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1.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 35(2): 98-107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101897

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to analyze health care personnel's attitudes toward traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) and life satisfaction due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between April 2 and 9, 2020. The Questionnaire form was sent to health care personnel online. A total of 560 individuals who answered the questionnaires were included in the study. The data were collected by using the Personal Information Form, Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ), and Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Average age of the participants was 30.88 ± 7.68 years, 82.5% were male, and 65.5% were working as nurses. It was found that 45.5% of the participants used TCM methods for COVID-19 during the last month; 48.7% of the health care personnel stated that they used TCM methods to strengthen their immune system. The HCAMQ total average score was 27.96 ± 5.49; the holistic health subdimension total average score was 9.59 ± 3.04; the complementary and alternative medicine subdimension total average score was 18.37 ± 3.58; and the LSS total average score was 20.78 ± 6.32. A positive weak statistically significant association was found between the HCAMQ and complementary and alternative medicine subdimension and the LSS (P < .05). Participants had moderately positive attitudes toward TCM and life satisfaction. As the participants' positive attitudes toward TCM increased, their life satisfaction was also found to increase.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Complementary Therapies/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Personal Satisfaction , Adult , /psychology , Complementary Therapies/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
J Infect Dis ; 223(2): 189-191, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101844

ABSTRACT

Developers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccines should consider some of the lessons from a "new" vaccine introduced in 1921, namely bacille Calmette-Guérin.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/immunology , /prevention & control , /immunology , Animals , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , /virology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1147, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091490

ABSTRACT

Within a short period of time, COVID-19 grew into a world-wide pandemic. Transmission by pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic viral carriers rendered intervention and containment of the disease extremely challenging. Based on reported infection case studies, we construct an epidemiological model that focuses on transmission around the symptom onset. The model is calibrated against incubation period and pairwise transmission statistics during the initial outbreaks of the pandemic outside Wuhan with minimal non-pharmaceutical interventions. Mathematical treatment of the model yields explicit expressions for the size of latent and pre-symptomatic subpopulations during the exponential growth phase, with the local epidemic growth rate as input. We then explore reduction of the basic reproduction number R0 through specific transmission control measures such as contact tracing, testing, social distancing, wearing masks and sheltering in place. When these measures are implemented in combination, their effects on R0 multiply. We also compare our model behaviour to the first wave of the COVID-19 spreading in various affected regions and highlight generic and less generic features of the pandemic development.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Basic Reproduction Number , Contact Tracing , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Masks , Quarantine
5.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 25(2): 85-101, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091280

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) displays a broad spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from lack of symptoms to severe multiorgan system complications and death. Various laboratory assays have been employed in the diagnosis of COVID-19, including: nucleic acid-based tests; antigen tests; and serum testing for anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. The disease can also be diagnosed based on suggestive clinical features and radiological findings. Until now, remdesivir is the only medication approved for the treatment of COVID-19 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); however, it is anticipated that several anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies will gain soon approval. Other methods of treatment include supportive care directed toward treating the symptoms. Nevertheless, many studies have recently emerged, showing controversial preliminary results with the off-label medication hydroxychloroquine. Given that all results are still preliminary, including those seen by remdesivir, additional evidence and research are required to identify effective medications that are broadly effective and well tolerated. Importantly, two RNA-based vaccines have recently gained approval from Pfizer and Moderna, with many others still in clinical trials. This article reviews various aspects of COVID-19, including its epidemiology; its evolution and mutational spectrum; and its clinical dynamics, symptoms and complications, diagnosis, and treatment.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , /pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , /drug therapy , /therapy , /methods , Clinical Trials as Topic , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Mutation , Off-Label Use , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , /immunology , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Trials ; 22(1): 153, 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The sharing of individual participant-level data from COVID-19 trials would allow re-use and secondary analysis that can help accelerate the identification of effective treatments. The sharing of trial data is not the norm, but the unprecedented pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 may serve as an impetus for greater data sharing. We sought to assess the data sharing intentions of interventional COVID-19 trials as declared in trial registrations and publications. METHODS: We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed for COVID-19 interventional trials. We analyzed responses to ClinicalTrials.gov fields regarding intent to share individual participant level data and analyzed the data sharing statements in eligible publications. RESULTS: Nine hundred twenty-four trial registrations were analyzed. 15.7% were willing to share, of which 38.6% were willing to share immediately upon publication of results. 47.6% declared they were not willing to share. Twenty-eight publications were analyzed representing 26 unique COVID-19 trials. Only seven publications contained data sharing statements; six indicated a willingness to share data whereas one indicated that data was not available for sharing. CONCLUSIONS: At a time of pressing need for researchers to work together to combat a global pandemic, intent to share individual participant-level data from COVID-19 interventional trials is limited.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Information Dissemination , Publications/statistics & numerical data , Research Design/statistics & numerical data , /epidemiology , Humans , Intention , Pandemics/prevention & control
7.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200576, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090510

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Reflect, in the light of the Health Belief Model, on the adoption of behavioral measures in the context of COVID-19. METHODS: Theoretical-reflective essay, based on the Health Belief Model, to reflect on adherence to preventive behaviors in the pandemic of COVID-19. RESULTS: Adherence to preventive behaviors is strongly influenced by socioeconomic, territorial, political and individual factors in the face of critical health situations. In addition, the spread of false news modulates the thinking and execution of behavioral actions in the population. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: It is necessary to understand the importance of health communication processes and the use of tools aimed at responsible human behavior and engaged in the adoption of a preventive posture.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , /psychology , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Health Behavior , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Participation/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Euro Surveill ; 26(7)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090444

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effect of physical distancing and school reopening in Brussels between August and November 2020, we monitored changes in the number of reported contacts per SARS-CoV-2 case and associated SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The second COVID-19 pandemic wave in Brussels was the result of increased social contact across all ages following school reopening. Physical distancing measures including closure of bars and restaurants, and limiting close contacts, while primary and secondary schools remained open, reduced social mixing and controlled SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Pandemics , Schools , Belgium/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
9.
Wiad Lek ; 73(12 cz 2): 2773-2779, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089505

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To suggest the ways and means for ensuring respect for human rights and freedoms in the context of introduction of states' measures to combat the COVID-19 pandemic based on the generalization of European experience and systematization of recommendations of international and European institutions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: In thise research we applied a complex of philosophical and ideological approaches, general scientific and special methods of scientific cognition, in particular civilizational and axiological approaches as well as dialectical, comparative legal and statistical methods. The empirical basis of the study is represented by the statistical data of the healthcare sector of European countries, generalization of the practice of countering the pandemic spread. In this study we used international and European regulatory legal acts and documents in the field of human rights, national legislations of foreign countries. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Derogation from the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights in the context of introduction of measures to combat the СOVID-19 pandemic is a common problem for European countries, which requires emergency measures introduction by the governments of these countries; the measures introduced should be legal, necessary, non-discriminatory, with a certain specific focus and duration; ensuring respect for human rights and freedoms requires deliberate, timely and effective legal, organizational forms and methods of states' activities and international cooperation.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Europe/epidemiology , Freedom , Human Rights , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
10.
Wiad Lek ; 73(12 cz 2): 2768-2772, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Theoretical and methodological substantiation of the impact of COVID-19 on the implementation of state policy on the protection of human right to health in terms of improving the legal framework in the field of demographic security. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The main research materials are the norms of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Conventions for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the legal framework of the countries that have adopted temporary quarantine measures. This research is based on empiricaland analytical data from WHO, Bloomberg's financial information provider. During the research, the following methods have been used: statistical, system-structural analysis, content-analysis, comparison, grouping and forecasting. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Under the conditions of pandemic, attention should be paid to strengthening both administrative and criminal liability for violating quarantine, which will serve as a prerequisite for improving the legal mechanism of combating threats to the country's demographic security. The protection of the right to health requires the state to create conditions to prevent the risk of occupational diseases among health care workers and others involved in the response to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Human Rights , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Right to Health
11.
Bull Math Biol ; 83(4): 25, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085975

ABSTRACT

We present a classic SEIR model taking into account the daily movements of individuals in different places. The model also takes into account partial confinement of individuals. This model is coupled with a model of protection against the epidemic by the use of masks. We are studying the effects of combined confinement and protection measures on the dynamics of the epidemic. We consider a constant proportion of asymptomatic people. We assume that symptomatic infected people may change their urban travel behavior due to the disease which causes them to travel less to places where they used to move and to stay at home more often. We present a sensitivity study with respect to the parameters. We show that the combination of the use of masks with almost complete release of confinement makes it possible to avoid the occurrence of a secondary peak of the epidemic. The model predicts that a total release of confinement can be successful for an epidemic of [Formula: see text] if on average a proportion of [Formula: see text] of the population wears masks of [Formula: see text] efficacy. However, if [Formula: see text] of the population remains confined, the same goal can be achieved with a proportion of [Formula: see text] of the population wearing masks with efficacy of the order of [Formula: see text].


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Models, Biological , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Mathematical Concepts , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population
13.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(1): 41-47, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic generated challenges to the delivery of safe, efficient, and high-quality cancer care. In ambulatory oncology, where most cancer care is delivered, these challenges required the rapid development of infrastructure. OBJECTIVES: This article describes challenges to the design and implementation of ambulatory oncology infrastructures that support clinical oncology care during a pandemic. METHODS: This article reviews clinical experiences in interprofessional, multicenter, academic, and community settings during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cohesive and efficient services, collaborative processes, and workflows; patient triage and symptom management; technology and equipment; and communication strategies are discussed. National ambulatory care guidelines and practice recommendations are included as applicable and available. FINDINGS: Continued treatment delivery and support for patients with cancer, as well as infrastructure to minimize viral exposure to patients and oncology healthcare workers, are essential when caring for this high-risk population.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/standards , Medical Oncology/standards , Neoplasms/nursing , Oncology Nursing/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Telemedicine/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology
14.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(1): 33-40, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding basic epidemiology and public health concepts is essential to the provision of safe care during a pandemic. These basic concepts and terms include containment, mitigation, predictive modeling, latent period, incubation period, reproduction number, case fatality rate, and test sensitivity and specificity. OBJECTIVES: Public health concepts and terms are defined, described in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and specific implications for oncology nursing practice are discussed. METHODS: A review of public health literature and reputable websites with a focus on COVID-19 data. This article defines epidemiologic and public health concepts and uses examples from the pandemic to illustrate oncology nursing implications. FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic is changing oncology nursing care delivery. Oncology nurses need to understand these concepts to anticipate and advocate for optimal oncology care.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Medical Oncology/education , Nurse Clinicians/education , Oncology Nursing/education , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/education , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , United States/epidemiology
15.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 77-83, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084628

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has been brought under control through a nationwide effort, and now it has become a global pandemic and the situation seems grim. We summarized the measures taken in Wuhan and analyzed the effects to comprehensively describe the factors involved in controlling the COVID-19 in China. In China, several measures such as the lockdown of Wuhan, restriction of traffic and communities, increasing hospital beds, nationwide support from medical staff, epidemic prevention equipment and supplies, and establishment of makeshift shelter hospitals have been taken. The lockdown of Wuhan reduced the propagation of cases to other cities in Hubei province and throughout China, traffic and community restrictions reduced the flow of population and the spread of disease, increasing wards and beds and medical personnel reduced the incidence of severe cases and mortality, the establishment of the Fangcang shelter hospitals provided a good isolation and monitoring environment, and further reduced the spread and fatality of the disease. The fact that China was able to control the spread of COVID-19 within three months without a specific drug or vaccine suggests that these measures are more adequate and effective.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , /transmission , China , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , Female , Humans , Male
17.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(1): 61-68, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The disruption in the supply chain of resources and interruptions in cancer treatments caused by the pandemic presented tremendous challenges to the healthcare system. OBJECTIVES: This article describes the National Academy of Medicine-defined states of medical and nursing care delivery for which local plans should be drawn and the shifting and evolving systems framework that can guide decisions to optimize the crisis standards of care. METHODS: A case study is presented to describe the process of shifting the state of medical and nursing care delivery and bioethical nursing considerations during the pandemic and beyond. FINDINGS: An evolving and shifting systems framework for crises rooted in deontology, principlism, and the ethics of care model provide meaningful guidance for establishing priorities for patient care.


Subject(s)
/nursing , Decision Making/ethics , Delivery of Health Care/ethics , Neoplasms/nursing , Oncology Nursing/ethics , Oncology Nursing/standards , Pandemics/ethics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic
18.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(1): 17-22, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084106

ABSTRACT

Palliative care was once believed to be too high-touch to be delivered via telehealth. However, numerous studies have demonstrated the positive effects of palliative care delivered through telehealth. Because the COVID-19 pandemic has quickly shifted how health care is delivered to patients with cancer, particularly because of their immunocompromised status and the risks associated with unnecessary exposures in the clinic, previous lessons from palliative care research studies can be used to inform practice. This article presents a case study that illustrates evidence and best practices for continuing to deliver palliative care via telehealth after COVID-19 restrictions are lifted.


Subject(s)
/mortality , /prevention & control , Communication , Hospice and Palliative Care Nursing/standards , Oncology Nursing/standards , Telemedicine/standards , Adult , Aged , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , United States
19.
FASEB J ; 35(3): e21409, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083988

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has unfolded to be the most challenging global health crisis in a century. In 11 months since its first emergence, according to WHO, the causative infectious agent SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 100 million people and claimed more than 2.15 million lives worldwide. Moreover, the world has raced to understand the virus and natural immunity and to develop vaccines. Thus, within a short 11 months a number of highly promising COVID-19 vaccines were developed at an unprecedented speed and are now being deployed via emergency use authorization for immunization. Although a considerable number of review contributions are being published, all of them attempt to capture only a specific aspect of COVID-19 or its therapeutic approaches based on ever-expanding information. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview to conceptually thread together the latest information on global epidemiology and mitigation strategies, clinical features, viral pathogenesis and immune responses, and the current state of vaccine development.


Subject(s)
/immunology , /prevention & control , Immunity/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Animals , Humans , Immunization/methods , /immunology
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