Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 54
Filter
1.
Elife ; 122023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241077

ABSTRACT

Background: Home-based self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing may be an alternative for women not attending clinic-based cervical cancer screening. Methods: We assessed barriers to care and motivators to use at-home HPV self-sampling kits during the COVID-19 pandemic as part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating kit effectiveness. Participants were women aged 30-65 and under-screened for cervical cancer in a safety-net healthcare system. We conducted telephone surveys in English/Spanish among a subgroup of trial participants, assessed differences between groups, and determined statistical significance at p<0.05. Results: Over half of 233 survey participants reported that clinic-based screening (Pap) is uncomfortable (67.8%), embarrassing (52.4%), and discomfort seeing male providers (63.1%). The last two factors were significantly more prevalent among Spanish vs English speakers (66.4% vs 30% (p=0.000) and 69.9 vs 52.2% (p=0.006), respectively). Most women who completed the kit found Pap more embarrassing (69.3%), stressful (55.6%), and less convenient (55.6%) than the kit. The first factor was more prevalent among Spanish vs English speakers (79.6% vs 53.38%, p=0.001) and among patients with elementary education or below. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic influenced most (59.5%) to participate in the trial due to fear of COVID, difficulty making appointments, and ease of using kits. HPV self-sampling kits may reduce barriers among under-screened women in a safety-net system. Funding: This study is supported by a grant from the National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparitie s (NIMHD, R01MD013715, PI: JR Montealegre). Clinical trial number: NCT03898167.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Male , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Papillomaviridae , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Specimen Handling
2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2212571, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239029

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has affected nearly all aspects of daily life. In this study, we investigated the age-stratified prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) among females in Shandong province (eastern China) and aimed to provide guidance on HPV-based cervical cancer screening and vaccination. The distribution of HPV genotypes was analyzed using PCR-Reverse Dot Hybridization. The overall infection rate of HPV was 16.4%, which was dominated by high-risk genotypes. The most prevalent genotype was HPV16 (2.9%), followed by HPV52 (2.3%), HPV53 (1.8%), HPV58 (1.5%), and HPV51 (1.3%). Among the positive cases with HPV infection, single-genotype infection was significantly higher than that of multi-genotype infection. In subgroup analyses by age (≤25, 26-35, 36-45, 46-55, >55), HPV16, 52, and 53 were consistently the three most common hrHPV genotypes in all age groups. The infection rate of multi-genotypes in the ≤25 and >55 age groups was significantly higher than that in other age groups. A bimodal distribution of HPV infection rate was observed in different age groups. Among lrHPV genotypes, HPV6, HPV11, and HPV81 were the three most common types in the ≤25 age group, while in other age groups, HPV81, HPV42, and HPV43 are the three most common lrHPV genotypes. This study provides basic information on the distribution and genotypes of HPV in the female population in eastern China, which could improve the application of HPV diagnostic probes and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Pandemics , Prevalence , Early Detection of Cancer , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genotype , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , China/epidemiology
3.
Oral Oncol ; 140: 106361, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298423

ABSTRACT

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) testing is mandatory for all newly diagnosed oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) due to its importance for prognostication and aiding in treatment decision making. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a widely used and accepted diagnostic tool for OPSCC. Although FNA can accurately determine histological diagnosis, results are often indeterminate or lack insufficient samples for HPV testing. For samples with an indeterminant FNA, we propose an alternate method for determining HPV status using circulating tumor tissue modified HPV DNA (ctHPVDNA). We report three cases that confirmed HPV status using ctHPVDNA following an indeterminate FNA. If validated, this non-invasive assay could prevent the need for repeat FNAs or operative biopsies for the sole purpose of determining HPV status.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Papillomaviridae/genetics
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 160, 2023 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the general population is widely known, however, there are still few studies related to this infection in minority groups, Thus, the objective is to analyze the frequency of human papillomavirus and associated factors in quilombola and gypsy women. METHODS: Cross-sectional research with 145 quilombola and gypsy women from Caxias, Maranhão. Two Pap smear collections were performed and a questionnaire with 46 questions was applied between January, 2020 and March, 2021. Descriptive analysis and Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval were performed. The research was approved by the ethics committee. RESULTS: There were 09 cases of atypia. The frequency of human papillomavirus was 41.37%, with a higher risk in quilombolas 55 (91.70%). Multiple infections were prevalent (53%) with high-risk genotypes 21 (35%). Types 16 and 18 together accounted for 42.85% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of human papillomavirus infection was higher than those recorded in the Northeast and Brazil, and therefore type 16 predominated. Due to limitations, the virus lineages and sublineages were not evaluated. Quilombola women had a higher rate of infection than gypsies.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Roma , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Minority Groups , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Brazil
5.
Anticancer Res ; 42(11): 5415-5430, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: The oral bacteria involved in the development of periodontitis alter the tissue conditions and modify immune responses in a way that may also influence tumor development. We investigated the prevalence of R gingipain (Rgp), a key virulence factor of the oral pathobiont Porphyromonas gingivalis, and the tissue-destructive enzymes matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) and 9 (MMP-9) in 202 unselected consecutive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) samples. We further investigated the relationships between these factors and human papillomavirus (HPV) status, Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like proteinase (Td-CTLP) immunoexpression, clinical parameters, and patient outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinicopathological data were derived from university hospital records. Rgp, MMP-8, and MMP-9 immunoexpression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry; the immunohistochemistry of Td-CTLP and HPV has been described earlier for this patient series. Cox regression analysis including death by causes other than OPSCC as a competing risk served to assess sub distribution hazard ratios. RESULTS: In multivariable survival analysis, positive tumoral MMP-9 immunoexpression predicted poor prognosis among all patients [sub distribution hazard ratio (SHR)=2.4; confidence interval (CI)=1.2-4.4, p=0.008], and especially among those with HPV-negative OPSCC (SHR=3.5; CI=1.7-7.3, p=0.001). Positive immunoexpression of Rgp in inflammatory cells was associated with favorable outcome among all patients (SHR=0.5, CI=0.2-0.9, p=0.021) and among those with HPV-negative disease (SHR=0.4, CI=0.2-0.9, p=0.022). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that tumoral MMP-9 may be related to poor outcome in OPSCC, especially in HPV-negative disease, while Rgp immunoexpression in inflammatory cells is associated here with better disease-specific survival (DSS).


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/complications , Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Gingipain Cysteine Endopeptidases , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Chymotrypsin , Papillomaviridae , Head and Neck Neoplasms/complications , Virulence Factors
6.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282853, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278548

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer screening rates are declining in the US, with persistent disparities among vulnerable populations. Strategies to better reach under-screened communities are needed. The COVID pandemic sparked major shifts in healthcare delivery, including the accelerated development and adoption of rapid diagnostic testing, broadened access to remote care, and growing consumer demand for self-testing, which could be leveraged for cervical cancer. Rapid tests for the detection of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) have the potential to improve cervical cancer screening coverage, and if coupled with patient-collected cervicovaginal samples, create an opportunity for self-testing. The objectives of this study were: 1) to examine whether COVID influenced clinician perspectives of rapid testing as a screening modality; and 2) to assess clinician awareness, perceived benefits and limitations, and willingness to adopt point-of-care HPV testing, patient self-sampling, and rapid HPV self-testing with self-collected samples. The methodology adopted consisted of an online cross-sectional survey (n = 224) and in-depth interviews (n = 20) were conducted with clinicians who perform cervical cancer screening in Indiana, ranked in the top ten states for cervical cancer mortality and with marked disparities across socio-demographic groups. The main findings show that about half the clinicians reported that the COVID pandemic had influenced their views on rapid testing as a screening modality both positively (greater public acceptability of rapid testing and impact on patient care) and negatively (concerns regarding accuracy of rapid tests). The majority of clinicians (82%) were willing to adopt rapid HPV testing at the point-of-care, while only 48% were willing to adopt rapid HPV self-testing with self-collected samples. In-depth interviews revealed provider concerns around patients' ability to collect their own sample, report results correctly, and return to the clinic for follow-up and other preventive care. Addressing clinician concerns about self-sampling and rapid HPV testing, such as ensuring that rapid tests include sample adequacy controls, is necessary to mitigate barriers to adoption for cervical cancer screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Vaginal Smears/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Papillomaviridae , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Specimen Handling/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Self Care , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
7.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0280643, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Testing for high-risk HPV is a more sensitive screening method than cervical cytology for detecting cervical changes that may lead to cancer. Consistent with recent evidence of efficacy and acceptability, Aotearoa New Zealand plans to introduce HPV testing as the primary approach to screening, replacing cervical cytology, from mid-2023. Any equitable cervical screening programme must be effective across a diverse population, including women that the current programme fails to reach, particularly Maori and those in rural areas. Currently, we do not know the best model for implementing an equitable HPV self-testing screening programme. METHODS: This implementation trial aims to assess whether a universal offer of HPV self-testing (offered to all people eligible for cervical screening) achieves non-inferior screening coverage (equal) to a universal offer of cervical cytology alone (the present programme). The study population is all people aged from 24.5 to 70 years due for cervical screening in a 12-month period (including those whose screening is overdue or who have never had screening). A range of quantitative and qualitative secondary outcomes will be explored, including barriers and facilitators across screening and diagnostic pathways. This study takes place in Te Tai Tokerau/Northland which covers a diverse range of urban and rural areas and has a large Indigenous Maori population. A total of fourteen practices will be involved. Seven practices will offer HPV self-testing universally to approximately 2800 women and will be compared to seven practices providing routine clinical care (offer of cervical cytology) to an approximately equal number of women. DISCUSSION: This trial will answer important questions about how to implement an equitable, high-quality, effective national programme offering HPV self-testing as the primary screening method for cervical cancer prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 07/12/2021: ACTRN12621001675819.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Australia , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Mass Screening/methods , New Zealand/epidemiology , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaginal Smears
8.
J Virol Methods ; 316: 114709, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257939

ABSTRACT

High-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) testing for primary cervical precancer screening offers an opportunity to improve screening in low-middle income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to compare the analytic performances of the AmpFire and MA-6000 platforms for hr-HPV DNA testing in three groups of women screened for hr-HPV types in Ghana: group 1 with 33 GeneXpert-archived ThinPrep/liquid-based samples subjected to both tests, group 2 with 50 AmpFire-archived dry brush samples subjected to MA-6000 testing, and group 3 involving 143 cotton swab samples simultaneously subjected to both tests without archiving. The overall agreement rates were 73 %, 92 %, and 84 %, for groups 1-3, respectively, and 84 % (95 % CI, 78.6-88.6) for the entire group. Neither AmpFire nor MA-6000 was more likely to test hr-HPV positive in all three groups and the combined group. Group 1 showed fair agreement without statistical significance (κ = 0.224, 95 % CI, -0.118 to 0.565), while group 3 showed significant moderate agreement (κ = 0.591, 95% CI, 0.442-0.741). Group 2 showed an almost perfect significant level of agreement (κ = 0.802; 95 % CI, 0.616-0.987). Thus, both platforms showed statistically significant moderate to near-perfect agreement for detecting hr-HPV in cervicovaginal samples, with variation according to archiving conditions and duration between sample collection and retesting. For LMICs using these platforms for COVID-19 testing, as the COVID-19 pandemic subsides, the platforms can become available for running other tests such as hr-HPV DNA testing for cervical precancer screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , DNA, Viral/genetics , DNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Virol J ; 20(1): 44, 2023 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previously developed TaME-seq method for deep sequencing of HPV, allowed simultaneous identification of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA consensus sequence, low-frequency variable sites, and chromosomal integration events. The method has been successfully validated and applied to the study of five carcinogenic high-risk (HR) HPV types (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, and 45). Here, we present TaME-seq2 with an updated laboratory workflow and bioinformatics pipeline. The HR-HPV type repertoire was expanded with HPV51, 52, and 59. As a proof-of-concept, TaME-seq2 was applied on SARS-CoV-2 positive samples showing the method's flexibility to a broader range of viruses, both DNA and RNA. RESULTS: Compared to TaME-seq version 1, the bioinformatics pipeline of TaME-seq2 is approximately 40× faster. In total, 23 HPV-positive samples and seven SARS-CoV-2 clinical samples passed the threshold of 300× mean depth and were submitted to further analysis. The mean number of variable sites per 1 kb was ~ 1.5× higher in SARS-CoV-2 than in HPV-positive samples. Reproducibility and repeatability of the method were tested on a subset of samples. A viral integration breakpoint followed by a partial genomic deletion was found in within-run replicates of HPV59-positive sample. Identified viral consensus sequence in two separate runs was > 99.9% identical between replicates, differing by a couple of nucleotides identified in only one of the replicates. Conversely, the number of identical minor nucleotide variants (MNVs) differed greatly between replicates, probably caused by PCR-introduced bias. The total number of detected MNVs, calculated gene variability and mutational signature analysis, were unaffected by the sequencing run. CONCLUSION: TaME-seq2 proved well suited for consensus sequence identification, and the detection of low-frequency viral genome variation and viral-chromosomal integrations. The repertoire of TaME-seq2 now encompasses seven HR-HPV types. Our goal is to further include all HR-HPV types in the TaME-seq2 repertoire. Moreover, with a minor modification of previously developed primers, the same method was successfully applied for the analysis of SARS-CoV-2 positive samples, implying the ease of adapting TaME-seq2 to other viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Genomics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , DNA, Viral/genetics , COVID-19 Testing
10.
J Clin Virol ; 159: 105349, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231219

ABSTRACT

We advise that only clinically validated HPV assays which have fulfilled internationally accepted performance criteria be used for primary cervical screening. Further, assays should be demonstrated to be fit for purpose in the laboratory in which they will ultimately be performed, and quality materials manuals and frameworks will be helpful in this endeavor. Importantly, there is a fundamental shortage of well validated, low-cost, low complexity HPV tests that have demonstrated utility in a near-patient setting; representing a significant challenge and focus for future development in order to reach the WHO's goal of eliminating cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
Nucleic Acids , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mass Screening , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Quality Control , Policy
11.
Vaccine ; 40(41): 5843-5855, 2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234569

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) global strategy to eliminate cervical cancer (CxCa) could result in >62 million lives saved by 2120 if strategy targets are reached and maintained: 90% of adolescent girls receiving prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, 70% of women receiving twice-lifetime cervical cancer screening, and 90% of cervical pre-cancer lesions and invasive CxCa treated. However, the cost and complexity of CxCa screening and treatment approaches has hampered scale-up, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and new approaches are needed. Therapeutic HPV vaccines (TxV), which could clear persistent high-risk HPV infection and/or cause regression of pre-cancerous lesions, are in early clinical development and might offer one such approach. During October 2021 to March 2022, WHO, in collaboration with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, convened a series of global expert consultations to lay the groundwork for understanding the potential value of TxV in the context of current CxCa prevention efforts and for defining WHO preferred product characteristics (PPCs) for TxV. WHO PPCs describe preferences for vaccine attributes that would help optimize vaccine value and use in meeting the global public health need. This paper reports on the main discussion points and findings from the expert consultations. Experts identified several ways in which TxV might address challenges in current CxCa prevention programmes, but emphasized that the potential value of TxV will depend on their degree of efficacy and how quickly they can be developed and implemented relative to ongoing scale-up of existing interventions. Consultation participants also discussed potential use-cases for TxV, important PPC considerations (e.g., vaccine indications, target populations, and delivery strategies), and critical modelling needs for predicting TxV impact and cost-effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adolescent , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Public Health , Referral and Consultation , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , World Health Organization
12.
N Z Med J ; 135(1565): 83-94, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112071

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth offer and contactless delivery of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical screening self-test during the 2021 COVID-19 Level 4 lockdown in Auckland, New Zealand. METHODS: A small proof-of-concept study was undertaken to test telehealth approaches in never-screened, due or overdue Maori and Pacific women enrolled in a local Primary Health Organisation (PHO). Study invitation, active follow-up, nurse-led discussions, result notification and a post-test questionnaire were all delivered through telehealth. RESULTS: A sample of 197 eligible Maori and Pacific women were invited to take part, of which 86 women were successfully contacted. Sixty-six agreed to take part. Overall uptake was 61 samples returned (31.8%) and uptake of all contactable women was 70.9%. Six of the 61 HPV self-tests (9.8%) were positive, all for non 16/18 types, and were referred for cytology. Three had negative cytology results, and three with positive cytology results were referred for colposcopy. CONCLUSION: The offer of HPV self-testing during COVID-19 lockdown was both feasible and highly acceptable for Maori and Pacific women. Importantly, HPV self-testing via telehealth and mail-out, alongside other options, offers a potential pro-equity approach for addressing the impact of deferred screens due to COVID-19 and other longstanding coverage issues.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Telemedicine , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Self-Testing , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomaviridae , Colposcopy , Mass Screening , Disease Outbreaks , Vaginal Smears
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(43): e31389, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097515

ABSTRACT

The COVID 19 pandemic is far from over, and vaccines remain important tool for fighting the disease. As the preventive effects of the COVID-19 vaccine emerges, it is likely that the perception of importance and safety of vaccines have a positive effect on the acceptance of other vaccines. However, it is still unclear how COVID-19 pandemic has affected the general vaccination perception and acceptance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the perception of HPV vaccination. This study involved an offline survey of 161 women aged between 20 and 49 years who visited the gynecologic clinic at Chung-nam National University Sejong Hospital from January 2021 to June 2021. The questionnaire consists of items related to experience and knowledge of COVID-19 and HPV viruses, as well as attitudes toward HPV vaccination. Knowledge about COVID-19 virus and HPV correlated positively with their experiences (P = .011 and P = .045, respectively). Positive attitude was increased, and negative attitude was reduced toward HPV vaccination in the COVID-19 pandemic era. Participants stated that accurate information and cost reduction about HPV vaccine was needed to increase the HPV vaccination rate. During the COVID-19 pandemic era, positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination have tended to increase. To increase the HPV vaccination rate, public efforts are needed for further information and cost reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , Papillomaviridae , Surveys and Questionnaires , Perception
15.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043971

ABSTRACT

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small non-enveloped DNA tumor viruses established as the primary etiological agent for the development of cervical cancer. Decades of research have elucidated HPV's primary attachment factor to be heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). Importantly, wounding and exposure of the epithelial basement membrane was found to be pivotal for efficient attachment and infection of HPV in vivo. Sulfation patterns on HSPG's become modified at the site of wounds as they serve an important role promoting tissue healing, cell proliferation and neovascularization and it is these modifications recognized by HPV. Analogous HSPG modification patterns can be found on tumor cells as they too require the aforementioned processes to grow and metastasize. Although targeting tumor associated HSPG is not a novel concept, the use of HPV to target and treat tumors has only been realized in recent years. The work herein describes how decades of basic HPV research has culminated in the rational design of an HPV-based virus-like infrared light activated dye conjugate for the treatment of choroidal melanoma.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Papillomavirus Infections , Uveal Neoplasms , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans , Heparitin Sulfate , Humans , Papillomaviridae , Tropism
16.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(3): 470-476, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess concordance and acceptability of a modified menstrual pad compared with a clinician-collected high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) sample. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. Women presenting for either cervical cancer screening or with a history of high-risk HPV positivity were eligible. Three samples were requested from participants: 1) clinician-collected cervical specimens; 2) self-collected vaginal swabs; and 3) a modified menstrual pad, which was taken home for use during the next menstruation. All samples were processed using the Cobas HPV test. Menstrual pad dried blood spots were eluted, then similarly processed. RESULTS: Of 153 women enrolled in the study, 106 provided menstrual pad samples and clinician-collected cervical specimens for high-risk HPV analysis. For samples in which the interval between the clinician-collected specimen and the menstrual pad sample was less than 2 months, the concordance was 94% (95% CI 83-98). For women who tested positive for high-risk HPV who presented for general screening and those with more than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2, menstrual pad and clinician-collected specimen agreement was 100% (95% CI 32.5-100). Among participants, 22.9% expressed discomfort with the self-collected vaginal swabs and opted out of collection. Overall, 94.0% of participants preferred the menstrual pad over clinician-collected sampling. Twelve patients were found to be positive for HPV on the menstrual pad sample but negative on the clinician-collected specimen. CONCLUSION: Among women who tested positive for HPV, the menstrual pad showed highly concordant results compared with clinician-collected sampling. This collection approach shows promise for integration into cervical cancer prevention programs.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Vaginal Smears/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 7(1): 28, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The contribution of vaccination to global public health and community wellbeing has been described as one of the greatest success stories of modern medicine. However, 13.5 million children still miss at least one of their routine vaccinations, and this contributes to about 1.5 million deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases. One of the contributing factors has been associated with vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine hesitancy is the delay or refusal of vaccines despite their availability. The study explored factors from multiple perspectives that influence hesitancy among caregivers of children and adolescent girls eligible for childhood routine immunisation and the Human Papillomavirus vaccine in Malawi. METHODS: The methodology used was qualitative such as key informant interviews and focus-group discussion. Information was obtained from caregivers, community and religious leaders, leaders of civil society groups, teachers in schools where Human Papillomavirus vaccine were piloted, healthcare workers, national and district-level officials of the expanded program on immunisation. There were 25 key informant interviews and two focus-group discussions, with 13 participants. The study was conducted between April to May 2020. The Interviews and discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed using a thematic content approach. RESULTS: Most vaccine-hesitancy drivers for routine immunisation were also relevant for the HPV vaccine. The drivers included inadequate awareness of the vaccination schedule, rumours and conspiracy theories exacerbated by religious beliefs, low literacy levels of caregivers, distance and transport to the vaccination clinic, gender role and a disconnect between community healthcare workers and community leaders. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that a network of factors determines vaccine hesitancy for childhood Routine Immunisation and Human Papillomavirus, and some of them are interrelated with one another. This has implications both for current levels of vaccine acceptance and the introduction of any new vaccine, such as those against Malaria, HIV/AIDS, HPV or COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). Therefore, strategies developed to address vaccine hesitancy must be multi-component and wide-ranging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Malawi , Papillomaviridae , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2045856, 2022 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895719

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vaccination of adolescent girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) significantly reduces the incidence of cervical cancer. HPV vaccines are available in Pakistan but plans to develop HPV vaccination program are at a nascent stage. We conducted a formative study to explore adolescent girls' knowledge and perspectives on HPV and cervical cancer and collect their recommendations for implementing an HPV vaccination program in their community. METHODS: Using qualitative exploratory study design, we conducted four focus group discussions (FGDs) with 12 adolescent girls per group in District West, Karachi. We recruited unmarried girls aged 16-19 years from schools and community settings between May-December 2020. Data analysis was done using NVivo. RESULTS: Overall, participants displayed a positive attitude toward HPV vaccine. However, they were unfamiliar with basic concepts related to female reproductive health. Female relatives were indicated as girls' preferred point of contact for discussions on HPV and cervical cancer, but fathers were portrayed as decision-making authority on vaccination. Participants indicated vaccine hesitancy among parents may affect HPV vaccination uptake. Girls suggested individual household visits and community-based camps as strategies for successful implementation of HPV vaccination program. A solid foundation of trust between girls' families, program managers, and other stakeholders emerged as a key asset for the program's success. CONCLUSION: Adolescent girls' suggestions of informing key decision-makers in the family (particularly fathers) of the benefits of HPV vaccination, establishing trust with vaccine providers, and increasing accessibility of vaccinations should be explored for successful implementation of an HPV vaccination program in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adolescent , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pakistan , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination
19.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875797

ABSTRACT

The NeuMoDx HPV assay is a novel fully automated, real-time PCR-based assay for the qualitative detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical specimens. The assay specifically identifies HPV16 and HPV18 and concurrently detects 13 other high-risk HPV types at clinically relevant infection levels. Following the international guidelines, the clinical performance of the NeuMoDx HPV assay for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) against the reference standard Hybrid Capture 2, as well as intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility were assessed on PreservCyt samples. The clinical accuracy of the assay was additionally evaluated against the clinically validated Alinity m HR HPV and COBAS 4800 HPV Test on PreservCyt samples, and against the clinically validated HPV-Risk assay on SurePath samples. The NeuMoDx HPV assay performance for CIN2+ was non-inferior to the reference methods on both sample types (all p < 0.05), and showed excellent intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (95.7%; 95% CI: 93.9-97.3; kappa value 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86-0.94); and 94.5%; 95% CI: 92.6-96.2; kappa value 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82-0.92), respectively). In conclusion, the NeuMoDx HPV assay meets international guideline criteria for cross-sectional accuracy and reproducibility, and performs equally well on cervical screening specimens collected in two widely used collection media. The NeuMoDx HPV assay fulfils the requirements to be used for primary cervical screening.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Cross-Sectional Studies , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis
20.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(3): 413-425, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was shown to prevent infections and lesions related to HPV6, 11, 16, and 18 in a randomised, placebo-controlled study in men aged 16-26 years. We assessed the incidences of external genital warts related to HPV6 or 11, and external genital lesions and anal dysplasia related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18, over 10 years of follow-up. METHODS: The 3-year base study was an international, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial done at 71 sites in 18 countries. Eligible participants were heterosexual men (aged 16-23 years) or men who have sex with men (MSM; aged 16-26 years). Men who had clinically detectable anogenital warts or genital lesions at screening that were suggestive of infection with non-HPV sexually transmitted diseases, or who had a history of such findings, were excluded. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive three doses of either quadrivalent HPV vaccine or placebo on day 1, month 2, and month 6, administered as a 0·5-mL injection into the deltoid muscle. The 7-year, open-label, long-term follow-up extension study was done at 46 centres in 16 countries. Participants who received one or more doses of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the base study were eligible for enrolment into the long-term follow-up study (early vaccination group). Placebo recipients were offered the three-dose quadrivalent HPV vaccine at the end of the base study; those who received one or more quadrivalent HPV vaccine doses were eligible for enrolment into the long-term follow-up study (catch-up vaccination group). The primary efficacy endpoints were the incidence of external genital warts related to HPV6 or 11 and the incidence of external genital lesions related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 in all participants and the incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (including anal warts and flat lesions) or anal cancer related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 in MSM only. The primary efficacy analysis was done in the per-protocol population for the early vaccination group, which included participants who received all three vaccine doses, were seronegative at day 1 and PCR-negative from day 1 through month 7 of the base study for the HPV type being analysed, had no protocol violations that could affect evaluation of vaccine efficacy, and had attended at least one visit during the long-term follow-up study. For the catch-up vaccination group, efficacy was assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included participants who had received at least one vaccine dose, were seronegative and PCR-negative for HPV types analysed from day 1 of the base study to the final follow-up visit before receiving the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and had at least one long-term follow-up visit. Safety was assessed in all randomised participants who received at least one vaccine dose. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00090285. FINDINGS: Between Aug 10, 2010, and April 3, 2017, 1803 participants were enrolled in the long-term follow-up study, of whom 936 (827 heterosexual men and 109 MSM) were included in the early vaccination group and 867 (739 heterosexual men and 128 MSM) were included in the catch-up vaccination group. Participants in the early vaccination group were followed up for a median of 9·5 years (range 0·1-11·5) after receiving the third dose of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and participants in the catch-up vaccination group were followed up for a median of 4·7 years (0·0-6·6) after receiving the third dose. In early vaccine group participants during long-term follow-up compared with the placebo group in the base study, the incidence per 10 000 person-years of external genital warts related to HPV6 or 11 was 0·0 (95% CI 0·0-8·7) versus 137·3 (83·9-212·1), of external genital lesions related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 was 0·0 (0·0-7·7) versus 140·4 (89·0-210·7), and of anal intraepithelial neoplasia or anal cancer related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 in MSM only was 20·5 (0·5-114·4) versus 906·2 (553·5-1399·5). Compared with during the base study (ie, before quadrivalent HPV vaccine administration), during the long-term follow-up period, participants in the catch-up vaccination group had no new reported cases of external genital warts related to HPV6 or 11 (149·6 cases per 10 000 person-years [95% CI 101·6-212·3] vs 0 cases per 10 000 person-years [0·0-13·5]) or external genital lesions related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 (155·1 cases per 10 000 person-years [108·0-215·7] vs 0 cases per 10 000 person-years [0·0-10·2]), and a lower incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia or anal cancer related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 (886·0 cases per 10 000 person-years [583·9-1289·1] vs 101·3 cases per 10 000 person-years [32·9-236·3]). No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: The quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides durable protection against anogenital disease related to HPV6, 11, 16, and 18. The results support quadrivalent HPV vaccination in men, including catch-up vaccination. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.


Subject(s)
Anus Neoplasms , Condylomata Acuminata , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Condylomata Acuminata/epidemiology , Condylomata Acuminata/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL