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1.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488678

ABSTRACT

Papain-like protease is an essential enzyme in the proteolytic processing required for the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, such an enzyme is an important target for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents which may reduce the mortality associated with outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2. A set of 69 semi-synthesized molecules that exhibited the structural features of SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease inhibitors (PLPI) were docked against the coronavirus papain-like protease (PLpro) enzyme (PDB ID: (4OW0). Docking studies showed that derivatives 34 and 58 were better than the co-crystallized ligand while derivatives 17, 28, 31, 40, 41, 43, 47, 54, and 65 exhibited good binding modes and binding free energies. The pharmacokinetic profiling study was conducted according to the four principles of the Lipinski rules and excluded derivative 31. Furthermore, ADMET and toxicity studies showed that derivatives 28, 34, and 47 have the potential to be drugs and have been demonstrated as safe when assessed via seven toxicity models. Finally, comparing the molecular orbital energies and the molecular electrostatic potential maps of 28, 34, and 47 against the co-crystallized ligand in a DFT study indicated that 28 is the most promising candidate to interact with the target receptor (PLpro).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Papain/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Cell Rep ; 36(13): 109754, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401298

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) is a target for antiviral drug development. It is essential for processing viral polyproteins for replication and functions in host immune evasion by cleaving ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like protein (Ubl) conjugates. While highly conserved, SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV PLpro have contrasting Ub/Ubl substrate preferences. Using a combination of structural analyses and functional assays, we identify a molecular sensor within the S1 Ub-binding site of PLpro that serves as a key determinant of substrate specificity. Variations within the S1 sensor specifically alter cleavage of Ub substrates but not of the Ubl interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein (ISG15). Significantly, a variant of concern associated with immune evasion carries a mutation in the S1 sensor that enhances PLpro activity on Ub substrates. Collectively, our data identify the S1 sensor region as a potential hotspot of variability that could alter host antiviral immune responses to newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 lineages.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Papain/chemistry , Papain/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protein Binding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Substrate Specificity/genetics , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
3.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(6): 1483-1502, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387146

ABSTRACT

Viral proteases are highly specific and recognize conserved cleavage site sequences of ∼6-8 amino acids. Short stretches of homologous host-pathogen sequences (SSHHPS) can be found spanning the viral protease cleavage sites. We hypothesized that these sequences corresponded to specific host protein targets since >40 host proteins have been shown to be cleaved by Group IV viral proteases and one Group VI viral protease. Using PHI-BLAST and the viral protease cleavage site sequences, we searched the human proteome for host targets and analyzed the hit results. Although the polyprotein and host proteins related to the suppression of the innate immune responses may be the primary targets of these viral proteases, we identified other cleavable host proteins. These proteins appear to be related to the virus-induced phenotype associated with Group IV viruses, suggesting that information about viral pathogenesis may be extractable directly from the viral genome sequence. Here we identify sequences cleaved by the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) in vitro within human MYH7 and MYH6 (two cardiac myosins linked to several cardiomyopathies), FOXP3 (an X-linked Treg cell transcription factor), ErbB4 (HER4), and vitamin-K-dependent plasma protein S (PROS1), an anticoagulation protein that prevents blood clots. Zinc inhibited the cleavage of these host sequences in vitro. Other patterns emerged from multispecies sequence alignments of the cleavage sites, which may have implications for the selection of animal models and zoonosis. SSHHPS/nsP is an example of a sequence-specific post-translational silencing mechanism.


Subject(s)
Papain , Peptide Hydrolases , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Proteases/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Cardiac Myosins/chemistry , Forkhead Transcription Factors/chemistry , Humans , Myosin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Papain/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protein S/chemistry , Receptor, ErbB-4/chemistry
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355016

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has rapidly spread on a global scale, affecting the economy and public health systems throughout the world. In recent years, peptide-based therapeutics have been widely studied and developed to treat infectious diseases, including viral infections. Herein, the antiviral effects of the lysine linked dimer des-Cys11, Lys12,Lys13-(pBthTX-I)2K ((pBthTX-I)2K)) and derivatives against SARS-CoV-2 are reported. The lead peptide (pBthTX-I)2K and derivatives showed attractive inhibitory activities against SARS-CoV-2 (EC50 = 28-65 µM) and mostly low cytotoxic effect (CC50 > 100 µM). To shed light on the mechanism of action underlying the peptides' antiviral activity, the Main Protease (Mpro) and Papain-Like protease (PLpro) inhibitory activities of the peptides were assessed. The synthetic peptides showed PLpro inhibition potencies (IC50s = 1.0-3.5 µM) and binding affinities (Kd = 0.9-7 µM) at the low micromolar range but poor inhibitory activity against Mpro (IC50 > 10 µM). The modeled binding mode of a representative peptide of the series indicated that the compound blocked the entry of the PLpro substrate toward the protease catalytic cleft. Our findings indicated that non-toxic dimeric peptides derived from the Bothropstoxin-I have attractive cellular and enzymatic inhibitory activities, thereby suggesting that they are promising prototypes for the discovery and development of new drugs against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Crotalid Venoms/chemistry , Dimerization , Papain/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Papain/chemistry , Papain/metabolism , Peptides/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251910, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234593

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 disease has infected and killed countless people all over the world since its emergence at the end of 2019. No specific therapy for COVID-19 is not currently available, and urgent treatment solutions are needed. Recent studies have found several potential molecular targets, and one of the most critical proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus work machine is the Papain-like protease (Plpro). Potential inhibitors are available, and their X-ray crystallographic structures in complex with this enzyme have been determined recently. However, their activities against this enzyme are insufficient and need to be characterized and improved to be of clinical values. Therefore, in this work, by utilizing the Supervised Molecular Dynamics (SuMD) simulation method, we achieved multiple unbinding events of Plpro inhibitors, GRL0617, and its derivates, and captured and understood the details of the unbinding pathway. We found that residues of the BL2 loop, such as Tyr268 and Gln269, play major roles in the unbinding pathways, but the most important contributing factor is the natural movements and behavior of the BL2 loop, which can control the entire process. We believe that the details found in this study can be used to refine and optimize potential inhibitors like GRL0617 and design more efficacious inhibitors as a treatment for the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites/drug effects , COVID-19/enzymology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Papain/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
Mol Divers ; 26(1): 309-329, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171933

ABSTRACT

The non-structural protein (nsp)-3 of SARS-CoV2 coronavirus is sought to be an essential target protein which is also named as papain-like protease (PLpro). This protease cleaves the viral polyprotein, but importantly in human host it also removes ubiquitin-like interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein (ISG15) from interferon responsive factor 3 (IRF3) protein which ultimately downregulates the production of type I interferon leading to weakening of immune response. GRL0617 is the most potent known inhibitor for PLpro that was initially developed for SARS outbreak of 2003. The PLpro of SARS-CoV and CoV2 share 83% sequence identity but interestingly have several identical conserved amino acids that suggests GRL0617 to be an effective inhibitor for PLpro of SARS-CoV2. GRL0617 is a naphthalene-based molecule and interacts with Tyr268 of SARS-CoV2-PLpro (and Tyr269 of SARS-CoV-PLpro). To identify PLpro inhibitors, we prepared a library of secondary metabolites from fungi with aromatic nature and docked them with PLpro of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2. We found six hits which interacts with Tyr268 of SARS-CoV2-PLpro (and Tyr269 of SARS-CoV-PLpro). More surprisingly the top hit, Fonsecin, has naphthalene moiety in its structure, which recruits Tyr268 of SARS-CoV2-PLpro (and Tyr269 of SARS-CoV-PLpro) and has binding energy at par with control (GRL0617). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation showed Fonsecin to interact with Tyr268 of SARS-CoV2-PLpro more efficiently than control (GRL0617) and interacting with a greater number of amino acids in the binding cleft of PLpro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Aniline Compounds , Benzamides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fungi/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Naphthalenes , Papain/chemistry , Papain/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 743, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061105

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to expand. Papain-like protease (PLpro) is one of two SARS-CoV-2 proteases potentially targetable with antivirals. PLpro is an attractive target because it plays an essential role in cleavage and maturation of viral polyproteins, assembly of the replicase-transcriptase complex, and disruption of host responses. We report a substantive body of structural, biochemical, and virus replication studies that identify several inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 enzyme. We determined the high resolution structure of wild-type PLpro, the active site C111S mutant, and their complexes with inhibitors. This collection of structures details inhibitors recognition and interactions providing fundamental molecular and mechanistic insight into PLpro. All compounds inhibit the peptidase activity of PLpro in vitro, some block SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture assays. These findings will accelerate structure-based drug design efforts targeting PLpro to identify high-affinity inhibitors of clinical value.


Subject(s)
Papain/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Mutation , Polyproteins/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt A): 1438-1446, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843655

ABSTRACT

There are several families of cysteine proteinases with different folds - for example the (chymo)trypsin fold family and papain-like fold family - but in both families the hydrolase activity of cysteine proteinases requires a cysteine residue as the catalytic nucleophile. In this work, we have analyzed the topology of the active site regions in 146 three-dimensional structures of proteins belonging to the Papain-like Cysteine Proteinase (PCP) superfamily, which includes papain as a typical representative of this protein superfamily. All analyzed enzymes contain a unique structurally closed conformation - a "PCP-Zone" - which can be divided into two groups, Class A and Class B. Eight structurally conserved amino acids of the PCP-Zone form a common Structural Core. The Structural Core, catalytic nucleophile, catalytic base and residue Xaa - which stabilizes the side-chain conformation of the catalytic base - make up a PCP Structural Catalytic Core (PCP-SCC). The PCP-SCC of Class A and Class B are divided into 5 and 2 types, respectively. Seven variants of the mutual arrangement of the amino-acid side chains of the catalytic triad - nucleophile, base and residue Xaa - within the same fold clearly demonstrate how enzymes with the papain-like fold adapt to the need to perform diverse functions in spite of their limited structural diversity. The roles of both the PCP-Zone of SARS-CoV-2-PLpro described in this study and the NBCZone of SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro presented in our earlier article (Denesyuk AI, Johnson MS, Salo-Ahen OMH, Uversky VN, Denessiouk K. Int J Biol Macromol. 2020;153:399-411) that are in contacts with inhibitors are discussed.


Subject(s)
Catalytic Domain , Papain/chemistry , Papain/metabolism , Biocatalysis , Models, Molecular
9.
J Chem Phys ; 153(11): 115101, 2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796705

ABSTRACT

Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are urgently needed to stop the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic and prevent future ones. The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is related to the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which have caused the previous outbreaks. The papain-like protease (PLpro) is an attractive drug target due to its essential roles in the viral life cycle. As a cysteine protease, PLpro is rich in cysteines and histidines, and their protonation/deprotonation modulates catalysis and conformational plasticity. Here, we report the pKa calculations and assessment of the proton-coupled conformational dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV PLpros using the recently developed graphical processing unit (GPU)-accelerated implicit-solvent continuous constant pH molecular dynamics method with a new asynchronous replica-exchange scheme, which allows computation on a single GPU card. The calculated pKa's support the catalytic roles of the Cys-His-Asp triad. We also found that several residues can switch protonation states at physiological pH among which is C270/271 located on the flexible blocking loop 2 (BL2) of SARS-CoV-2/CoV PLpro. Simulations revealed that the BL2 can open and close depending on the protonation state of C271/270, consistent with the most recent crystal structure evidence. Interestingly, despite the lack of an analogous cysteine, BL2 in MERS-CoV PLpro is also very flexible, challenging a current hypothesis. These findings are supported by the all-atom fixed-charge simulations and provide a starting point for more detailed studies to assist the structure-based design of broad-spectrum inhibitors against CoV PLpros.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Drug Design , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/enzymology , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Papain/chemistry , Papain/metabolism , Protons , Amino Acid Sequence , Histidine , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Papain/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Bioessays ; 42(11): e2000094, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723430

ABSTRACT

More than 15 million people have been affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and it has caused 640 016 deaths as of July 26, 2020. Currently, no effective treatment option is available for COVID-19 patients. Though many drugs have been proposed, none of them has shown particular efficacy in clinical trials. In this article, the relationship between the Adrenergic system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is focused in COVID-19 and a vicious circle consisting of the Adrenergic system-RAAS-Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (which is referred to as the "ARAS loop") is proposed. Hyperactivation of the ARAS loop may be the underlying pathophysiological mechanism in COVID-19, and beta-adrenergic blockers are proposed as a potential treatment option. Beta-adrenergic blockers may decrease the SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry by decreasing ACE2 receptors expression and cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) in various cells in the body. Beta-adrenergic blockers may decrease the morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients by preventing or reducing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other complications. Retrospective and prospective clinical trials should be conducted to check the validity of the hypothesis. Also see the video abstract here https://youtu.be/uLoy7do5ROo.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Carvedilol/pharmacology , Carvedilol/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pandemics , Papain/antagonists & inhibitors , Papain/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/prevention & control , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(14): 7834-7844, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693570

ABSTRACT

The pandemic threat of COVID-19 causes serious concern for people and world organizations. The effect of Coronavirus disease on the lifestyle and economic status of humans is undeniable, and all of the researchers (biologists, pharmacists, physicians, and chemists) can help decrease its destructive effects. The molecular docking approach can provide a fast prediction of the positive influence the targets on the COVID-19 outbreak. In this work, we choose resveratrol (RV) derivatives (22 cases) and two newly released coordinate structures for COVID-19 as receptors [Papain-like Protease of SARS CoV-2 (PBD ID: 6W9C) and 2019-nCoV RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (PBD ID: 6M71)]. The results show that conformational isomerism is significant and useful parameter for docking results. A wide spectrum of interactions such as Van der Waals, conventional hydrogen bond, Pi-donor hydrogen bond, Pi-Cation, Pi-sigma, Pi-Pi stacked, Amide-Pi stacked and Pi-Alkyl is detected via docking of RV derivatives and COVID-19 receptors. The potential inhibition effect of RV-13 (-184.99 kj/mol), and RV-12 (-173.76 kj/mol) is achieved at maximum value for 6W9C and 6M71, respectively.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Papain/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Resveratrol/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases , Crystallography, X-Ray , Hydrogen Bonding , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Papain/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Structure, Tertiary , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Resveratrol/chemistry , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(62): 8854-8856, 2020 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635466

ABSTRACT

Using a combination of enhanced sampling molecular dynamics techniques and non-equilibrium alchemical transformations with full atomistic details, we have shown that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may act as a mild inhibitor of important functional proteins for SARS-CoV2 replication, with potency increasing in the series PLpro, 3CLpro, RdRp. By analyzing the bound state configurations, we were able to improve the potency for the 3CLpro target, designing a novel HCQ-inspired compound, named PMP329, with predicted nanomolar activity. If confirmed in vitro, our results provide a molecular rationale for the use of HCQ or of strictly related derivatives in the treatment of Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Papain/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/chemistry , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Papain/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
13.
Protein Sci ; 29(5): 1228-1241, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244545

ABSTRACT

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus that is involved in severe diarrhea disease in piglets, causing considerable agricultural and economic loss in China. The emergence of this new coronavirus increases the importance of understanding SADS-CoV as well as antivirals. Coronaviral proteases, including main proteases and papain-like proteases (PLP), are attractive antiviral targets because of their essential roles in polyprotein processing and thus viral maturation. Here, we describe the biochemical and structural identification of recombinant SADS papain-like protease 2 (PLP2) domain of nsp3. The SADS-CoV PLP2 was shown to cleave nsp1 proteins and also peptides mimicking the nsp2|nsp3 cleavage site and also had deubiquitinating and deISGynating activity by in vitro assays. The crystal structure adopts an architecture resembling that of PLPs from other coronaviruses. We characterize both conserved and unique structural features likely directing the interaction of PLP2 with the substrates, including the tentative mapping of active site and other essential residues. These results provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of coronaviral PLPs' catalytic mechanism and for the screening and design of therapeutics to combat infection by SADS coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/enzymology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Papain/chemistry , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Animals , Coronavirus/enzymology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases , Crystallography, X-Ray , Diarrhea/virology , Models, Molecular , Papain/metabolism , Sus scrofa , Swine , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
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