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1.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.01.25.23285015

ABSTRACT

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization named vaccine hesitancy as one of the top 10 threats to global health. The impact of hesitancy on uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines was of particular concern, given the markedly lower uptake compared to other adolescent vaccines in some countries, notably the United States. With the recent approval of COVID-19 vaccines coupled with the widespread use of social media, concerns regarding vaccine hesitancy have grown. However, the association between COVID-related vaccine hesitancy and cancer vaccines such as HPV is unclear. To examine the potential association, we performed two reviews using Ovid Medline and APA PsychInfo. Our aim was to answer two questions: (1) Is COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, intention, or uptake associated with HPV or HBV vaccine hesitancy, intention, or uptake? and (2) Is exposure to COVID-19 vaccine misinformation on social media associated with HPV or HBV vaccine hesitancy, intention, or uptake? Our review identified few published empirical studies that addressed these questions. Our results highlight the urgent need for studies that can shift through the vast quantities of social media data to better understand the link between COVID-19 vaccine misinformation and disinformation and its impact on uptake of cancer vaccines.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , COVID-19
2.
authorea preprints; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.167290870.05166892.v1

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vaccine hesitancy has historically played a large role in the low rate of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in the United States and has further surfaced to the forefront of public discourse since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to determine how HPV vaccination attitudes and trends among primary care physicians and patients have changed since the COVID-19 pandemic. Design: Physicians and patients (aged 9-45) participated in a voluntary survey regarding HPV vaccination. In patients under 18 years of age, the survey was completed by the patient’s parent or guardian. Results: Of the 27 healthcare providers surveyed, 22.2% agreed that there has been an increase in misinformation about the HPV vaccine since the COVID-19 pandemic and 7.4% of providers believed that patients were less willing to discuss or receive the HPV vaccine. A majority of patients surveyed (87.7%) were aware of the HPV vaccine but only about a third of those patients had received all three doses of the vaccine (28.1%). Conclusion: Recent trends in receiving the HPV vaccine may be associated with the polarizing climate during the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding how trends in vaccine hesitancy have changed since the pandemic will allow further and more targeted efforts to increase HPV vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277748, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140660

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite its benefits, HPV vaccine uptake has been historically lower than other recommended adolescent vaccines in the United States (US). While hesitancy and misinformation have threatened vaccinations for many years, the adverse impacts from COVID-19 pandemic on preventive services have been far-reaching. OBJECTIVES: To explore the perceptions and experiences of adolescent healthcare providers regarding routine vaccination services during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: Between December 2020 and May 2021, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted via Zoom video conferencing among a purposively selected, diverse group of adolescent healthcare providers (n = 16) within 5 healthcare practices in the US southeastern states of Georgia and Tennessee. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a rapid qualitative analysis framework. Our analysis was guided by the grounded theory and inductive approach. RESULTS: Participants reported that patient-provider communications; effective use of presumptive languaging; provider's continuing education/training; periodic reminders/recall messages; provider's personal conviction on vaccine safety/efficacy; early initiation of HPV vaccination series at 9 years; community partnerships with community health navigators/vaccine champions/vaccine advocates; use of standardized forms/prewritten scripts/standard operating protocols for patient-provider interactions; and vaccine promotion through social media, brochures/posters/pamphlets as well as outreaches to schools and churches served as facilitators to adolescent HPV vaccine uptake. Preventive adolescent services were adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic at all practices. Participants highlighted an initial decrease in patients due to the pandemic, while some practices avoided the distribution of vaccine informational materials due to sanitary concerns. CONCLUSION: As part of a larger study, we provided contextual information to refine an intervention package currently being developed to improve adolescent preventive care provision in healthcare practices. Our results could inform the implementation of comprehensive intervention strategies that improve HPV vaccination rates. Additionally, lessons learned (e.g. optimizing patient- provider interactions) could be adopted to expand COVID-19 vaccine acceptance on a sizable scale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Humans , Adolescent , United States , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Georgia/epidemiology , Tennessee/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Qualitative Research
4.
N Z Med J ; 135(1565): 83-94, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112071

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth offer and contactless delivery of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical screening self-test during the 2021 COVID-19 Level 4 lockdown in Auckland, New Zealand. METHODS: A small proof-of-concept study was undertaken to test telehealth approaches in never-screened, due or overdue Maori and Pacific women enrolled in a local Primary Health Organisation (PHO). Study invitation, active follow-up, nurse-led discussions, result notification and a post-test questionnaire were all delivered through telehealth. RESULTS: A sample of 197 eligible Maori and Pacific women were invited to take part, of which 86 women were successfully contacted. Sixty-six agreed to take part. Overall uptake was 61 samples returned (31.8%) and uptake of all contactable women was 70.9%. Six of the 61 HPV self-tests (9.8%) were positive, all for non 16/18 types, and were referred for cytology. Three had negative cytology results, and three with positive cytology results were referred for colposcopy. CONCLUSION: The offer of HPV self-testing during COVID-19 lockdown was both feasible and highly acceptable for Maori and Pacific women. Importantly, HPV self-testing via telehealth and mail-out, alongside other options, offers a potential pro-equity approach for addressing the impact of deferred screens due to COVID-19 and other longstanding coverage issues.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Telemedicine , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Self-Testing , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomaviridae , Colposcopy , Mass Screening , Disease Outbreaks , Vaginal Smears
6.
Viral Immunol ; 35(9): 579-585, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107328

ABSTRACT

Tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14 (TNFSF14) (LIGHT) is an interesting costimulatory molecule associated with T lymphocyte activation, and it mainly exerts its biological effects by binding to its receptors herpesvirus invasion mediator (HVEM) and lymphotoxin-ß receptor. Research shows that TNFSF14 plays a critical regulatory role in immune responses to viral infection, but its role is different in different diseases. TNFSF14 can be a cytokine neutralization target during novel coronavirus infection, and anti-TNFSF14 monoclonal antibody treatment can reduce the risk of respiratory failure and mortality. When the host is infected with adenovirus, TNFSF14 can be used as an inflammatory biomarker to indicate whether there was an adenovirus infection in the host and the degree of disease caused by viral infection. When hosts suffer influenza virus infection, the TNFSF14-HVEM signaling pathway can stimulate the maturation and proliferation of memory CD8+ T cells, which helps the host immune system stimulate a second immune response against respiratory virus infection. TNFSF14 can act as an immune adjuvant and enhance the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA vaccine when the host is infected with HPV. During hepatitis virus infection, TNFSF14 acts as a proinflammatory factor, participates in inflammation and causes tissue damage. In conclusion, TNFSF14 plays different and significant roles in diverse viral infections. This article reviews the current research on TNFSF14 in antiviral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Antiviral Agents , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
7.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6575-6580, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the trends of HPV vaccination between 03/2019-09/2021 and whether the impact of the COVID pandemic on HPV vaccination varied by race/ethnicity and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI). METHODS: Electronic medical records at Kaiser Permanente Southern California were used to assess monthly volume of HPV vaccine doses administered among children aged 9-12.9yrs, and up-to-date coverage (% vaccinated) by age 13 between 03/2019-09/2021. Modified Poisson models were used to evaluate the interactions between race/ethnicity, NDI and the pandemic periods on HPV vaccine coverage. RESULTS: HPV vaccine doses administered in 2020/2021 have returned to the 2019 level after the initial drop. The average up-to-date coverage in 05/2021-09/2021 (54.8%) remained lower than the pre-pandemic level (58.5%). The associations between race/ethnicity, NDI and HPV vaccine coverage did not vary due to the pandemic. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine promotion efforts are needed to address COVID-19 pandemic's lasting impact on HPV vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Ethnicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Social Class , California/epidemiology
8.
J Reprod Immunol ; 154: 103763, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105478

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a multisystem disease and cause of a global pandemic. Lately, cases of disease progression of HPV-infected CIN under SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported giving rise to the hypothesis of direct virus-infection induced pro-carcinogenic effect of SARS-CoV-2. We herein present a case of rapid progression from HPV-induced CIN 2 to microinvasive carcinoma within three months under COVID-19 without direct virus infection. Histopathologic evaluation, Fluorescence-in-situ hybridization and qRT-PCR against SARS-CoV-2 RNA as well as gene expression analysis were performed from the available FFPE-tissue and accompanied by an analysis of white blood cell differential. No signs of direct SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 typical alterations of cervical tissue were found. As expected, p53 decreased in expression with progression of dysplasia, while APOBEC3A and VISTA showed a decrease in expression contrary to observations in dysplasia progression. PD-L1 was expressed consistently or increased slightly but did not show the expected strong induction of expression. DNMT1 showed an increase in expression in CIN III and a slight decrease in carcinoma, while DNMT3a is consistently expressed in CIN II and decreased in carcinoma. Blood tests after COVID-19 showed substantial reduction of lymphocytes, eosinophils, T-cells, and NK-cells. Our results hint at an indirect effect of COVID-19 on the cervical neoplasm. We conclude that the immune system might be preoccupied and exhausted by the concurring COVID-19 disease, leading to less immunological pressure on the HPV-infected cervical dysplasia enabling rapid disease progression. Further, indirect proangiogenic and proinflammatory micromilieu due to the multisystemic effects of COVID-19 might play an additional role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Papillomavirus Infections , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , RNA, Viral , Leukocytes , Disease Progression
9.
J Adolesc Health ; 71(6): 673-678, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105242

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The first vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) for adolescents 16 years and older in the United States received Emergency Use Authorization in December 2020. Soon after its approval, parents expressed concerns about vaccine safety for adolescents. Similar concerns about vaccine safety partially explain suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake. This qualitative study explores similarities and differences in parents' attitudes about these two vaccines. METHODS: Parents were recruited through social media and at health centers in Alabama. Semi-structured interviews with parents of adolescents aged 9-17 years were conducted before and after Alabama expanded age eligibility to those 16 and older. Topics included knowledge about HPV and COVID-19 vaccines, and parents' intentions to have children vaccinated. Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: From March 11, 2021 to April 24, 2021, 21 in-depth interviews were conducted. Parents discussed the importance of HPV and COVID-19 vaccines for protecting their children's health but differences between the two related to community protection. Parents were concerned about vaccine safety but media coverage about the COVID-19 vaccine led to more favorable attitudes about the benefits of vaccination, which was not observed for HPV vaccines. Instead for HPV vaccination, parents wanted their healthcare providers' opinions about the vaccine before making a vaccination decision. DISCUSSION: Parents had similar concerns about HPV and COVID-19 vaccines. Although provider recommendations can improve vaccine uptake, local news reports were seen to have a positive impact on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in lieu of provider recommendation. Disseminating information online could be beneficial to promote HPV and COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Child , Humans , United States , COVID-19 Vaccines , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Parents , Vaccination , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(43): e31389, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097515

ABSTRACT

The COVID 19 pandemic is far from over, and vaccines remain important tool for fighting the disease. As the preventive effects of the COVID-19 vaccine emerges, it is likely that the perception of importance and safety of vaccines have a positive effect on the acceptance of other vaccines. However, it is still unclear how COVID-19 pandemic has affected the general vaccination perception and acceptance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the perception of HPV vaccination. This study involved an offline survey of 161 women aged between 20 and 49 years who visited the gynecologic clinic at Chung-nam National University Sejong Hospital from January 2021 to June 2021. The questionnaire consists of items related to experience and knowledge of COVID-19 and HPV viruses, as well as attitudes toward HPV vaccination. Knowledge about COVID-19 virus and HPV correlated positively with their experiences (P = .011 and P = .045, respectively). Positive attitude was increased, and negative attitude was reduced toward HPV vaccination in the COVID-19 pandemic era. Participants stated that accurate information and cost reduction about HPV vaccine was needed to increase the HPV vaccination rate. During the COVID-19 pandemic era, positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination have tended to increase. To increase the HPV vaccination rate, public efforts are needed for further information and cost reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , Papillomaviridae , Surveys and Questionnaires , Perception
11.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.11.21.22282554

ABSTRACT

Aims: Cardiac arrhythmia is a rare complication after vaccination. Recently, reports of arrhythmia after COVID-19 vaccination have increased. Whether the risk for cardiac arrhythmia is higher with COVID-19 vaccines than with non-COVID-19 vaccines remains controversial. This meta-analysis explored the incidence of arrhythmia after COVID-19 vaccination and compared it with the incidence of arrhythmia after non-COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases for English-language studies reporting the incidence of arrhythmia (the primary endpoint) after vaccination from January 1, 1947 to October 28, 2022. Secondary endpoints included incidence of tachyarrhythmia and all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses were conducted to evaluate the incidence of arrhythmia by age (children [<18 years] versus adults [[≥]18 years]), vaccine type (mRNA COVID-19 vaccine versus non-mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; individual non-COVID-19 vaccines versus COVID-19 vaccine), and COVID-19 vaccine dose (first versus second versus third). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed, and the intrastudy risk for bias and the certainty of evidence were evaluated. This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022365912). Results: The overall incidence of arrhythmia from 36 studies (1,528,459,662 vaccine doses) was 291.8 (95% CI 111.6-762.7) cases per million doses. The incidence of arrhythmia was significantly higher after COVID-19 vaccination (2263.4 [875.4-5839.2] cases per million doses; 830,585,553 doses, 23 studies) than after non-COVID-19 vaccination (9.9 [1.3-75.5] cases per million doses; 697,874,109 doses, 14 studies; P<0.01). Compared with COVID-19 vaccines, the influenza, pertussis, human papillomavirus, and acellular pertussis vaccines were associated with a significantly lower incidence of arrhythmia. The incidence of tachyarrhythmia was significantly higher after COVID-19 vaccination (4367.5 [1535.2-12,360.8] cases per million doses; 1,208,656 doses, 15 studies) than after non-COVID-19 vaccination (25.8 [4.5-149.4] cases per million doses; 179,822,553 doses, 11 studies; P<0.01). Arrhythmia was also more frequent after the third dose of COVID-19 vaccine (19,064.3 [5775.5-61,051.2] cases per million doses; 7968 doses, 3 studies) than after the first dose (3450.9 [988.2-11,977.6] cases per million doses; 41,714,762 doses, 12 studies; P=0.05) or second dose (2262.5 [2205.9-2320.7] cases per million doses; 34,540,749 doses, 10 studies; P<0.01). All-cause mortality was comparable between the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 vaccination groups. Conclusions: The overall risk for arrhythmia after COVID-19 vaccination was relatively low, although it was higher in COVID-19 vaccine recipients than in non-COVID-19 vaccine recipients. This increased risk should be evaluated along with other important factors, such as the incidence of local outbreaks and the risk for arrhythmia due to COVID infection itself, when weighing the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Infections , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Tachycardia , Arrhythmias, Cardiac
12.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.11.20.22282562

ABSTRACT

BackgroundHome-based self-sample human papillomavirus (HPV) testing may be an alternative for women who do not attend clinic-based cervical cancer screening. MethodsWe assessed barriers to care and motivators to use at-home HPV self-sampling kits during the COVID-19 pandemic as part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating kit effectiveness. Participants were women, aged 30-65 years and underscreened for cervical cancer in a safetynet healthcare system. We conducted telephone surveys in English/Spanish among a subgroup of trial participants, assessed differences between groups and determined statistical significance at p<0.05. ResultsOver half of 233 survey participants reported clinic-based screening (Pap) is uncomfortable (67.8%), embarrassing (52.4%), and discomfort seeing male providers (63.1%). The latter two factors were significantly more prevalent among Spanish versus English speakers (66.4% vs 30% and 69.9 vs 52.2%, respectively, p<0.01). Most women who completed the kit found Pap more embarrassing (69.3%), stressful (55.6%) and less convenient (55.6%) than the kit. The first factor was more prevalent among Spanish versus English speakers (79.6% vs 53.38%, p<0.05).ConclusionsThe COVID-19 pandemic influenced most (59.5%) to participate in the trial due to fear of COVID, difficulty making appointments and ease of using kits. HPV self-sampling kits may reduce barriers among underscreened women in a safety-net system.FundingThis study is supported by a grant from the National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD, R01MD013715, PI: JR Montealegre).


Subject(s)
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Neoplasms
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090159

ABSTRACT

The burden of disease caused by cervical cancer ranked second among female tumors in China. The HPV vaccine has been proven to be a cost-effective measure to prevent cervical cancer, but the vaccination rate remained low to date among university students. This study aimed to understand the status quo of HPV vaccine hesitancy among university students across China during the COVID-19 pandemics and systematically analyze determinants of HPV vaccine hesitancy based on the WHO 3Cs model. Cross-sectional data were collected using an online survey of female university students in four cities across China in June 2022. Multinomial logistic regression was adopted to determine factors influencing vaccine hesitancy based on the 3Cs model with three dimensions, namely complacency, convenience, and confidence. Among 1438 female university students surveyed in this study, 89.7% did not hesitate to vaccinate against HPV, only 8.9% hesitated to some extent, and 1.4% refused to vaccinate. The actual vaccination rate for the HPV vaccine was 34.2%. Based on the 3Cs model, this study found that the trust on the efficacy of vaccines, risk perception of being infected by HPV, price, and distance/time were influencing factors of vaccine hesitancy. Knowledge of the HPV vaccine and sociodemographic characteristics, such as education levels, were also statistically relevant. Therefore, it is recommended that relevant scientific knowledge on cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine should be spread on campus, the vaccination appointment procedure should be simplified, and the affordability of vaccination should be increased through strategic purchasing or providing subsidies, so as to reduce HPV vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Universities , Vaccination Hesitancy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , China , Students
14.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 328, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Steroids have been shown to reduce inflammation, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and lung edema. Based on evidence from clinical trials, steroids are widely used in severe COVID-19. However, the effects of steroids on pulmonary gas volume and blood volume in this group of patients are unexplored. OBJECTIVE: Profiting by dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), we investigated the relationship between the use of steroids in COVID-19 and distribution of blood volume as an index of impaired HPV. We also investigated whether the use of steroids influences lung weight, as index of lung edema, and how it affects gas distribution. METHODS: Severe COVID-19 patients included in a single-center prospective observational study at the intensive care unit at Uppsala University Hospital who had undergone DECT were enrolled in the current study. Patients' cohort was divided into two groups depending on the administration of steroids. From each patient's DECT, 20 gas volume maps and the corresponding 20 blood volume maps, evenly distributed along the cranial-caudal axis, were analyzed. As a proxy for HPV, pulmonary blood volume distribution was analyzed in both the whole lung and the hypoinflated areas. Total lung weight, index of lung edema, was estimated. RESULTS: Sixty patients were analyzed, whereof 43 received steroids. Patients not exposed to steroids showed a more extensive non-perfused area (19% vs 13%, p < 0.01) and less homogeneous pulmonary blood volume of hypoinflated areas (kurtosis: 1.91 vs 2.69, p < 0.01), suggesting a preserved HPV compared to patients treated with steroids. Moreover, patients exposed to steroids showed a significantly lower lung weight (953 gr vs 1140 gr, p = 0.01). A reduction in alveolar-arterial difference of oxygen followed the treatment with steroids (322 ± 106 mmHg at admission vs 267 ± 99 mmHg at DECT, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The use of steroids might cause impaired HPV and might reduce lung edema in severe COVID-19. This is consistent with previous findings in other diseases. Moreover, a reduced lung weight, as index of decreased lung edema, and a more homogeneous distribution of gas within the lung were shown in patients treated with steroids. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials ID: NCT04316884, Registered March 13, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Lung , Hypoxia , Oxygen , Steroids , Edema
16.
Prev Med ; 164: 107264, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086854

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted healthcare services, including cervical cancer management, and an increased burden for this condition is expected. This systematic review synthetizes the available evidence on the impact of the pandemic on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. Searches were performed on PubMed, Embase, and Scopus for relevant studies on these topics with the purpose of comparing service access and care delivery before and during COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the methodological heterogeneity among the studies, findings were narratively discussed. Of the 715 screened titles and abstracts, 33 articles were included, corresponding to 42 reports that covered the outcomes of interest: vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) (6 reports), cancer screening (19), diagnosis (8), and treatment (8). Seven studies observed reductions in HPV vaccination uptake and coverage during COVID-19. Reports on cervical screening and cancer diagnosis activities showed a substantial impact of the pandemic on access to screening services and diagnostic procedures. All but one study that investigated cervical cancer treatment reported changes in the number of women with cervical lesions who received treatments, as well as treatment delay and interruption. With a major impact during the first wave in 2020, COVID-19 and restriction measures resulted in a substantial disruption in cervical cancer prevention and management, with declines in screening and delays in treatment. Taken together, findings from this systematic review calls for urgent policy interventions for recovering cervical cancer prevention and care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(19): 7285-7289, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081432

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak as a global pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic has impacted health services, including immunization programs, with a consequent reduction in vaccination coverage in those categories for which the prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases is strongly recommended. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on the general population and on PLWHs, comparing anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage data in 2019, before COVID-19 pandemic, and the 2020 data, after the announcement of the pandemic state and the lockdown and the implementation of restrictive measures to contain the contagion. RESULTS: Compared to 2019, 2020 data show a 42% reduction in HPV vaccine coverage in the general population and 36% in PLWHs. The greatest reduction in anti-HPV vaccination coverage occurred during periods of greatest restriction and mainly concerned the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases remains essential. Above all, it is essential to increase and recover the anti-HPV vaccine coverage, in consideration of the data that show its preventive oncological efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Humans , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination
18.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(4)2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077798

ABSTRACT

HPV vaccination is highly effective at preventing several types of cancer; however, vaccine uptake is suboptimal. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected participation in cancer prevention measures such as HPV vaccination. To assess changes and barriers to HPV vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a statewide cross-sectional survey of health-care professionals (HCPs) in Texas. Specifically, we evaluated changes observed by HCPs regarding HPV vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic: 1) hesitancy, 2) refusal, and 3) uptake. Decreased HPV vaccination uptake were reported by 19.3% of HCPs, whereas increased HPV vaccination hesitancy and refusal were reported by 17.1% and 14.8% of HCPs in Texas, respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on HPV vaccination. Our study identified barriers to HPV vaccination that are unique to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Parents , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination
19.
Elife ; 112022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067165

ABSTRACT

We evaluated how temporary disruptions to primary cervical cancer (CC) screening services may differentially impact women due to heterogeneity in their screening history and test modality. We used three CC models to project the short- and long-term health impacts assuming an underlying primary screening frequency (i.e., 1, 3, 5, or 10 yearly) under three alternative COVID-19-related screening disruption scenarios (i.e., 1-, 2-, or 5-year delay) versus no delay in the context of both cytology-based and human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening. Models projected a relative increase in symptomatically detected cancer cases during a 1-year delay period that was 38% higher (Policy1-Cervix), 80% higher (Harvard), and 170% higher (MISCAN-Cervix) for underscreened women whose last cytology screen was 5 years prior to the disruption period compared with guidelines-compliant women (i.e., last screen 3 years prior to disruption). Over a woman's lifetime, temporary COVID-19-related delays had less impact on lifetime risk of developing CC than screening frequency and test modality; however, CC risks increased disproportionately the longer time had elapsed since a woman's last screen at the time of the disruption. Excess risks for a given delay period were generally lower for HPV-based screeners than for cytology-based screeners. Our independent models predicted that the main drivers of CC risk were screening frequency and screening modality, and the overall impact of disruptions from the pandemic on CC outcomes may be small. However, screening disruptions disproportionately affect underscreened women, underpinning the importance of reaching such women as a critical area of focus, regardless of temporary disruptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cervix Uteri , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065928

ABSTRACT

Healthcare professionals must play an exemplary role in the field of vaccinology. It is convenient that they are trained during their time at university. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of the vaccines against COVID-19 in health sciences students in Spanish universities. A cross-sectional study was performed regarding the acceptance of the vaccines against COVID-19 in students in the Health Sciences Degrees in Spanish universities was performed on a sample of students of nursing, medicine, and pharmacy during the spring of 2021, via an online questionnaire with 36 questions designed ad hoc, self-administered, anonymized, and standardized. There were 1222 students participating, of Spanish nationality (97.4%), women (80.5%) and with an average age of 22.0 ± 4.8 years old. Of those, 12.3% had had the disease, 44.0% had to quarantine, 70.8% had undergone diagnostic tests, out of which 14.1% were positive. In total, 97.5% of those surveyed indicated their desire of being vaccinated, if possible, with Comirnaty® (74.9%). At the time of the study, 49.6% were already vaccinated. The reasons for vaccination differed according to the degree and the doubts about vaccine safety was the largest reason for reluctance. Some 37.7% suspected that there are unknown adverse effects and 85.6% of those vaccinated experienced some mild effects after injection. Vaccine acceptance and confidence in the recommendations given by health authorities is high in health sciences students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Students , Universities , Vaccination , Young Adult
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