVID-19 during 2020 via digital analytics tools to determine sentiments related to domestic violence during this period. RESULTS: The study showed that the use of sentiment and discourse analysis to assess social media data is useful in measuring the public expression of feelings and sharing of resources in relation to the otherwise personal experience of domestic violence. There were a total of 63,800 posts across social media and news media. Within these posts, our analysis found that domestic violence was mentioned an average of 179 times a day. There were 30,100 tweets, 31,700 news reports, 1500 blog posts, 548 forum posts, and 7 comments (posted on news and blog websites). Negative or neutral sentiment centered on the sharp rise in domestic violence during different lockdown periods of the 2020 pandemic, and neutral and positive sentiments centered on praise for efforts that raised awareness of domestic violence as well as the positive actions of domestic violence charities and support groups in their campaigns. There were calls for a positive and proactive handling (rather than a mishandling) of the pandemic, and results indicated a high level of public discontent related to the rising rates of domestic violence and the lack of services during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a timely understanding of public sentiment related to domestic violence during the COVID-19 lockdown periods in Australia using social media analysis. Social media represents an important avenue for the dissemination of information; posts can be widely dispersed and easily accessed by a range of different communities who are often difficult to reach. An improved understanding of these issues is important for future policy direction. Heightened awareness of this could help agencies tailor and target messaging to maximize impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Social Media , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1089, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frontline healthcare staff working in pandemics have been reported to experience mental health issues during the early and post-peak stages. To alleviate these problems, healthcare organisations have been providing support for their staff, including organisational, cognitive behavioural and physical and mental relaxation interventions. This paper reports the findings of a study commissioned by a Scottish NHS health board area during the initial outbreak of COVID-19. The study aimed to understand the experience of NHS staff relating to the provision of wellbeing interventions between March and August 2020. METHODS: Data were gathered from free-text comments of eight surveys completed by a wide range of staff across sites within one NHS health board in Scotland. We conducted a framework analysis of the data. RESULTS: Our findings show that despite the provision of relaxational and cognitive behavioural interventions to support staff wellbeing during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, there were barriers to access, including heavy workload, understaffing, inconvenient locations and the stigma of being judged. Organisational factors were the most frequently reported support need amongst frontline staff across sites. CONCLUSIONS: While relaxational and cognitive behavioural interventions were well received by staff, barriers to accessing them still existed. Staff support in the context of organisational factors, such as engagement with managers was deemed as the most important for staff wellbeing. Managers play a key role in everyday organisational processes and therefore are in the right position to meet increasing frontline staff demands due to the pandemic and removing barriers to accessing wellbeing support. Healthcare managers should be aware of organisational factors that might increase job demands and protect organisational resources that can promote wellbeing for frontline staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , State Medicine
7.
Hong Kong Med J ; 26(3): 176-183, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468777

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the preparedness of family doctors during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Hong Kong. METHODS: All members of the Hong Kong College of Family Physicians were invited to participate in a cross-sectional online survey using a 20-item questionnaire to collect information on practice preparedness for the COVID-19 outbreak through an email followed by a reminder SMS message between 31 January 2020 and 3 February 2020. RESULTS: Of 1589 family doctors invited, 491 (31%) participated in the survey, including 242 (49%) from private sector. In all, 98% surveyed doctors continued to provide clinical services during the survey period, but reduced clinic service demands were observed in 45% private practices and 24% public clinics. Almost all wore masks during consultation and washed hands between or before patient contact. Significantly more private than public doctors (80% vs 26%, P<0.001) experienced difficulties in stocking personal protective equipment (PPE); more public doctors used guidelines to manage suspected patients. The main concern of the respondents was PPE shortage. Respondents appealed for effective public health interventions including border control, quarantine measures, designated clinic setup, and public education. CONCLUSION: Family doctors from public and private sectors demonstrated preparedness to serve the community from the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak with heightened infection control measures and use of guidelines. However, there is a need for support from local health authorities to secure PPE supply and institute public health interventions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Family Practice/organization & administration , Health Care Surveys/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Physicians, Family/statistics & numerical data
14.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 50(9): 668-672, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adopting healthy lifestyle pillars promotes longer lives free from major chronic diseases. The COVID-19 pandemic imposed behavioural changes and psychological burdens. The aim of this study was to assess changes in medical students' six lifestyle pillars that were imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 548 Brazilian medical students' digitally collected demographic data and lifestyle characteristics from before and during the pandemic. RESULTS: The pandemic had a neutral impact on sleep quality and a predominantly negative impact on interpersonal relationships, exercise and eating. Approximately 67.5% students decreased their tobacco and alcohol use. Spirituality was maintained at 66%. Those who reported having emotional wellbeing (27.9%) during the pandemic fulfilled a higher number of pre-pandemic lifestyle pillars (median [IQR]) when compared with those who reported an absence of wellbeing (4 [3-4] pillars, compared with 3 [2-4], P = 0.006). DISCUSSION: The results reinforce the importance of adhering to as many lifestyle pillars as possible to preserve emotional wellbeing during periods of stress such as those experienced during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Life Style , Mental Health , Students, Medical , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Students, Medical/psychology
15.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 7043, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464161

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated communities throughout the world and has required rapid paradigm changes in the manner in which health care is administered. Previous health models and practices have been modified and changed at a rapid pace. This commentary provides the experiences of a regional Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation in a COVID-19 vaccination program led and managed by Aboriginal Health Practitioners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Community Health Services , Health Services, Indigenous , Physician's Role , Vaccination , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Health Services, Indigenous/organization & administration , Humans , Oceanic Ancestry Group , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Victoria/epidemiology
16.
Can J Public Health ; 112(1): 1-3, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464112
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 653923, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463519

ABSTRACT

Over the last few decades, the perception of disease has changed significantly. In the concept of the sick person's role it should be the aim of every person to keep health at a good level for as long as possible. Several examples can be found where, however, a disease can be caused or worsened by a person. Examples include unhealthy diet, alcohol consumption leading to atherosclerosis and diabetes, or smoking, leading to lung cancer and COPD. There are also other appropriate examples where there is a potential for conflict between the autonomy of the individual and health. Improving public health should be the main objective of any health system. However, the more the impact is on personal freedom (and there is no extraneous danger), the more an attempt should be made to achieve this through the motivation of each individual to support the desire for a healthy lifestyle, rather than through legal prohibitions or penalties. The situation is even more complex in the case of the Covid-19 pandemic. In this context too, personal freedom is restricted in many areas and some people feel, for example, that compulsory masks or the prohibition of large crowds are serious encroachment on their autonomy. However, even in this case, the risk of possible external threats from the spread of the virus outweighs the right to personal choice and freedom. To sum up, it is necessary to balance the two principles - autonomy and interference in them in the interests of public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Health Care Costs , Health Facilities , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Work ; 70(1): 11-20, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to an unavailability of a vaccine, one of the efficient methods to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is by applying self-isolation (SI). Hence there is an urgent need to investigate the factors leading to an individuals' willingness to choose to self-isolate. OBJECTIVES: The current study utilized the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a conceptual model and aimed to investigate the extent to which subjective norms, personal attitudes and perceived control influences an individual's willingness to self-isolate during COVID-19 risk. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was performed on 800 Saudi respondents aged≥18 years by using a validated self-administered questionnaire about factors related to willingness to self-isolate during COVID-19 pandemic risk based on the TPB. The effects of different variables on SI were analyzed by using ordinal logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 756 (94.5%) were completed and analyzed. Subjective norms and perceived control over the behavior significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the intention of willingness to self-isolate, while attitude was found to be insignificant. The odds of letting others to know about self COVID status were 2.40 times higher than not telling the neighbors or colleagues. A statistically significant difference (p≤0.001) existed between males and females regarding the willingness to self-isolate. Similarly the odds of willingness to self-isolate with a presence of disabled person in family were 2.88 times higher than the absence of a disability in the family. Few recommendations for the policymakers that are needed to curb the spread of COVID-19 infection are also proposed. CONCLUSION: The outcomes of study might be considered as an initial understanding of the factors that significantly influences an individual's willingness to SI when facing an unprecedented pandemic risk. Additionally, these factors provide a plan for policymakers to encourage citizens for self-isolation during pandemic infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(10): 730-738, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463418

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected children's risk of violence in their homes, communities and online, and has compromised the ability of child protection systems to promptly detect and respond to cases of violence. However, the need to strengthen violence prevention and response services has received insufficient attention in national and global pandemic response and mitigation strategies. In this paper, we summarize the growing body of evidence on the links between the pandemic and violence against children. Drawing on the World Health Organization's INSPIRE framework to end violence against children, we illustrate how the pandemic is affecting prevention and response efforts. For each of the seven INSPIRE strategies we identify how responses to the pandemic have changed children's risk of violence. We offer ideas for how governments, policy-makers, and international and civil society organizations can address violence in the context of a protracted COVID-19 crisis. We conclude by highlighting how the current pandemic offers opportunities to improve existing child protection systems to address violence against children. We suggest enhanced multisectoral coordination across the health, education, law enforcement, housing, child and social protection sectors. Actions need to prioritize the primary prevention of violence and promote the central role of children and adolescents in decision-making and programme design processes. Finally, we stress the continued need for better data and evidence to inform violence prevention and response strategies that can be effective during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence/prevention & control
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e26104, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Washing hands helps prevent transmission of seasonal and pandemic respiratory viruses. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) during the swine flu outbreak, participants with access to a fully automated, digital intervention promoting handwashing reported washing their hands more often and experienced fewer respiratory tract infections than those without access to the intervention. Based on these findings, the intervention was adapted, renamed as "Germ Defence," and a study was designed to assess the preliminary dissemination of the intervention to the general public to help prevent the spread of seasonal colds and flu. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the process evaluations of the RCT and Germ Defence dissemination to examine (1) how web-based research enrollment procedures affected those who used the intervention, (2) intervention usage in the 2 contexts, and (3) whether increased intentions to wash hands are replicated once disseminated. METHODS: The RCT ran between 2010 and 2012 recruiting participants offline from general practices, with restricted access to the intervention (N=9155). Germ Defence was disseminated as an open access website for use by the general public from 2016 to 2019 (N=624). The process evaluation plan was developed using Medical Research Council guidance and the framework for Analyzing and Measuring Usage and Engagement Data. Both interventions contained a goal-setting section where users self-reported current and intended handwashing behavior across 7 situations. RESULTS: During web-based enrolment, 54.3% (17,511/32,250) of the RCT participants dropped out of the study compared to 36.5% (358/982) of Germ Defence users. Having reached the start of the intervention, 93.8% (8586/9155) of RCT users completed the core section, whereas 65.1% (406/624) of Germ Defence users reached the same point. Users across both studies selected to increase their handwashing in 5 out of 7 situations, including before eating snacks (RCT mean difference 1.040, 95% CI 1.016-1.063; Germ Defence mean difference 0.949, 95% CI 0.766-1.132) and after blowing their nose, sneezing, or coughing (RCT mean difference 0.995, 95% CI 0.972-1.019; Germ Defence mean difference 0.842, 95% CI 0.675-1.008). CONCLUSIONS: By comparing the preliminary dissemination of Germ Defence to the RCT, we were able to examine the potential effects of the research procedures on uptake and attrition such as the sizeable dropout during the RCT enrolment procedure that may have led to a more motivated sample. The Germ Defence study highlighted the points of attrition within the intervention. Despite sample bias in the trial context, the intervention replicated increases in intentions to handwash when used "in the wild." This preliminary dissemination study informed the adaptation of the intervention for the COVID-19 health emergency, and it has now been disseminated globally. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN75058295; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN75058295.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet-Based Intervention , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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