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1.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 25(2): 85-101, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091280

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) displays a broad spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from lack of symptoms to severe multiorgan system complications and death. Various laboratory assays have been employed in the diagnosis of COVID-19, including: nucleic acid-based tests; antigen tests; and serum testing for anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. The disease can also be diagnosed based on suggestive clinical features and radiological findings. Until now, remdesivir is the only medication approved for the treatment of COVID-19 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); however, it is anticipated that several anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies will gain soon approval. Other methods of treatment include supportive care directed toward treating the symptoms. Nevertheless, many studies have recently emerged, showing controversial preliminary results with the off-label medication hydroxychloroquine. Given that all results are still preliminary, including those seen by remdesivir, additional evidence and research are required to identify effective medications that are broadly effective and well tolerated. Importantly, two RNA-based vaccines have recently gained approval from Pfizer and Moderna, with many others still in clinical trials. This article reviews various aspects of COVID-19, including its epidemiology; its evolution and mutational spectrum; and its clinical dynamics, symptoms and complications, diagnosis, and treatment.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , /pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , /drug therapy , /therapy , /methods , Clinical Trials as Topic , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Mutation , Off-Label Use , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , /immunology , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 29(1): 1881210, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087638

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially strained health systems across the globe. In particular, documented disruptions to voluntary family planning and reproductive health care due to competing health priorities, service disruptions, stockouts, and lockdowns are significantly impacting reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. As governments and family planning programmes grapple with how best to respond to the direct and indirect effects of the pandemic on family planning and reproductive health (FP/RH), the implementation and adaptation of evidence-based practices is crucial. In this commentary, we outline applications of the High Impact Practices in Family Planning (HIPs) towards COVID-19 response efforts. The HIPs are a set of evidence-based family planning practices which reflect global expert consensus on what works in family planning programming. Drawing upon preliminary COVID-19 data, documented experiences from prior health emergencies, and recommended programme adaptations from a variety of global health partners, we outline situations where specific HIPs may assist family planning programme managers in developing context-specific and evidence-based responses to COVID-19-related impacts on FP/RH, with the ultimate goal of ensuring the accessibility, availability, and continuity of voluntary family planning services across the world.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Family Planning Services/trends , Maternal Health Services/trends , Quality of Health Care/trends , Reproductive Health/trends , Contraception/trends , Female , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
3.
Front Public Health ; 8: 585290, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079621

ABSTRACT

Background: In the face of the COVID-19, as a public health emergency, the restaurant industry is struggling to organize itself. The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice and also the perceptions of restaurants' customers and managers toward COVID-19 prevention. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the mixed-method approach. Two online questionnaires were undertaken through WhatsApp Messenger among the 210 customers and 50 managers of restaurants. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to identify the predictors of knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19 prevention. Then semi-structured, in-depth phone interviews were conducted with 45 subjects to identify their perceptions about the restaurant industry during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The majority of customers had moderate knowledge (72.4%), positive attitude (90.5%), and desirable practice (38.6%); whereas the majority of managers had sufficient knowledge (50%), negative attitude (82%), and acceptable practice (58%) toward the prevention of COVID-19 in restaurants. Multiple linear regression analysis showed with increasing each 10 years in the age of the customers, the practice score significantly decreased (Beta = -0.155, p < 0.05). Moreover, qualitative results revealed three categories (1. restaurant industry, 2. social media, and 3. government) in 9 themes with 32 sub-themes which were explored based on the perception of the participants toward COVID-19 prevention in restaurants. Conclusion: The majority of restaurant customers and managers have sufficient knowledge and acceptable practice, but a positive attitude among customers and a negative attitude among managers about the prevention of COVID-19 were shown. There is an urgent need to understand public awareness about preventing COVID-19 in restaurants at these critical moments. The results seek to provide strategies for the policymakers and restaurant industry to plan the specific educational intervention about how to manage future crises and public health improvement.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Guidelines as Topic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Restaurants/statistics & numerical data , Restaurants/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Public Opinion , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 30(1): e2020680, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076317

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) projections for the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and the Brazilian states, present their accuracy and discuss their implications. METHODS: The IHME projections from May to August 2020 for Brazil and selected states were compared with the ensuing reported number of cumulative deaths. RESULTS: The pandemic was projected to cause 182,809 deaths by December 1, 2020 in Brazil. An increase in mask use could reduce the projected death toll by ~17,000. The mean error in the cumulative number of deaths at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the projections were made was 13%, 18% and 22%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Short and medium-term projections provide important and sufficiently accurate data to inform health managers, elected officials, and society at large. After following an arduous course up until August, the pandemic is projected to decline steadily although slowly, with ~400 deaths/day still occurring in early December.


Subject(s)
/mortality , Forecasting , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , /prevention & control , Humans , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical , Mortality/trends , Time Factors
5.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(suppl 1): e20200581, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to characterize the content of Youtube™ videos related to nursing professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: a qualitative study that examined 47 videos on Youtube™ posted between 11/03 and 11/04 2020, which were subjected to thematic analysis. RESULTS: four categories emerged: "the role of nurses in care production during the pandemic", which addresses the management of services and individual care; "Overview of the pandemic from the perspective of nurses in different countries", presenting experiences and encouraging physical distance; "Tributes and motivation to mobilize the category", in addition to targeted tributes, calls for nurses to claim their rights; "Criticisms and demands to improve working conditions", which highlights the insecurity of care provision settings. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: nursing work conditions in different countries, recognition of the importance of professionals during the pandemic, and claims of the category to improve working conditions were the main content found on Youtube™.


Subject(s)
/nursing , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Video Recording/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nurse's Role
6.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076267

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine aspects of children's health literacy; the information sources they were accessing, their information preferences, their perceived understanding of and their reported information needs in relation to COVID-19. An online survey for children aged 7-12 years of age and parent/caregivers from the UK, Sweden, Brazil, Spain, Canada and Australia was conducted between 6th of April and the 1st of June 2020. The surveys included demographic questions and both closed and open questions focussing on access to and understanding of COVID-19 information. Descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis procedures were conducted. The findings show that parents are the main source of information for children during the pandemic in most countries (89%, n = 347), except in Sweden where school was the main source of information. However, in many cases parents chose to shield, filter or adapt their child's access to information about COVID-19, especially in relation to the death rates within each country. Despite this, children in this study reported knowing that COVID-19 was deadly and spreads quickly. This paper argues for a community rather than individual approach to addressing children's health literacy needs during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
/mortality , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Australia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , /transmission , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Online Systems , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sweden/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
7.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 8813505, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076020

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to understand the dynamics of the spread of COVID-19 for Nepal. It is carried out with the help of multivariate statistics techniques. Direct relationships among variables are obvious, as they are easily seen and measured. But, hidden variables and their interrelationships also have a significant effect on the spread of a pandemic. Multinomial logistic regression, odds ratio, linear mixed-effect models, and principal component analysis are used here to analyze these hidden variables and their interrelationships. Also, such studies are very important for countries with limited and scarce data. These countries do not have a backbone of good-quality official records. Understanding the spread of a disease in a developing country also helps in management and eradication of that disease. The multivariate daily data of new cases, deaths, recovered, total cases, total deaths, total recovered, and total infected (isolated) are used here. The daily incidence of new cases is also modeled here using nonlinear regression. Two best nonlinear models are discussed here. ARIMA models are used for analyzing and forecasting the progression of the variables for two months into the future. The impact of government restriction in the form of strict lockdown 1, partially relaxed lockdown 1, completely relaxed lockdown 1, and strict lockdown 2 is minutely analyzed. These controls were exercised to curtail the spread of the pandemic. The role of these controls in curbing the spread of the pandemic is also studied here. The results obtained from this study can be applied to other countries of South Asia and Africa.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , /transmission , Developing Countries , Forecasting , Humans , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
8.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 26(4): 167-175, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069922

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: On March 11, 2020 the WHO announced a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Lockdown restrictions, compromised access to medical care and fear of potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2 have forced patients with non-COVID-19 illnesses such as type 1 diabetes (T1D) to stay home. This situation can lead to delay in T1D diagnosis and insulin treatment resulting in rapid progression to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and therefore increased risk of complications and death.  . AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of DKA at the onset of T1D in children diagnosed in our department during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown from March 2020 till May 2020 in comparison to corresponding period of the previous year. . MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected data of children with newly diagnosed T1D. DKA was defined according to ISPAD guidelines. . RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 34 children in group 2020 and 52 in group 2019 with an average age 9.90 ±4.9 vs. 9.59±4.7 years with mean HbA1c 12.9 ±2.4 vs. 11.5 ±2.2%, respectively. The incidence of DKA was higher by 12% in group 2020 vs. 2019 (52.94% vs 40.38%; p = 0.276).  Regarding the DKA severity (2020 vs. 2019) 32.35% vs. 11.54% were severe (p = 0.026), 17.65 vs. 13% were moderate (p = 0.759), and 2.94 vs. 15.38% were mild (p = 0.081). None of the analyzed patients were COVID-19 positive. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown changes in society and health care system, the DKA rate has increased by 12 percentage points with more severe cases noted in children with newly diagnosed T1D. Regular education of the whole society about the symptoms of diabetes could contribute to faster diagnosis of T1D and reduction of DKA prevalence. .


Subject(s)
/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Poland/epidemiology , Prevalence , Quarantine/trends , Risk Factors
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(2)2021 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067717

ABSTRACT

This paper attempts to find the factors that affect the number of cases and deaths of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients a year after the first outbreak in Wuhan, China. There were 141 countries affected with COVID-19 involved in the study. Countries were grouped based on population. Using ordinary least squares regression, it was found that the total number of cases and deaths were significantly related with the levels of population of the different countries. On the overall, median age of the country, and average temperature are positively related with the number of deaths from the virus. On the other hand, population density is positively related with the deaths due to COVID for low populated countries. The result of this preliminary study can be used as a benchmark for authorities in the formulation of policies with regards to treating COVID-19 related issues.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Population Density , Global Health , Humans
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 78, 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: African-Americans/Blacks have suffered higher morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 than all other racial groups. This study aims to identify the causes of this health disparity, determine prognostic indicators, and assess efficacy of treatment interventions. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of clinical features and laboratory data of COVID-19 patients admitted over a 52-day period at the height of the pandemic in the United States. This study was performed at an urban academic medical center in New York City, declared a COVID-only facility, serving a majority Black population. RESULTS: Of the 1103 consecutive patients who tested positive for COVID-19, 529 required hospitalization and were included in the study. 88% of patients were Black; and a majority (52%) were 61-80 years old with a mean body mass index in the "obese" range. 98% had one or more comorbidities. Hypertension was the most common (79%) pre-existing condition followed by diabetes mellitus (56%) and chronic kidney disease (17%). Patients with chronic kidney disease who received hemodialysis were found to have lower mortality, than those who did not receive it, suggesting benefit from hemodialysis Age > 60 years and coronary artery disease were independent predictors of mortality in multivariate analysis. Cox proportional hazards modeling for time to death demonstrated a significantly high ratio for COPD/Asthma, and favorable effects on outcomes for pre-admission ACE inhibitors and ARBs. CRP (180, 283 mg/L), LDH (551, 638 U/L), glucose (182, 163 mg/dL), procalcitonin (1.03, 1.68 ng/mL), and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (8.3:10.0) were predictive of mortality on admission and at 48-96 h. Of the 529 inpatients 48% died, and one third of them died within the first 3 days of admission. 159/529patients received invasive mechanical ventilation, of which 86% died and of the remaining 370 patients, 30% died. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients in our predominantly Black neighborhood had higher in-hospital mortality, likely due to higher prevalence of comorbidities. Early dialysis and pre-admission intake of ACE inhibitors/ARBs improved patient outcomes. Early escalation of care based on comorbidities and key laboratory indicators is critical for improving outcomes in African-American patients.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , /mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , /therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Retrospective Studies
11.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 1465923, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066953

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the SIR epidemiological model for the COVID-19 with unknown parameters is considered in the first strategy. Three curves (S, I, and R) are fitted to the real data of South Korea, based on a detailed analysis of the actual data of South Korea, taken from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA). Using the least square method and minimizing the error between the fitted curve and the actual data, unknown parameters, like the transmission rate, recovery rate, and mortality rate, are estimated. The goodness of fit model is investigated with two criteria (SSE and RMSE), and the uncertainty range of the estimated parameters is also presented. Also, using the obtained determined model, the possible ending time and the turning point of the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States are predicted. Due to the lack of treatment and vaccine, in the next strategy, a new group called quarantined people is added to the proposed model. Also, a hidden state, including asymptomatic individuals, which is very common in COVID-19, is considered to make the model more realistic and closer to the real world. Then, the SIR model is developed into the SQAIR model. The delay in the recovery of the infected person is also considered as an unknown parameter. Like the previous steps, the possible ending time and the turning point in the United States are predicted. The model obtained in each strategy for South Korea is compared with the actual data from KDCA to prove the accuracy of the estimation of the parameters.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Epidemics , Models, Statistical , Computational Biology , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Least-Squares Analysis , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Biological , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
12.
Nature ; 590(7844): 134-139, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065896

ABSTRACT

As countries in Europe gradually relaxed lockdown restrictions after the first wave, test-trace-isolate strategies became critical to maintain the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at low levels1,2. Reviewing their shortcomings can provide elements to consider in light of the second wave that is currently underway in Europe. Here we estimate the rate of detection of symptomatic cases of COVID-19 in France after lockdown through the use of virological3 and participatory syndromic4 surveillance data coupled with mathematical transmission models calibrated to regional hospitalizations2. Our findings indicate that around 90,000 symptomatic infections, corresponding to 9 out 10 cases, were not ascertained by the surveillance system in the first 7 weeks after lockdown from 11 May to 28 June 2020, although the test positivity rate did not exceed the 5% recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO)5. The median detection rate increased from 7% (95% confidence interval, 6-8%) to 38% (35-44%) over time, with large regional variations, owing to a strengthening of the system as well as a decrease in epidemic activity. According to participatory surveillance data, only 31% of individuals with COVID-19-like symptoms consulted a doctor in the study period. This suggests that large numbers of symptomatic cases of COVID-19 did not seek medical advice despite recommendations, as confirmed by serological studies6,7. Encouraging awareness and same-day healthcare-seeking behaviour of suspected cases of COVID-19 is critical to improve detection. However, the capacity of the system remained insufficient even at the low epidemic activity achieved after lockdown, and was predicted to deteriorate rapidly with increasing incidence of COVID-19 cases. Substantially more aggressive, targeted and efficient testing with easier access is required to act as a tool to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The testing strategy will be critical to enable partial lifting of the current restrictive measures in Europe and to avoid a third wave.


Subject(s)
/statistics & numerical data , /prevention & control , Carrier State/epidemiology , Models, Biological , Age Distribution , /transmission , Carrier State/prevention & control , Carrier State/transmission , Female , France/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , World Health Organization
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e042034, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the country-level determinants of the severity of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Ecological study of publicly available data. Countries reporting >25 COVID-19 related deaths until 8 June 2020 were included. The outcome was log mean mortality rate from COVID-19, an estimate of the country-level daily increase in reported deaths during the ascending phase of the epidemic curve. Potential determinants assessed were most recently published demographic parameters (population and population density, percentage population living in urban areas, population >65 years, average body mass index and smoking prevalence); economic parameters (gross domestic product per capita); environmental parameters (pollution levels and mean temperature (January-May); comorbidities (prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and cancer); health system parameters (WHO Health Index and hospital beds per 10 000 population); international arrivals; the stringency index, as a measure of country-level response to COVID-19; BCG vaccination coverage; UV radiation exposure; and testing capacity. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyse the data. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Country-level mean mortality rate: the mean slope of the COVID-19 mortality curve during its ascending phase. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven countries were included: Algeria, Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the UK and the USA. RESULTS: Of all country-level determinants included in the multivariable model, total number of international arrivals (beta 0.033 (95% CI 0.012 to 0.054)) and BCG vaccination coverage (-0.018 (95% CI -0.034 to -0.002)), were significantly associated with the natural logarithm of the mean death rate. CONCLUSIONS: International travel was directly associated with the mortality slope and thus potentially the spread of COVID-19. Very early restrictions on international travel should be considered to control COVID-19 outbreaks and prevent related deaths.


Subject(s)
/mortality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Africa/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Americas/epidemiology , Asia/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Population Density , Smoking/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Temperature , Travel , Young Adult
14.
Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci ; 97(1): 22-49, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061587

ABSTRACT

Search and find methods*) such as cluster tracing1)-6) or large-scale PCR testing**) of those who exhibit no symptoms or only mild symptoms of COVID-19 is shown by data analysis to be a powerful means to suppress the spread of COVID-19 instead of, or in addition to, lockdown of the entire population. Here we investigate this issue by analyzing the data from some cities and countries and we establish that search and find method is as powerful as lockdown of a city or a country. Moreover, in contrast to lockdown, it neither causes inconvenience to citizens nor does it disrupt the economy. Generally speaking, it is advisable that both social distancing and increased test numbers be employed to suppress spread of the virus. The product of the total test number with the rate of positive cases is the crucial index.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Africa/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , /transmission , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Japan/epidemiology , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Models, Biological , Models, Statistical , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sweden/epidemiology , Tokyo/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(1): 169-178, 2021 Jan.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060939

ABSTRACT

Given the rapid spread of new coronavirus within the prison system, this study's objective was to identify spatial clusters for the occurrence of COVID-19 in the incarcerated population and analyze temporal trends of confirmed cases in the Brazilian prison system. This ecological study considered the five Brazilian macro-regions to be units of analysis, with its 26 states and the Federal District. The population was composed of all COVID-19 cases confirmed from April 14th to August 31st, 2020. The source used to collect data was the COVID-19 Monitoring Panel from the National Prison Department. Descriptive analysis, scan statistics, and time series were performed. A total of 18,767 COVID-19 cases were reported among the incarcerated population, 4,724 in São Paulo. The scan statistic analysis resulted in 14 spatial risk clusters for COVID-19 among persons deprived of liberty; the highest-risk cluster was in the Federal District. Although the country ends the series with a decreasing behavior, a growing trend was verified in most of the study period. The conclusion is that there is a need to implement mass testing among the incarcerated population while continually monitoring and recording COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Prisons/trends , Space-Time Clustering
16.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200624, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060908

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to map the epidemiological profile of children and adolescents with COVID-19 in the world literature. METHODS: a scoping review systematized by the Joanna Briggs Institute protocol in the PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, Science direct and Google Scholar databases. Articles with children and/or adolescents with laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19 were used. RESULTS: thirty-two articles were included in the review. Most children and adolescents were male, with contamination by family transmission. The most frequent clinical manifestations were fever, cough and diarrhea. Ten studies cited pre-existing condition/disease, and hospital length ranged from one to twenty days. Three deaths were reported and no study presented race/color, education and socioeconomic conditions. CONCLUSION: it was possible to screen the epidemiological profile with information about age group, sex, probable contamination of the disease, clinical manifestations, presence of pre-existing disease/condition, hospitalization and deaths among children and adolescents with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , /therapy , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Population Surveillance , Adolescent , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037378, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059920

ABSTRACT

Importance: There are concerns that suicide rates may have increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Objective: To assess whether suicide rates in Japan increased in April through November 2020 compared with previous years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used national data obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare from 2016 to 2020 on the monthly number of individuals who died of suicide in Japan from January to November of 2016 to 2020. Exposure: 2020 vs previous years. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was monthly suicide rates, calculated as the number of individuals who died of suicide divided by the total population. A difference-in-difference regression model was used to estimate the change in monthly suicide rates in April to November 2020 vs these months in 2016 to 2019. Results: Analyses included 90 048 individuals (61 366 [68.1%] men) who died of suicide from 2016 to 2020. The difference-in-difference analysis of men showed that there was no increase in suicide rates from April through September 2020 compared with these months in 2016 to 2019, but that suicide rates were increased in October (difference-in-difference, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.14 to 0.67] suicide deaths per 100 000 population) and November (difference-in-difference, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.07 to 0.60] suicide deaths per 100 000 population). Among women, suicide rates in 2020 compared with 2016 to 2019 increased in July (difference-in-difference, 0.24 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.38] suicide deaths per 100 000 population), August (difference-in-difference, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.16 to 0.45] suicide deaths per 100 000 population), September (difference-in-difference, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.15 to 0.44] suicide deaths per 100 000 population), October (difference-in-difference, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.48 to 0.77] suicide deaths per 100 000 population), and November (difference-in-difference, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.15 to 0.44] suicide deaths per 100 000 population). In secondary analyses in which the suicide rates of 2020 were compared with the expected rates based on trends from 2011 to 2019, the increases in suicide rates were most pronounced among men aged younger than 30 years (eg, November: observed vs expected rate ratio [RR], 1.48 [95% CI, 1.26-1.71]) and women aged younger than 30 years (eg, October: observed vs expected RR, 2.14 [95% CI, 1.76 to 2.52]) and 30 to 49 years (eg, October: observed vs expected RR, 2.30 [95% CI, 2.01 to 2.58]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that compared with previous years, suicide rates in Japan in 2020 increased in October and November for men and in July through November for women.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged
20.
Front Public Health ; 8: 627001, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058478

ABSTRACT

This article tests five major economies of the world, United Kingdom, Japan, Brazil, Chin and lastly, India, for the changes in the monetary policy decisions that have been implemented following the Covid-19 outbreak. The assessment was undertaken in the form of an event study analysis, further substantiated with a regression analysis conducted for exploring the significance of CPI and real GDP in predicting the policy interest rates in the economy. The results of the event study analysis presented that the abnormal changes in the interest rates were statistically significant in the case of the United Kingdom, Brazil, and China, while the abnormal changes were found to be statistically insignificant in the case of India and Japan.


Subject(s)
/economics , Economics/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy/economics , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Public Policy/economics , Brazil/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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