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1.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875797

ABSTRACT

The NeuMoDx HPV assay is a novel fully automated, real-time PCR-based assay for the qualitative detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical specimens. The assay specifically identifies HPV16 and HPV18 and concurrently detects 13 other high-risk HPV types at clinically relevant infection levels. Following the international guidelines, the clinical performance of the NeuMoDx HPV assay for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) against the reference standard Hybrid Capture 2, as well as intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility were assessed on PreservCyt samples. The clinical accuracy of the assay was additionally evaluated against the clinically validated Alinity m HR HPV and COBAS 4800 HPV Test on PreservCyt samples, and against the clinically validated HPV-Risk assay on SurePath samples. The NeuMoDx HPV assay performance for CIN2+ was non-inferior to the reference methods on both sample types (all p < 0.05), and showed excellent intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (95.7%; 95% CI: 93.9-97.3; kappa value 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86-0.94); and 94.5%; 95% CI: 92.6-96.2; kappa value 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82-0.92), respectively). In conclusion, the NeuMoDx HPV assay meets international guideline criteria for cross-sectional accuracy and reproducibility, and performs equally well on cervical screening specimens collected in two widely used collection media. The NeuMoDx HPV assay fulfils the requirements to be used for primary cervical screening.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Cross-Sectional Studies , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis
2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(3): 413-425, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was shown to prevent infections and lesions related to HPV6, 11, 16, and 18 in a randomised, placebo-controlled study in men aged 16-26 years. We assessed the incidences of external genital warts related to HPV6 or 11, and external genital lesions and anal dysplasia related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18, over 10 years of follow-up. METHODS: The 3-year base study was an international, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial done at 71 sites in 18 countries. Eligible participants were heterosexual men (aged 16-23 years) or men who have sex with men (MSM; aged 16-26 years). Men who had clinically detectable anogenital warts or genital lesions at screening that were suggestive of infection with non-HPV sexually transmitted diseases, or who had a history of such findings, were excluded. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive three doses of either quadrivalent HPV vaccine or placebo on day 1, month 2, and month 6, administered as a 0·5-mL injection into the deltoid muscle. The 7-year, open-label, long-term follow-up extension study was done at 46 centres in 16 countries. Participants who received one or more doses of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the base study were eligible for enrolment into the long-term follow-up study (early vaccination group). Placebo recipients were offered the three-dose quadrivalent HPV vaccine at the end of the base study; those who received one or more quadrivalent HPV vaccine doses were eligible for enrolment into the long-term follow-up study (catch-up vaccination group). The primary efficacy endpoints were the incidence of external genital warts related to HPV6 or 11 and the incidence of external genital lesions related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 in all participants and the incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (including anal warts and flat lesions) or anal cancer related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 in MSM only. The primary efficacy analysis was done in the per-protocol population for the early vaccination group, which included participants who received all three vaccine doses, were seronegative at day 1 and PCR-negative from day 1 through month 7 of the base study for the HPV type being analysed, had no protocol violations that could affect evaluation of vaccine efficacy, and had attended at least one visit during the long-term follow-up study. For the catch-up vaccination group, efficacy was assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included participants who had received at least one vaccine dose, were seronegative and PCR-negative for HPV types analysed from day 1 of the base study to the final follow-up visit before receiving the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and had at least one long-term follow-up visit. Safety was assessed in all randomised participants who received at least one vaccine dose. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00090285. FINDINGS: Between Aug 10, 2010, and April 3, 2017, 1803 participants were enrolled in the long-term follow-up study, of whom 936 (827 heterosexual men and 109 MSM) were included in the early vaccination group and 867 (739 heterosexual men and 128 MSM) were included in the catch-up vaccination group. Participants in the early vaccination group were followed up for a median of 9·5 years (range 0·1-11·5) after receiving the third dose of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and participants in the catch-up vaccination group were followed up for a median of 4·7 years (0·0-6·6) after receiving the third dose. In early vaccine group participants during long-term follow-up compared with the placebo group in the base study, the incidence per 10 000 person-years of external genital warts related to HPV6 or 11 was 0·0 (95% CI 0·0-8·7) versus 137·3 (83·9-212·1), of external genital lesions related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 was 0·0 (0·0-7·7) versus 140·4 (89·0-210·7), and of anal intraepithelial neoplasia or anal cancer related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 in MSM only was 20·5 (0·5-114·4) versus 906·2 (553·5-1399·5). Compared with during the base study (ie, before quadrivalent HPV vaccine administration), during the long-term follow-up period, participants in the catch-up vaccination group had no new reported cases of external genital warts related to HPV6 or 11 (149·6 cases per 10 000 person-years [95% CI 101·6-212·3] vs 0 cases per 10 000 person-years [0·0-13·5]) or external genital lesions related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 (155·1 cases per 10 000 person-years [108·0-215·7] vs 0 cases per 10 000 person-years [0·0-10·2]), and a lower incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia or anal cancer related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 (886·0 cases per 10 000 person-years [583·9-1289·1] vs 101·3 cases per 10 000 person-years [32·9-236·3]). No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: The quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides durable protection against anogenital disease related to HPV6, 11, 16, and 18. The results support quadrivalent HPV vaccination in men, including catch-up vaccination. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.


Subject(s)
Anus Neoplasms , Condylomata Acuminata , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Condylomata Acuminata/epidemiology , Condylomata Acuminata/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HPV primary screening has shown effectiveness for cancer prevention; however, gynaecological examination is considered uncomfortable. Self-sampling methods increase the acceptance of screening. The aim of this study is to compare the sensitivity and specificity of clinician sampling versus vaginal and urine self-sampling for HPV diagnosis. METHODS: A diagnostic test study was conducted in a rural parish of Cuenca, Ecuador. A total of 120 women participated. Each participant self-collected urine and vaginal samples and underwent clinician sampling for HPV testing. The latter was considered as the golden standard. All three samples were processed with the same amplification and hybridization protocol for HPV detection (Hybribio) following the manufacturer's instructions. RESULTS: Characteristics of the participants were: median age 35 years; 40.8% married; 46.7% had a primary level of education; and median age of sexual onset, 17.6 years. The prevalence of any type of HPV with clinician sampling was 15.0%, 17.5% with urine sampling and 18.3% with vaginal self-sampling. Self-sampling sensitivity reached 94.4% (IC 74.2-99.9), and specificity 92.1% (IC 85.2-95.9). Urine sampling had a sensitivity of 88.8% (IC 67.2, 96.9), and specificity 94.1% (IC 67.2-96.9). The negative predictive value was 98.9% (IC 94.2-99.8) for vaginal self-sampling and 97.6% (IC 92.6-99.4) for urine sampling. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that vaginal and urine self-sampling methods have similar sensitivity and specificity compared with clinician sampling for the diagnosis of HPV. The correlation between HPV genotypes among the three tests is satisfactory.


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rural Population , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaginal Smears
4.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267167, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human Papillomavirus associated oropharyngeal cancers have been on the rise in the past three decades. Dentists are uniquely positioned to discuss vaccination programs with their patients. The goal of this project was to assess the readiness of dentists in the state of Indiana in being able to administer vaccines. METHODS: An 18-question online survey was sent to licensed dentists in the state of Indiana. Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests, followed by multivariable analyses using ordinal logistic regression were conducted to assess providers' comfort levels and willingness to administer vaccines in both children and adults, by provider characteristics (practice type, location, and years in practice). RESULTS: A total of 569 completed surveys were included for data analyses. Most dentists (58%) responded positively when asked if they would consider offering vaccinations in their office, if allowed by state legislation. In general, dentists working in academic settings and federally qualified health centers were more agreeable to offering vaccination in their practice. The level of agreement with "Dentists should be allowed to administer HPV, Influenza, Hep A and COVID 19 vaccines" for both children and adults decreased with increased years of practice. More than half of the respondents (55%) agreed that dental providers were competent to administer vaccines and needed no further training. CONCLUSION: The study results suggest the willingness of dentists in the state of Indiana to offer vaccinations in their practices, if allowed by legislation. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dental providers can be a unique resource to add to workforce for improving vaccination efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Dentists , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Indiana , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Vaccination
5.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 213, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus is the most common cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Various studies report that positive human papillomavirus diagnosis results in psychosexual issues for the infected and reduces their quality of life. However, the adaptation of the infected has not been addressed yet. The present study aims to identify the process by which individuals infected with human papillomavirus adapt to their disease. METHOD: This is a qualitative work of research with a grounded theory design. The setting of the study was the skin clinic of Shahid Faghihi Hospital in Shiraz. The participants consisted of 27 individuals: 18 patients, 3 doctors, 2 counselors, and 4 spouses of patients. The subjects were selected via purposeful and theoretical sampling method until data saturation was reached. Data were collected through face-to-face, in-depth, semi-structured interviews from April 2019 to December 2020. The collected data were analyzed using Corbin and Strauss's method (2015) and MAXQDA 2018. RESULTS: The theory which emerged from the data was "trying to maintain resilience in the absence of psychological security." Analysis of data showed the main concern of participants in adapting to their diagnosis with human papillomavirus was "life stress". "Stigma and ignorance" was found to be a contextual condition and "paradox in support" was an intervening condition in the patients' adaptation. The patients' action/interaction responses to their main concern in the context in question were "emotional confrontation" and "maintaining resilience." The outcome was "oscillation between tension and tranquility." CONCLUSION: The present study explains the process by which patients with human papillomavirus adapt to their condition. Identification of the concerns of patients with human papillomavirus and the factors which affect their adaptation can help healthcare policy-makers and providers develop effective support plans in order to increase patients' quality of life. Early interventions, e.g. counseling care providers to modify their behaviors toward alleviating the psychosexual tension of the infected, can facilitate the adaptation of the infected and decrease the consequences of the infection for them.


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Almost all men and women get the infection at least once throughout their lives. The high-risk types of HPV account for about 5% of cancer cases globally. HPV can cause anogenital cancers and warts in both genders. In this grounded theory study, we conducted 27 in-depth interviews with Iranian patients, their spouses, and health care providers from April 2019 to December 2020. The collected data were analyzed using Corbin and Strauss's method (2015) and MAXQDA 2018. The participants were concerned about tension in family relationships, being stigmatized, getting cancer, recurrence of warts, transferring their disease to others, and changes in the appearance of their genitalia. They stated that HPV is regarded as a shameful disease in society. Most of the participants said they had never heard anything about HPV. The patients' action/interaction responses to their concerns were "emotional confrontation" and "maintaining resilience." These strategies helped the patients recover some of their tranquility. However, some of patients' concerns were persistent and kept them oscillating between tension and tranquility. An understanding of the patients' perception of their disease is essential to development of effective educational interventions to change patients' perspective on their situation and improve their recovery. Furthermore, because of the low level of public awareness about HPV and sexual health and the flow of misinformation to the infected, it is recommended that educational interventions focus on the patients' concerns.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Papillomavirus Infections , Grounded Theory , Humans , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Social Stigma
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 801984, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776001

ABSTRACT

Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine for adolescents was recommended as an effective prevention strategy of HPV-related cancers. In Vietnam, HPV vaccination has not been introduced to male adolescent. This study was conducted to examine the acceptance of having boys vaccinated against HPV and its underlying reasoning, and to identify their parent's willingness to pay (WTP) for HPV vaccination in central Vietnam. 785 parents of boys were directly interviewed based on a structured questionnaire. Parent's acceptability of HPV vaccine for their sons was identified by one question with response on 3-point scale (agree, don't know, and disagree). Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine contributing factors to participant's acceptance. Bidding game method was applied to elicit WTP values for HPV vaccination with initial bid of 161.2 USD. The results showed that 49.2% of parents agreed to have their sons vaccinated against HPV. Factors that influenced parent's acceptance including son's age older than 12 years (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.08-1.98); being eldest son (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.13-2.19), being mother (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.01-1.91), parents with high educational level (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.11-2.47) and their knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.23-2.65). Average WTP value for full doses of HPV vaccine was 137.5 USD, ranging between 9 USD and 188.3 USD. Parents' knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine was the only factor affecting WTP value (Rho: 0.11; p-value: 0.030). The findings suggest a strategy be introduced for HPV vaccination to male adolescents in Vietnam.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Vaccination , Adolescent , Alphapapillomavirus , Child , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/economics , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Parents , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/psychology , Vietnam
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715329

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of HPV self-sampling for cervical cancer screening and the best means of service delivery, with a specific focus on under-screened women, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using three arms of service delivery (social media, school outreach and underserved outreach), we recruited under-screened women aged 30-65 years from two population groups: the general public and specific underserved communities, from whom self-sampled specimens and optional clinician-sampled cervical specimens were obtained for HPV testing. A total of 521 self-sampling kits were distributed, of which 321 were returned, giving an overall uptake rate of 61.6%. The response rate was higher in the face-to-face underserved outreach (65.5%) compared to social media (22.8%) and school outreach (18.2%). The concordance for HPV detection between self-sampled and clinician-sampled specimens was 90.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 85.1-93.8%; Cohen's kappa 0.59 (95% CI 0.42-0.75)]. Overall, 89.2% of women were willing to have self-sampling again. In conclusion, HPV self-sampling is an effective method for cervical cancer screening and can be considered as an option, particularly in women who are reluctant or unable to attend regular screening. Various service deliveries could be considered to increase participation in cervical cancer screening.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e059968, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685599

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) are the key to controlling cervical cancer in low/middle-income countries (LMICs) where incidence is highest, but there have been limited data from these settings on programme impact on HPV prevalence, and none in a population with endemic HIV infection. Furthermore, for many LMICs, the currently recommended two-dose schedule is difficult to deliver at scale, so there is mounting interest in a single-dose schedule. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Human Papillomavirus One and Two-Dose Population Effectiveness Study is a hybrid impact evaluation of the national South African HPV vaccination programme, which has targeted grade 4 girls aged at least 9 years in public schools with two doses of vaccine since 2014, and a single-dose vaccine 'catch-up' programme delivered in one district in 2019. Impacts of both schedules on the prevalence of type-specific HPV infection will be measured using repeat cross-sectional surveys in adolescent girls and young women aged 17-18 years recruited at primary healthcare clinics in the four provinces. A baseline survey in 2019 measured HPV prevalence in the cohort who were ineligible for vaccination because they were already above the target age or grade under either the national programme or the single-dose programme in the selected district. HPV prevalence surveys are repeated in 2021 in the selected district, and in 2023 in all four provinces. We will calculate prevalence ratios to compare the prevalence of HPV types 16 and 18 in the single-dose (2021) and two-dose (2023) cohorts, with the vaccine-ineligible (2019) cohort. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project was approved by the University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC #181005), and the University of New South Wales HREC (#181-005). Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, scientific meetings, reports and community forums.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , HIV Infections , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Prevalence , South Africa/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination
10.
Prev Med ; 156: 106960, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655254

ABSTRACT

The global confrontation with COVID-19 has not only diverted current healthcare resources to deal with the infection but has also resulted in increased resources in the areas of testing and screening, as well as educating most of the global public of the benefits of vaccination. When the COVID-19 pandemic eventually recedes, the opportunity must not be missed to ensure that these newly created resources are maintained and redeployed for use in testing and immunisation against other vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. A notable example is infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), the commonest sexually transmitted human virus and the leading cause of a variety of cancers in both men and women, such as cervical, head and neck, anal, vaginal, vulvar and penile cancers. The most important is cervical cancer, the objective of the global elimination goals targeting the vaccination of young female and male adolescents, screening all women and treatment of all infected women. As the campaigns to control SARS-CoV-2, the eradication of HPV-induced cancers also relies on effective prevention and control programs. The lessons learned and the technical, logistical and human resources which have been established to combat COVID-19 by vaccination and testing must be applied to the eradication of other infections which affect the global population. This commentary summarizes the opportunities that the COVID-19 pandemic has created for HPV prevention and control, lists the already available tools for HPV control, and emphasizes the potential public health threats amidst the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Vaccination
11.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542790

ABSTRACT

The detailed characterization of human γδ T lymphocyte differentiation at the single-cell transcriptomic (scRNAseq) level in tumors and patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requires both a reference differentiation trajectory of γδ T cells and a robust mapping method for additional γδ T lymphocytes. Here, we incepted such a method to characterize thousands of γδ T lymphocytes from (n = 95) patients with cancer or adult and pediatric COVID-19 disease. We found that cancer patients with human papillomavirus-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and Epstein-Barr virus-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma have γδ tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes that are more prone to recirculate from the tumor and avoid exhaustion. In COVID-19, both TCRVγ9 and TCRVγnon9 subsets of γδ T lymphocytes relocalize from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to the infected lung tissue, where their advanced differentiation, tissue residency, and exhaustion reflect T cell activation. Although severe COVID-19 disease increases both recruitment and exhaustion of γδ T lymphocytes in infected lung lesions but not blood, the anti-IL6R therapy with Tocilizumab promotes γδ T lymphocyte differentiation in patients with COVID-19. PBMC from pediatric patients with acute COVID-19 disease display similar γδ T cell lymphopenia to that seen in adult patients. However, blood γδ T cells from children with the COVID-19-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome are not lymphodepleted, but they are differentiated as in healthy PBMC. These findings suggest that some virus-induced memory γδ T lymphocytes durably persist in the blood of adults and could subsequently infiltrate and recirculate in tumors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Adult , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Differentiation , Child , Head and Neck Neoplasms/immunology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/isolation & purification , Hodgkin Disease/immunology , Hodgkin Disease/virology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/metabolism , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/physiology , Neoplasms/virology , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/physiology
12.
Prev Med ; 154: 106900, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541024

ABSTRACT

An increasing body of evidence supports the validity of self-sampling as an alternative to clinician collection for primary Human Papillomavirus (HPV) screening. Self-sampling effectively reaches underscreened women and can be a powerful strategy in low- and high-resource settings for all target ages. This work aims to summarize the current use of HPV self-sampling worldwide. It is part of a larger project that describes cervical cancer screening programmes and produces standardized coverage estimates worldwide. A systematic review of the literature and official documents supplemented with a formal World Health Organisation country consultation was conducted. Findings show that the global use of HPV self-sampling is still limited. Only 17 (12%) of countries with identified screening programs recommend its use, nine as the primary collection method, and eight to reach underscreened populations. We identified 10 pilots evaluating the switch to self-sampling in well-established screening programs. The global use of self-sampling is likely to increase in the coming years. COVID-19's pandemic has prompted efforts to accelerate HPV self-sampling introduction globally, and it is now considered a key element in scaling up screening coverage. The information generated by the early experiences can be beneficial for decision-making in both new and existing programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care , Specimen Handling , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Vaginal Smears
13.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502529

ABSTRACT

The detailed characterization of human γδ T lymphocyte differentiation at the single-cell transcriptomic (scRNAseq) level in tumors and patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requires both a reference differentiation trajectory of γδ T cells and a robust mapping method for additional γδ T lymphocytes. Here, we incepted such a method to characterize thousands of γδ T lymphocytes from (n = 95) patients with cancer or adult and pediatric COVID-19 disease. We found that cancer patients with human papillomavirus-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and Epstein-Barr virus-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma have γδ tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes that are more prone to recirculate from the tumor and avoid exhaustion. In COVID-19, both TCRVγ9 and TCRVγnon9 subsets of γδ T lymphocytes relocalize from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to the infected lung tissue, where their advanced differentiation, tissue residency, and exhaustion reflect T cell activation. Although severe COVID-19 disease increases both recruitment and exhaustion of γδ T lymphocytes in infected lung lesions but not blood, the anti-IL6R therapy with Tocilizumab promotes γδ T lymphocyte differentiation in patients with COVID-19. PBMC from pediatric patients with acute COVID-19 disease display similar γδ T cell lymphopenia to that seen in adult patients. However, blood γδ T cells from children with the COVID-19-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome are not lymphodepleted, but they are differentiated as in healthy PBMC. These findings suggest that some virus-induced memory γδ T lymphocytes durably persist in the blood of adults and could subsequently infiltrate and recirculate in tumors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Adult , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Differentiation , Child , Head and Neck Neoplasms/immunology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/isolation & purification , Hodgkin Disease/immunology , Hodgkin Disease/virology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/metabolism , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/physiology , Neoplasms/virology , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/physiology
14.
Am J Health Promot ; 36(3): 506-509, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501927

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed at targeting shared factors that influence the prevention of multiple diseases, which can help address various health problems simultaneously. We identified correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination that overlap with COVID-19 vaccination. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data. SETTING: Online Qualtrics recruitment panel. SUBJECT: Religious parents of 342 adolescents who were unvaccinated for HPV (response rate was 68.1%). MEASURES: Outcome variables were COVID-19 vaccination intention for (1) self, (2) child, and (3) HPV vaccination intention for child. Independent variables were psychological factors. Covariates were sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. ANALYSIS: We conducted multivariate linear regressions on each outcome variable after controlling for covariates. RESULT: Some psychological correlates of HPV overlapped as protective factors for all three outcomes. Higher perceived vulnerability of child to HPV was associated with higher vaccination intention against COVID-19 for self (ß = .37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .25-.48), child (ß = .32, .21-.44), and HPV for child (ß = .38, .27-.49). Higher perceived response efficacy of HPV vaccine was associated with greater vaccination intention against COVID-19 for self (ß = .46, .33-.59), child (ß = .41, .28-.53), and HPV for child (ß = .75, .64-.85). CONCLUSION: Given the overlap in HPV and COVID-19 vaccination correlates, interventions should target shared factors that address both diseases to maximize public health efforts. A major limitation of this study is the inability to measure the actual vaccination behavior.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Intention , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487420

ABSTRACT

Tetraspanins are transmembrane glycoproteins that have been shown increasing interest as host factors in infectious diseases. In particular, they were implicated in the pathogenesis of both non-enveloped (human papillomavirus (HPV)) and enveloped (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Zika, influenza A virus, (IAV), and coronavirus) viruses through multiple stages of infection, from the initial cell membrane attachment to the syncytium formation and viral particle release. However, the mechanisms by which different tetraspanins mediate their effects vary. This review aimed to compare and contrast the role of tetraspanins in the life cycles of HPV, HIV, Zika, IAV, and coronavirus viruses, which cause the most significant health and economic burdens to society. In doing so, a better understanding of the relative contribution of tetraspanins in virus infection will allow for a more targeted approach in the treatment of these diseases.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Tetraspanins/physiology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Papillomaviridae/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Internalization , Zika Virus/pathogenicity
16.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 14(10): 919-926, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450634

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization global call to eliminate cervical cancer encourages countries to consider introducing or improving cervical cancer screening programs. Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS) is among the world's largest public health systems offering free cytology testing, follow-up colposcopy, and treatment. Yet, health care networks across the country have unequal infrastructure, human resources, equipment, and supplies resulting in uneven program performance and large disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality. An effective screening program needs multiple strategies feasible for each community's reality, facilitating coverage and follow-up adherence. Prioritizing those at highest risk with tests that better stratify risk will limit inefficiencies, improving program impact across different resource settings. Highly sensitive human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA testing performs better than cytology and, with self-collection closer to homes and workplaces, improves access, even in remote regions. Molecular triage strategies like HPV genotyping can identify from the same self-collected sample, those at highest risk requiring follow-up. If proven acceptable, affordable, cost-effective, and efficient in the Brazilian context, these strategies would increase coverage while removing the need for speculum exams for routine screening and reducing follow-up visits. SUS could implement a nationwide organized program that accommodates heterogenous settings across Brazil, informing a variety of screening programs worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytodiagnosis/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/analysis , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Humans , Papillomavirus Infections/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology
17.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302415

ABSTRACT

The potential of first-void (FV) urine as a non-invasive liquid biopsy for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and other biomarkers has been increasingly recognized over the past decade. In this study, we investigated whether the volume of this initial urine stream has an impact on the analytical performance of biomarkers. In parallel, we evaluated different DNA extraction protocols and introduced an internal control in the urine preservative. Twenty-five women, diagnosed with high-risk HPV, provided three home-collected FV urine samples using three FV urine collection devices (Colli-Pee) with collector tubes that differ in volume (4, 10, 20 mL). Each collector tube was prefilled with Urine Conservation Medium spiked with phocine herpesvirus 1 (PhHV-1) DNA as internal control. Five different DNA extraction protocols were compared, followed by PCR for GAPDH and PhHV-1 (qPCR), HPV DNA, and HBB (HPV-Risk Assay), and ACTB (methylation-specific qPCR). Results showed limited effects of collection volume on human and HPV DNA endpoints. In contrast, significant variations in yield for human endpoints were observed for different DNA extraction methods (p < 0.05). Additionally, the potential of PhHV-1 as internal control to monitor FV urine collection, storage, and processing was demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , DNA, Viral , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/urine , Adult , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , DNA, Viral/urine , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Workflow , Young Adult
18.
Prev Med ; 151: 106596, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294325

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has a major impact on a wide range of health outcomes. Disruptions of elective health services related to cervical screening, management of abnormal screening test results, and treatment of precancers, may lead to increases in cervical cancer incidence and exacerbate existing health disparities. Modeling studies suggest that a short delay of cervical screening in subjects with previously negative HPV results has minor effects on cancer outcomes, while delay of management and treatment can lead to larger increases in cervical cancer. Several approaches can mitigate the effects of disruption of cervical screening and management. HPV-based screening has higher accuracy compared to cytology, and a negative HPV result provides longer reassurance against cervical cancer; further, HPV testing can be conducted from self-collected specimens. Self-collection expands the reach of screening to underserved populations who currently do not participate in screening. Self-collection and can also provide alternative screening approaches during the pandemic because testing can be supported by telehealth and specimens collected in the home, substantially reducing patient-provider contact and risk of COVID-19 exposure, and also expanding the reach of catch-up services to address backlogs of screening tests that accumulated during the pandemic. Risk-based management allows prioritizing management of patients at highest risk of cervical cancer while extending screening intervals for those at lowest risk. The pandemic provides important lessons for how to make cervical screening more resilient to disruptions and how to reduce cervical cancer disparities that may be exacerbated due to disruptions of health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
19.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282638

ABSTRACT

Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide causing a variety of benign and malignant conditions. A significant portion of the global population is infected with HPV, with the virus attributed to causing up to 5% of cancers worldwide. Bivalent, quadrivalent, and nine-valent vaccinations exist to aid in the prevention of these diseases and have been proven to be effective at preventing both benign and malignant disease. While vaccination is readily accessible in more developed countries, barriers exist to worldwide distribution and acceptance of vaccination. Vaccination and screening of HPV infection when used in combination are proven and predicted to decrease HPV related pathology. Improvements in vaccination formulations, for treatment as well as prevention, are actively being sought from a variety of mechanisms. Despite these advancements, and the data supporting their efficacy, there has been substantial delay in obtaining adequate vaccination coverage. In reviewing these challenges and looking forward to new vaccine development-especially within the current pandemic-it is clear from the challenges of HPV we require methods to more effectively encourage vaccination, ways to dispel vaccination myths as they occur, and implement better processes for vaccine distribution globally.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , Papillomaviridae/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology
20.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 25(1): 55-57, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275902

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer affects a significant proportion of men worldwide. Evidence from genetic and clinical studies suggests that there may be a causal association between prostate cancer and the human papilloma virus (HPV). As HPV is a vaccine-preventable pathogen, the possibility of a role in prostate cancer causation may reinforce the importance of effective HPV vaccination campaigns. This is of particular relevance in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, which may have considerable effects on HPV vaccine uptake and distribution.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Prostatic Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/etiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination
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