Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 41
Filter
1.
N Z Med J ; 135(1565): 83-94, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112071

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth offer and contactless delivery of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical screening self-test during the 2021 COVID-19 Level 4 lockdown in Auckland, New Zealand. METHODS: A small proof-of-concept study was undertaken to test telehealth approaches in never-screened, due or overdue Maori and Pacific women enrolled in a local Primary Health Organisation (PHO). Study invitation, active follow-up, nurse-led discussions, result notification and a post-test questionnaire were all delivered through telehealth. RESULTS: A sample of 197 eligible Maori and Pacific women were invited to take part, of which 86 women were successfully contacted. Sixty-six agreed to take part. Overall uptake was 61 samples returned (31.8%) and uptake of all contactable women was 70.9%. Six of the 61 HPV self-tests (9.8%) were positive, all for non 16/18 types, and were referred for cytology. Three had negative cytology results, and three with positive cytology results were referred for colposcopy. CONCLUSION: The offer of HPV self-testing during COVID-19 lockdown was both feasible and highly acceptable for Maori and Pacific women. Importantly, HPV self-testing via telehealth and mail-out, alongside other options, offers a potential pro-equity approach for addressing the impact of deferred screens due to COVID-19 and other longstanding coverage issues.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Telemedicine , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Self-Testing , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomaviridae , Colposcopy , Mass Screening , Disease Outbreaks , Vaginal Smears
2.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6575-6580, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the trends of HPV vaccination between 03/2019-09/2021 and whether the impact of the COVID pandemic on HPV vaccination varied by race/ethnicity and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI). METHODS: Electronic medical records at Kaiser Permanente Southern California were used to assess monthly volume of HPV vaccine doses administered among children aged 9-12.9yrs, and up-to-date coverage (% vaccinated) by age 13 between 03/2019-09/2021. Modified Poisson models were used to evaluate the interactions between race/ethnicity, NDI and the pandemic periods on HPV vaccine coverage. RESULTS: HPV vaccine doses administered in 2020/2021 have returned to the 2019 level after the initial drop. The average up-to-date coverage in 05/2021-09/2021 (54.8%) remained lower than the pre-pandemic level (58.5%). The associations between race/ethnicity, NDI and HPV vaccine coverage did not vary due to the pandemic. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine promotion efforts are needed to address COVID-19 pandemic's lasting impact on HPV vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Ethnicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Social Class , California/epidemiology
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(43): e31389, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097515

ABSTRACT

The COVID 19 pandemic is far from over, and vaccines remain important tool for fighting the disease. As the preventive effects of the COVID-19 vaccine emerges, it is likely that the perception of importance and safety of vaccines have a positive effect on the acceptance of other vaccines. However, it is still unclear how COVID-19 pandemic has affected the general vaccination perception and acceptance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the perception of HPV vaccination. This study involved an offline survey of 161 women aged between 20 and 49 years who visited the gynecologic clinic at Chung-nam National University Sejong Hospital from January 2021 to June 2021. The questionnaire consists of items related to experience and knowledge of COVID-19 and HPV viruses, as well as attitudes toward HPV vaccination. Knowledge about COVID-19 virus and HPV correlated positively with their experiences (P = .011 and P = .045, respectively). Positive attitude was increased, and negative attitude was reduced toward HPV vaccination in the COVID-19 pandemic era. Participants stated that accurate information and cost reduction about HPV vaccine was needed to increase the HPV vaccination rate. During the COVID-19 pandemic era, positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination have tended to increase. To increase the HPV vaccination rate, public efforts are needed for further information and cost reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , Papillomaviridae , Surveys and Questionnaires , Perception
4.
Prev Med ; 164: 107264, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086854

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted healthcare services, including cervical cancer management, and an increased burden for this condition is expected. This systematic review synthetizes the available evidence on the impact of the pandemic on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. Searches were performed on PubMed, Embase, and Scopus for relevant studies on these topics with the purpose of comparing service access and care delivery before and during COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the methodological heterogeneity among the studies, findings were narratively discussed. Of the 715 screened titles and abstracts, 33 articles were included, corresponding to 42 reports that covered the outcomes of interest: vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) (6 reports), cancer screening (19), diagnosis (8), and treatment (8). Seven studies observed reductions in HPV vaccination uptake and coverage during COVID-19. Reports on cervical screening and cancer diagnosis activities showed a substantial impact of the pandemic on access to screening services and diagnostic procedures. All but one study that investigated cervical cancer treatment reported changes in the number of women with cervical lesions who received treatments, as well as treatment delay and interruption. With a major impact during the first wave in 2020, COVID-19 and restriction measures resulted in a substantial disruption in cervical cancer prevention and management, with declines in screening and delays in treatment. Taken together, findings from this systematic review calls for urgent policy interventions for recovering cervical cancer prevention and care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(19): 7285-7289, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081432

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak as a global pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic has impacted health services, including immunization programs, with a consequent reduction in vaccination coverage in those categories for which the prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases is strongly recommended. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on the general population and on PLWHs, comparing anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage data in 2019, before COVID-19 pandemic, and the 2020 data, after the announcement of the pandemic state and the lockdown and the implementation of restrictive measures to contain the contagion. RESULTS: Compared to 2019, 2020 data show a 42% reduction in HPV vaccine coverage in the general population and 36% in PLWHs. The greatest reduction in anti-HPV vaccination coverage occurred during periods of greatest restriction and mainly concerned the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases remains essential. Above all, it is essential to increase and recover the anti-HPV vaccine coverage, in consideration of the data that show its preventive oncological efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Humans , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination
6.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(4)2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077798

ABSTRACT

HPV vaccination is highly effective at preventing several types of cancer; however, vaccine uptake is suboptimal. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected participation in cancer prevention measures such as HPV vaccination. To assess changes and barriers to HPV vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a statewide cross-sectional survey of health-care professionals (HCPs) in Texas. Specifically, we evaluated changes observed by HCPs regarding HPV vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic: 1) hesitancy, 2) refusal, and 3) uptake. Decreased HPV vaccination uptake were reported by 19.3% of HCPs, whereas increased HPV vaccination hesitancy and refusal were reported by 17.1% and 14.8% of HCPs in Texas, respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on HPV vaccination. Our study identified barriers to HPV vaccination that are unique to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Parents , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination
7.
Cancer Sci ; 113(10): 3313-3320, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052328

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is caused by infections of the human papillomavirus (HPV), which can be prevented by vaccinations. In Japan, although about 3000 people die of cervical cancer annually, the HPV vaccination rate has remained extremely low in the eligible population since many Japanese have been concerned that "diverse symptoms," such as chronic pain, movement disorders, and cognitive impairment, may occur as adverse reactions after HPV vaccination. The concern has been raised by media coverage of the ongoing HPV vaccine lawsuits, in which the plaintiffs complained of their symptoms caused by HPV vaccination. The claims have been based on the alleged pathogenic findings in research articles on HPV vaccines, summarized in the document prepared by the plaintiffs' attorneys. We critically evaluated these articles, in which the authors proposed the following findings/hypothesis: (i) molecular mimicry between HPV L1 and human proteins leads to the production of cross-reactive antibodies; and (ii) HPV vaccine injection in mice causes damage in the brain, a mouse model for HPV vaccine associated neuro-immunopathic syndrome (HANS). We found that these hypotheses were based mainly on the findings from a few research groups and that all the articles had flaws in the method, result, or discussion sections. Our current evaluation should help better understand the validity of the findings, which have been often misunderstood as the truth by the general public. We propose to accumulate high-quality data on potential adverse events following HPV vaccination and to continue critically evaluating them.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Molecular Mimicry , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
9.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(10): e1485-e1493, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are given as a two-dose schedule in children aged 9-14 years, or as three doses in older individuals. We compared antibody responses after one dose of HPV vaccine in the Dose Reduction Immunobridging and Safety Study (DoRIS), a randomised trial of different HPV vaccine schedules in Tanzania, to those from two observational HPV vaccine trials that found high efficacy of one dose up to 11 years against HPV16 and HPV18 (Costa Rica Vaccine Trial [CVT] and Institutional Agency for Research on Cancer [IARC] India trial). METHODS: In this immunobridging analysis of an open-label randomised controlled trial, girls were recruited from 54 government schools in Mwanza, Tanzania, into the DoRIS trial. Girls were eligible if they were aged 9-14 years, healthy, and HIV negative. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1), using permutated block sizes of 12, 18, and 24, to one, two, or three doses of the 2-valent vaccine (Cervarix, GSK Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) or the 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil 9, Sanofi Pasteur MSD, Lyon, France). For this immunobridging analysis, the primary objective was to compare geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) at 24 months after one dose in the per-protocol population compared with in historical cohorts: the one-dose 2-valent vaccine group in DoRIS was compared with recipients of the 2-valent vaccine Cervarix from CVT and the one-dose 9-valent vaccine group in DoRIS was compared with recipients of the 4-valent vaccine Gardasil (Merck Sharp & Dohme, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA) from the IARC India trial. Samples were tested together with virus-like particle ELISA for HPV16 and HPV18 IgG antibodies. Non-inferiority of GMC ratios (DoRIS trial vs historical cohort) was predefined as when the lower bound of the 95% CI was greater than 0·50. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02834637. FINDINGS: Between Feb 23, 2017, and Jan 6, 2018, we screened 1002 girls for eligibility, of whom 930 were enrolled into DoRIS and 155 each were assigned to one dose, two doses, or three doses of 2-valent vaccine, or one dose, two doses, or three doses of 9-valent vaccine. 154 (99%) participants in the one-dose 2-valent vaccine group (median age 10 years [IQR 9-12]) and 152 (98%) in the one-dose 9-valent vaccine group (median age 10 years [IQR 9-12]) were vaccinated and attended the 24 month visit, and so were included in the analysis. 115 one-dose recipients from the CVT (median age 21 years [19-23]) and 139 one-dose recipients from the IARC India trial (median age 14 years [13-16]) were included in the analysis. At 24 months after vaccination, GMCs for HPV16 IgG antibodies were 22·9 international units (IU) per mL (95% CI 19·9-26·4; n=148) for the DoRIS 2-valent vaccine group versus 17·7 IU/mL (13·9-22·5; n=97) for the CVT (GMC ratio 1·30 [95% CI 1·00-1·68]) and 13·7 IU/mL (11·9-15·8; n=145) for the DoRIS 9-valent vaccine group versus 6·7 IU/mL (5·5-8·2; n=131) for the IARC India trial (GMC ratio 2·05 [1·61-2·61]). GMCs for HPV18 IgG antibodies were 9·9 IU/mL (95% CI 8·5-11·5: n=141) for the DoRIS 2-valent vaccine group versus 8·0 IU/mL (6·4-10·0; n=97) for the CVT trial (GMC ratio 1·23 [95% CI 0·95-1·60]) and 5·7 IU/mL (4·9-6·8; n=136) for the DoRIS 9-valent vaccine group versus 2·2 IU/mL (1·9-2·7; n=129) for the IARC India trial (GMC ratio 2·12 [1·59-2·83]). Non-inferiority of antibody GMCs was met for each vaccine for both HPV16 and HPV18. INTERPRETATION: One dose of HPV vaccine in young girls might provide sufficient protection against persistent HPV infection. A one-dose schedule would reduce costs, simplify vaccine delivery, and expand access to the vaccine. FUNDING: UK Department for International Development/UK Medical Research Council/Wellcome Trust Joint Global Health Trials Scheme, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the US National Cancer Institute. TRANSLATION: For the KiSwahili translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Drug Tapering , Female , Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18 , Human papillomavirus 16 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Tanzania , Young Adult
11.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(2): 104-108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954318

ABSTRACT

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for adolescents helps in the prevention of preventable cancers caused due to HPV infection. However, many adolescents are not vaccinated due to lack of knowledge among parents. Objective: This study aimed to compare the level of knowledge and attitude of parents on HPV vaccination before and after the online educational intervention. Methods: Across-sectional pilot study was conducted among a sample of 45 parents of adolescents studying in class 7th-9th. The parents were selected two-stage simple random sampling and assigned randomly to three groups with three different methods of education - online lecture with PowerPoint presentation, online short film with discussion, and self-learning online booklet. Pre- and postintervention knowledge was assessed with a structured questionnaire and attitude with modified Likert scale administered online. Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to find the statistical significance in the study. Results: Only 36% of samples stated that they have not heard about HPV vaccination, while others had heard from health-care workers, family members, friends, or television, but their knowledge was inadequate. In all the three groups, there was significant improvement in level of knowledge, but there was no significant difference in attitude. The posttest knowledge scores of parents educated with short film were significantly more than the other two interventions. Conclusion: Online educational programs were found to be effective in improving the knowledge of parents on HPV vaccination and of the three methods; short film was more effective than the other two methods.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , India , Pandemics/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Parents , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pilot Projects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(6)2022 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869707

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. CC prevention is based on screening and HPV vaccination. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused difficulties in implementing CC-preventative measures. The aim of this study was to collect data on the implementation of CC prophylaxis in Poland provided by public and private health care with a particular focus on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and attempt to estimate the level of CC-screening implementation by 2026 under public and private health care. Materials and Methods: Data on the implementation of privately funded (2016-2021) and publicly funded (2014-2021) CC-preventative measures in Poland were examined. The Prophet algorithm, which positions itself as an automatic forecasting procedure and represents a local Bayesian structural time-series model, was used to predict data. The correlation test statistic was based on Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and follows a t distribution. An asymptotic confidence interval was given based on Fisher's Z transform. Results: In 2021, a significantly higher population screening coverage was observed in private health care (71.91%) than in the public system (12.6%). Our estimation assumes that the adverse downward trend of population coverage (pap smear CC screening) in the public system will continue to 5.02% and in the private health system to 67.92% in 2026. Correlation analysis showed that with the increase in the sum of HPV tests and LBC, the percentage of Pap smear coverage in the private healthcare sector decreases r = -0.62, p = 0.260 df = 3, CI = [-0.97, 0.57]. The amount of HPV vaccinations provided in private health care is steadily increasing. Immunization coverage of the population of girls aged 9-18 years under private health care at the end of the observation period was 4.3% (2021). Conclusions: It is necessary to reorganize the public CC-screening system in Poland based on a uniform reporting system for tests performed in both public and private health care using the model of action proposed by us. We recommend the introduction of a national free HPV vaccination program funded by the government and implemented in public and private health care facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
13.
Ann Saudi Med ; 41(6): 350-360, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and survival rates among HPV-infected women are scarce in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: Assess the prevalence of HPV genotypes in cervical biopsy specimens and its effect on survival over a 10-year timeframe. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional. SETTINGS: Saudi referral hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cervical biopsy specimens were collected from women aged 23-95 years old who underwent HPV detection, HPV genotyping, p16INK4a expression measurement using immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier plots were constructed to analyze overall survival rates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival rate of HPV-positive cervical cancer patients. SAMPLE SIZE: 315 cervical biopsy specimens. RESULTS: HPV was detected in 96 patients (30.4%): 37.3% had cervical cancer; 14.2% cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III, 4.1% CIN II, and 17.0% CIN I. A significant association was found between HPV presence and cervical cancer (χ2=56.78; P<.001). The expression of p16INK4a was a significant predictor of survival: women who had p16INK4a overexpression had poorer survival rates (multivariate Cox regression, hazard ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-8.8). In addition, multivariate models with HPV status and cervical cancer diagnosis showed that HPV status was a significant predictor of survival: HPV-positive women had better survival rates than HPV-negative women. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that implementing cervical and HPV screening programs may decrease cervical cancer rates and improve survival rates of women in Saudi Arabia. LIMITATION: Single center and small sample size. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Papillomavirus Infections , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268015, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: World Health Organization guidelines for cervical cancer screening recommend HPV testing followed by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) for triage if HPV positive. In order to improve visual assessment and identification of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and worse (CIN2+), providers may use visual aids such as digital cameras. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether combined examination by naked-eye and digital VIA (D-VIA) and VILI (D-VILI) improves detection of CIN2+ as compared to the conventional evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women (30-49 years) living in Dschang (West Cameroon) were prospectively invited to a cervical cancer screening campaign. Primary HPV-based screening was followed by VIA/VILI and D-VIA/VILI if HPV-positive. Health care providers independently defined diagnosis (pathological or non-pathological) based on naked-eye VIA/VILI and D-VIA/VILI. Decision to treat was based on combined examination (VIA/VILI and D-VIA/VILI). Cervical biopsy and endocervical curettage were performed in all HPV-positive participants and considered as reference standard. Diagnostic performance of individual and combined naked-eye VIA/VILI and D-VIA/VILI was evaluated. A sample size of 1,500 women was calculated assuming a prevalence of 20% HPV positivity and 10% CIN2+ in HPV-positive women. RESULTS: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the study had to terminate prematurely. A total of 1,081 women with a median age of 40 (IQR 35.5-45) were recruited. HPV positivity was 17.4% (n = 188) and 26 (14.4%) had CIN2+. Naked-eye VIA and D-VIA sensitivities were 80.8% (95% CI 60.6-93.4) and 92.0% (95% CI 74.0-99.0), and specificities were 31.2% (95% CI 24-39.1) and 31.6% (95% CI 24.4-39.6), respectively. The combination of both methods yielded a sensitivity of 92.3% (95% CI 74.9-99.1) and specificity of 23.2% (95% CI 16.8-30.7). A trend towards improved sensitivity was observed, but did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Addition of D-VIA/VILI to conventional naked-eye examination may be associated with improved CIN2+ identification. Further studies including a larger sample size are needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Acetic Acid , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Triage , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Vaginal Smears/methods
15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(3): 413-425, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was shown to prevent infections and lesions related to HPV6, 11, 16, and 18 in a randomised, placebo-controlled study in men aged 16-26 years. We assessed the incidences of external genital warts related to HPV6 or 11, and external genital lesions and anal dysplasia related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18, over 10 years of follow-up. METHODS: The 3-year base study was an international, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial done at 71 sites in 18 countries. Eligible participants were heterosexual men (aged 16-23 years) or men who have sex with men (MSM; aged 16-26 years). Men who had clinically detectable anogenital warts or genital lesions at screening that were suggestive of infection with non-HPV sexually transmitted diseases, or who had a history of such findings, were excluded. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive three doses of either quadrivalent HPV vaccine or placebo on day 1, month 2, and month 6, administered as a 0·5-mL injection into the deltoid muscle. The 7-year, open-label, long-term follow-up extension study was done at 46 centres in 16 countries. Participants who received one or more doses of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the base study were eligible for enrolment into the long-term follow-up study (early vaccination group). Placebo recipients were offered the three-dose quadrivalent HPV vaccine at the end of the base study; those who received one or more quadrivalent HPV vaccine doses were eligible for enrolment into the long-term follow-up study (catch-up vaccination group). The primary efficacy endpoints were the incidence of external genital warts related to HPV6 or 11 and the incidence of external genital lesions related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 in all participants and the incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (including anal warts and flat lesions) or anal cancer related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 in MSM only. The primary efficacy analysis was done in the per-protocol population for the early vaccination group, which included participants who received all three vaccine doses, were seronegative at day 1 and PCR-negative from day 1 through month 7 of the base study for the HPV type being analysed, had no protocol violations that could affect evaluation of vaccine efficacy, and had attended at least one visit during the long-term follow-up study. For the catch-up vaccination group, efficacy was assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included participants who had received at least one vaccine dose, were seronegative and PCR-negative for HPV types analysed from day 1 of the base study to the final follow-up visit before receiving the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and had at least one long-term follow-up visit. Safety was assessed in all randomised participants who received at least one vaccine dose. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00090285. FINDINGS: Between Aug 10, 2010, and April 3, 2017, 1803 participants were enrolled in the long-term follow-up study, of whom 936 (827 heterosexual men and 109 MSM) were included in the early vaccination group and 867 (739 heterosexual men and 128 MSM) were included in the catch-up vaccination group. Participants in the early vaccination group were followed up for a median of 9·5 years (range 0·1-11·5) after receiving the third dose of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and participants in the catch-up vaccination group were followed up for a median of 4·7 years (0·0-6·6) after receiving the third dose. In early vaccine group participants during long-term follow-up compared with the placebo group in the base study, the incidence per 10 000 person-years of external genital warts related to HPV6 or 11 was 0·0 (95% CI 0·0-8·7) versus 137·3 (83·9-212·1), of external genital lesions related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 was 0·0 (0·0-7·7) versus 140·4 (89·0-210·7), and of anal intraepithelial neoplasia or anal cancer related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 in MSM only was 20·5 (0·5-114·4) versus 906·2 (553·5-1399·5). Compared with during the base study (ie, before quadrivalent HPV vaccine administration), during the long-term follow-up period, participants in the catch-up vaccination group had no new reported cases of external genital warts related to HPV6 or 11 (149·6 cases per 10 000 person-years [95% CI 101·6-212·3] vs 0 cases per 10 000 person-years [0·0-13·5]) or external genital lesions related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 (155·1 cases per 10 000 person-years [108·0-215·7] vs 0 cases per 10 000 person-years [0·0-10·2]), and a lower incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia or anal cancer related to HPV6, 11, 16, or 18 (886·0 cases per 10 000 person-years [583·9-1289·1] vs 101·3 cases per 10 000 person-years [32·9-236·3]). No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: The quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides durable protection against anogenital disease related to HPV6, 11, 16, and 18. The results support quadrivalent HPV vaccination in men, including catch-up vaccination. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.


Subject(s)
Anus Neoplasms , Condylomata Acuminata , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Condylomata Acuminata/epidemiology , Condylomata Acuminata/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control
16.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 157(5): 718-723, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Extended high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) genotype testing has recently been introduced in routine cervical cancer screening. Changes in national and regional hrHPV genotype prevalence offer an objective baseline indicator of the future impact of mass HPV vaccination and HPV-based cervical screening. METHODS: This retrospective study reports nationwide hrHPV genotyping results from July 2018 to June 2019 in 29 KingMed Diagnostics laboratories throughout China. RESULTS: In total, 2,458,227 hrHPV genotyping results were documented from KingMed's nationwide laboratory database during the study period. The overall prevalence of hrHPV-positive results was 19.1%, with twin peaks for highest hrHPV infection rates in women younger than 30 years of age (22.0%) and 50 years of age and older (21.8%). The most frequently detected hrHPV genotypes were HPV-52 (4.7%), HPV-16 (3.4%), HPV-53 (2.5%), HPV-58 (2.4%), HPV-51 (2.0%), and HPV-68 (1.6%). Overall, hrHPV-positive results varied regionally from 15.3% to 24.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Nationwide hrHPV genotyping results from KingMed laboratories offer a baseline for measuring the future impact of large-scale HPV vaccination. High hrHPV infection rates in older (≥50 years) Chinese women likely reflect the limited extent of cervical screening in China. High rates of hrHPV infection and variable regional hrHPV genotype distribution may represent limiting factors for cost-effective implementation of hrHPV-based cervical screening in China.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Aged , China/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Genotype , Humans , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HPV primary screening has shown effectiveness for cancer prevention; however, gynaecological examination is considered uncomfortable. Self-sampling methods increase the acceptance of screening. The aim of this study is to compare the sensitivity and specificity of clinician sampling versus vaginal and urine self-sampling for HPV diagnosis. METHODS: A diagnostic test study was conducted in a rural parish of Cuenca, Ecuador. A total of 120 women participated. Each participant self-collected urine and vaginal samples and underwent clinician sampling for HPV testing. The latter was considered as the golden standard. All three samples were processed with the same amplification and hybridization protocol for HPV detection (Hybribio) following the manufacturer's instructions. RESULTS: Characteristics of the participants were: median age 35 years; 40.8% married; 46.7% had a primary level of education; and median age of sexual onset, 17.6 years. The prevalence of any type of HPV with clinician sampling was 15.0%, 17.5% with urine sampling and 18.3% with vaginal self-sampling. Self-sampling sensitivity reached 94.4% (IC 74.2-99.9), and specificity 92.1% (IC 85.2-95.9). Urine sampling had a sensitivity of 88.8% (IC 67.2, 96.9), and specificity 94.1% (IC 67.2-96.9). The negative predictive value was 98.9% (IC 94.2-99.8) for vaginal self-sampling and 97.6% (IC 92.6-99.4) for urine sampling. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that vaginal and urine self-sampling methods have similar sensitivity and specificity compared with clinician sampling for the diagnosis of HPV. The correlation between HPV genotypes among the three tests is satisfactory.


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rural Population , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaginal Smears
18.
Prev Med ; 159: 107070, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799653

ABSTRACT

This invited commentary discusses the article by Richards et al. describing differences in rates of on-time HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening in 2018 among enrollees in different insurance plans. The commentary focuses on the larger problem of low vaccination HPV rates and decreasing cervical cancer screening rates seen across all sectors. We outline challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic on HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening, and discuss opportunities to improve cervical cancer prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , COVID-19/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination
19.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604224, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789434

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the number of applied HPV vaccine doses before (from April 2019 to March 2020) and after (from April 2020 to September 2020) social distancing measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in states and regions of Brazil. Methods: Ecological time-series study, using data from the Brazilian National Immunization Program (PNI). Using the Mann-Whitney test, we evaluated the difference between the median number of applied doses during the periods April 2019 to March 2020 and from April 2020 to September 2020. Spatial analysis identified clusters with a high or low percentage reduction in the median applied doses. Prais-Winsten regression models identified temporal trends in the applieddoses from both periods. Results: There was a significant reduction in the median HPV vaccine doses applied, formation of spatial clusters and, after a sharp drop in the number of applieddoses during the months following social distancing. There was a tendency to increase the applied vaccines doses. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduction of the number of HPV vaccine doses applied as a possible effect of restrictive measures caused by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 802947, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779968

ABSTRACT

Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the leading cause of ano-genital cancers globally with cervical cancer as the top cause of cancer- related deaths in women. Over 90% of these deaths occur in low income countries where cancer control strategies remain inadequate. HPV vaccination provides protection against HPV types 16 and 18 which are responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases. The optimal age of vaccination is in the early adolescent period, before sexual debut with possible HPV infection. Studies have shown that children residing in low income settlements are at risk of early initiation of sexual activity. Adolescent vaccination programs would provide an avenue to link other health promotion strategies targeting this age group that has hitherto been left out of many health interventions in 2019, Kenya introduced HPV vaccine to be given to 10 year old girls. Uptake has been sub-optimal with only 33% of targeted population receiving the first dose in 2020 and 16% returning for the 2nd dose. While disruption of immunization programs by the COVID-19 pandemic contributed to the low coverage, other factors such as low demand fuelled by misinformation have also played a role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL