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1.
Rev Med Virol ; 32(6): e2364, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858914

ABSTRACT

Some viral infections lead to tumourigenesis explained by a variety of underlying molecular mechanisms. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have the potential to be added to this list due to their diverse mechanisms in biological functions and disease processes via gene alternation, transcriptional regulation, protein modification, microRNA sponging and interaction with RNA/DNA/proteins. In this review, we summarise the dysregulation and mechanism of lncRNAs in virus-related cancers focussing on Hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Human Papillomavirus. We will also discuss the potential implications of lncRNAs in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Hepatitis B , Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/virology , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/complications
2.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(5): 1070-1083, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the efficacy of adjuvant human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in preventing recurrent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or greater after surgical excision. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases (Cochrane, PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched for studies comparing surgical excision alone to surgical excision with adjuvant HPV vaccination for CIN 2 or greater. Studies published from January 1990 to January 2019 were included. METHODS: A total of 5,901 studies were reviewed. The primary outcomes evaluated included: recurrence of CIN 2 or greater, CIN 1 or greater, and HPV 16,18 associated CIN within 6-48 months. We used Covidence software to assist with screening, and meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Six studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. In total 2,984 women were included; 1,360 (45.6%) received adjuvant HPV vaccination after surgical excision, and 1,624 (54.4%) received either placebo or surgical management alone for CIN 2 or greater. Recurrence of CIN 2 or greater occurred within 6-48 months in 115 women (3.9%) overall; however, recurrence was significantly lower for vaccinated women: 26 of 1,360 women (1.9%) vs 89 of 1,624 unvaccinated women (5.9%) (relative risk [RR] 0.36 95% CI 0.23-0.55). The risk of CIN 1 or greater was also significantly lower with adjuvant HPV vaccination, occurring in 86 of 1,360 vaccinated women (6.3%) vs 157 of 1,624 unvaccinated women (9.7%) (RR 0.67 95% CI 0.52-0.85). Thirty-five women developed recurrent CIN 2 or greater lesions specific to HPV 16,18; nine received adjuvant vaccination (0.9%) vs 26 who were unvaccinated (2.0%) (RR 0.41 95% CI 0.20-0.85). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant HPV vaccination in the setting of surgical excision for CIN 2 or greater is associated with a reduced risk of recurrent cervical dysplasia overall and a reduction in the risk of recurrent lesions caused by the most oncogenic strains (HPV 16,18). Human papillomavirus vaccination should therefore be considered for adjuvant treatment in patients undergoing surgical excision for CIN 2 or greater. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42019123786.


Subject(s)
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/drug therapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Treatment Outcome , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Young Adult , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/surgery , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/virology
3.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 20(7): 2001-2003, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099725

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a multisystemic disease that can cause progressive lung failure, organ dysfunction, and coagulation disorder associated with high mortality and morbidity. COVID-19 is known to either primarily cause skin symptoms or increase existing skin diseases. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that can cause benign and malignant neoplasms. Mucocutaneous verruca vulgaris are common benign lesions of HPV. Here, we report a case of verruca vulgaris regressed after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Br J Cancer ; 124(8): 1361-1365, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted cervical cancer screening services. Assuming increases to screening capacity are unrealistic, we propose two recovery strategies: one extends the screening interval by 6 months for all and the other extends the interval by 36/60 months, but only for women who have already missed being screened. METHODS: Using routine statistics from England we estimate the number of women affected by delays to screening. We used published research to estimate the proportion of screening age women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and progression rates to cancer. Under two recovery scenarios, we estimate the impact of COVID-19 on cervical cancer over one screening cycle (3 years at ages 25-49 and 5 years at ages 50-64 years). The duration of disruption in both scenarios is 6 months. In the first scenario, 10.7 million women have their screening interval extended by 6 months. In the second, 1.5 million women (those due to be screened during the disruption) miss one screening cycle, but most women have no delay. RESULTS: Both scenarios result in similar numbers of excess cervical cancers: 630 vs. 632 (both 4.3 per 100,000 women in the population). However, the scenario in which some women miss one screening cycle creates inequalities-they would have much higher rates of excess cancer: 41.5 per 100,000 delayed for screened women compared to those with a 6-month delay (5.9 per 100,000). CONCLUSION: To ensure equity for those affected by COVID-19 related screening delays additional screening capacity will need to be paired with prioritising the screening of overdue women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colposcopy/methods , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Papillomaviridae/pathogenicity , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/complications , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Vaginal Smears/methods
5.
Asian J Androl ; 23(4): 335-347, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039129

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have haunted humankind since times immemorial. Overpopulation, globalization, and extensive deforestation have created an ideal environment for a viral spread with unknown and multiple shedding routes. Many viruses can infect the male reproductive tract, with potential adverse consequences to male reproductive health, including infertility and cancer. Moreover, some genital tract viral infections can be sexually transmitted, potentially impacting the resulting offspring's health. We have summarized the evidence concerning the presence and adverse effects of the relevant viruses on the reproductive tract (mumps virus, human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and C viruses, Ebola virus, Zika virus, influenza virus, and coronaviruses), their routes of infection, target organs and cells, prevalence and pattern of virus shedding in semen, as well as diagnosis/testing and treatment strategies. The pathophysiological understanding in the male genital tract is essential to assess its clinical impact on male reproductive health and guide future research.


Subject(s)
Reproductive Health/trends , Virus Diseases/complications , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Herpes Genitalis/complications , Herpes Genitalis/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/physiopathology
6.
Future Oncol ; 17(10): 1197-1207, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983820

ABSTRACT

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of TruScreen (TS01) for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) women compared with other methods in reducing colposcopy referral rates in hospitals. Methods: A single-center, prospective, case-control study was conducted from December 2019 to June 2020. Results: Among 139 (46.2%) HR-HPV-positive patients, 58 were CIN1, 52 were CIN2-3 and 29 had cervical cancer (n = 29). The sensitivity and specificity of detecting CIN2+ by TS01, colposcopy and HPV16/18 testing were 96.3% and 46.4%, 85.2% and 40.5% and 59.3% and 74.1%, respectively. The highest sensitivity was 96.3% at HPV16/18 and TS01 (each positive results), and the highest specificity was 83.6% at HPV16/18 and TS01 (both positive) for CIN2+ compared with the other methods. Conclusion: TS01 is a noninvasive screening method and can be used to diagnose cervical lesions quickly. It is especially suitable as triage tool for HR-HPV-positive women facing SARS-CoV-2 exposure and infection risks in hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colposcopy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Triage/methods , Young Adult
8.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 200, 2020 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-coronavirus-2 enters host cells through binding of the Spike protein to ACE2 receptor and subsequent S priming by the TMPRSS2 protease. We aim to assess differences in both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in normal tissues from oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and lung tissues as well as neoplastic tissues from the same areas. METHODS: The study has been conducted using the TCGA and the Regina Elena Institute databases and validated by experimental model in HNSCC cells. We also included data from one COVID19 patient who went under surgery for HNSCC. RESULTS: TMPRSS2 expression in HNSCC was significantly reduced compared to the normal tissues. It was more evident in women than in men, in TP53 mutated versus wild TP53 tumors, in HPV negative patients compared to HPV positive counterparts. Functionally, we modeled the multivariate effect of TP53, HPV, and other inherent variables on TMPRSS2. All variables had a statistically significant independent effect on TMPRSS2. In particular, in tumor tissues, HPV negative, TP53 mutated status and elevated TP53-dependent Myc-target genes were associated with low TMPRSS2 expression. The further analysis of both TCGA and our institutional HNSCC datasets identified a signature anti-correlated to TMPRSS2. As proof-of-principle we also validated the anti-correlation between microRNAs and TMPRSS2 expression in a SARS-CoV-2 positive HNSCC patient tissues Finally, we did not find TMPRSS2 promoter methylation. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings suggest that tumoral tissues, herein exemplified by HNSCC and lung cancers might be more resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection due to reduced expression of TMPRSS2. These observations may help to better assess the frailty of SARS-CoV-2 positive cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Head and Neck Neoplasms/metabolism , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/metabolism , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/virology , Survival Rate
9.
Andrologia ; 52(9): e13791, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712969

ABSTRACT

Male infertility is linked to some viral infections including human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs). Almost nothing is known about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) effect on fertility. The possible risk factors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on fertility comes from the abundance of angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2), receptor entry of the virus, on testes, a reduction in important sex hormone ratios and COVID-19-associated fever. Recent studies have shown a gender difference for COVID-19 rates and comorbidity. In this review, we will discuss the potential effect of COVID-19 on male fertility and talk about what needs to be done by the scientific community to tackle our limited understanding of the disease. On the other side, we will focus on what is known so far about the risk of COVID-19 on pregnancy, neonatal health and the vertical transfer of the virus between mothers and their neonates. Finally, because reproduction is a human right and infertility is considered a health disease, we will discuss how assisted reproductive clinics can cope with the pandemic and what guidelines they should follow to minimise the risk of viral transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Infertility, Male/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Reproductive Health , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV Infections/virology , Herpes Simplex/complications , Herpes Simplex/transmission , Herpes Simplex/virology , Humans , Infertility, Male/pathology , Male , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/transmission , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Testis/pathology
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