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1.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277748, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140660

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite its benefits, HPV vaccine uptake has been historically lower than other recommended adolescent vaccines in the United States (US). While hesitancy and misinformation have threatened vaccinations for many years, the adverse impacts from COVID-19 pandemic on preventive services have been far-reaching. OBJECTIVES: To explore the perceptions and experiences of adolescent healthcare providers regarding routine vaccination services during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: Between December 2020 and May 2021, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted via Zoom video conferencing among a purposively selected, diverse group of adolescent healthcare providers (n = 16) within 5 healthcare practices in the US southeastern states of Georgia and Tennessee. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a rapid qualitative analysis framework. Our analysis was guided by the grounded theory and inductive approach. RESULTS: Participants reported that patient-provider communications; effective use of presumptive languaging; provider's continuing education/training; periodic reminders/recall messages; provider's personal conviction on vaccine safety/efficacy; early initiation of HPV vaccination series at 9 years; community partnerships with community health navigators/vaccine champions/vaccine advocates; use of standardized forms/prewritten scripts/standard operating protocols for patient-provider interactions; and vaccine promotion through social media, brochures/posters/pamphlets as well as outreaches to schools and churches served as facilitators to adolescent HPV vaccine uptake. Preventive adolescent services were adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic at all practices. Participants highlighted an initial decrease in patients due to the pandemic, while some practices avoided the distribution of vaccine informational materials due to sanitary concerns. CONCLUSION: As part of a larger study, we provided contextual information to refine an intervention package currently being developed to improve adolescent preventive care provision in healthcare practices. Our results could inform the implementation of comprehensive intervention strategies that improve HPV vaccination rates. Additionally, lessons learned (e.g. optimizing patient- provider interactions) could be adopted to expand COVID-19 vaccine acceptance on a sizable scale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Humans , Adolescent , United States , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Georgia/epidemiology , Tennessee/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Qualitative Research
2.
N Z Med J ; 135(1565): 83-94, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112071

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth offer and contactless delivery of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical screening self-test during the 2021 COVID-19 Level 4 lockdown in Auckland, New Zealand. METHODS: A small proof-of-concept study was undertaken to test telehealth approaches in never-screened, due or overdue Maori and Pacific women enrolled in a local Primary Health Organisation (PHO). Study invitation, active follow-up, nurse-led discussions, result notification and a post-test questionnaire were all delivered through telehealth. RESULTS: A sample of 197 eligible Maori and Pacific women were invited to take part, of which 86 women were successfully contacted. Sixty-six agreed to take part. Overall uptake was 61 samples returned (31.8%) and uptake of all contactable women was 70.9%. Six of the 61 HPV self-tests (9.8%) were positive, all for non 16/18 types, and were referred for cytology. Three had negative cytology results, and three with positive cytology results were referred for colposcopy. CONCLUSION: The offer of HPV self-testing during COVID-19 lockdown was both feasible and highly acceptable for Maori and Pacific women. Importantly, HPV self-testing via telehealth and mail-out, alongside other options, offers a potential pro-equity approach for addressing the impact of deferred screens due to COVID-19 and other longstanding coverage issues.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Telemedicine , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Self-Testing , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomaviridae , Colposcopy , Mass Screening , Disease Outbreaks , Vaginal Smears
3.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6575-6580, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the trends of HPV vaccination between 03/2019-09/2021 and whether the impact of the COVID pandemic on HPV vaccination varied by race/ethnicity and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI). METHODS: Electronic medical records at Kaiser Permanente Southern California were used to assess monthly volume of HPV vaccine doses administered among children aged 9-12.9yrs, and up-to-date coverage (% vaccinated) by age 13 between 03/2019-09/2021. Modified Poisson models were used to evaluate the interactions between race/ethnicity, NDI and the pandemic periods on HPV vaccine coverage. RESULTS: HPV vaccine doses administered in 2020/2021 have returned to the 2019 level after the initial drop. The average up-to-date coverage in 05/2021-09/2021 (54.8%) remained lower than the pre-pandemic level (58.5%). The associations between race/ethnicity, NDI and HPV vaccine coverage did not vary due to the pandemic. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine promotion efforts are needed to address COVID-19 pandemic's lasting impact on HPV vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Ethnicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Social Class , California/epidemiology
4.
J Adolesc Health ; 71(6): 673-678, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105242

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The first vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) for adolescents 16 years and older in the United States received Emergency Use Authorization in December 2020. Soon after its approval, parents expressed concerns about vaccine safety for adolescents. Similar concerns about vaccine safety partially explain suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake. This qualitative study explores similarities and differences in parents' attitudes about these two vaccines. METHODS: Parents were recruited through social media and at health centers in Alabama. Semi-structured interviews with parents of adolescents aged 9-17 years were conducted before and after Alabama expanded age eligibility to those 16 and older. Topics included knowledge about HPV and COVID-19 vaccines, and parents' intentions to have children vaccinated. Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: From March 11, 2021 to April 24, 2021, 21 in-depth interviews were conducted. Parents discussed the importance of HPV and COVID-19 vaccines for protecting their children's health but differences between the two related to community protection. Parents were concerned about vaccine safety but media coverage about the COVID-19 vaccine led to more favorable attitudes about the benefits of vaccination, which was not observed for HPV vaccines. Instead for HPV vaccination, parents wanted their healthcare providers' opinions about the vaccine before making a vaccination decision. DISCUSSION: Parents had similar concerns about HPV and COVID-19 vaccines. Although provider recommendations can improve vaccine uptake, local news reports were seen to have a positive impact on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in lieu of provider recommendation. Disseminating information online could be beneficial to promote HPV and COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Child , Humans , United States , COVID-19 Vaccines , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Parents , Vaccination , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090159

ABSTRACT

The burden of disease caused by cervical cancer ranked second among female tumors in China. The HPV vaccine has been proven to be a cost-effective measure to prevent cervical cancer, but the vaccination rate remained low to date among university students. This study aimed to understand the status quo of HPV vaccine hesitancy among university students across China during the COVID-19 pandemics and systematically analyze determinants of HPV vaccine hesitancy based on the WHO 3Cs model. Cross-sectional data were collected using an online survey of female university students in four cities across China in June 2022. Multinomial logistic regression was adopted to determine factors influencing vaccine hesitancy based on the 3Cs model with three dimensions, namely complacency, convenience, and confidence. Among 1438 female university students surveyed in this study, 89.7% did not hesitate to vaccinate against HPV, only 8.9% hesitated to some extent, and 1.4% refused to vaccinate. The actual vaccination rate for the HPV vaccine was 34.2%. Based on the 3Cs model, this study found that the trust on the efficacy of vaccines, risk perception of being infected by HPV, price, and distance/time were influencing factors of vaccine hesitancy. Knowledge of the HPV vaccine and sociodemographic characteristics, such as education levels, were also statistically relevant. Therefore, it is recommended that relevant scientific knowledge on cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine should be spread on campus, the vaccination appointment procedure should be simplified, and the affordability of vaccination should be increased through strategic purchasing or providing subsidies, so as to reduce HPV vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Universities , Vaccination Hesitancy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , China , Students
6.
Prev Med ; 164: 107264, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086854

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted healthcare services, including cervical cancer management, and an increased burden for this condition is expected. This systematic review synthetizes the available evidence on the impact of the pandemic on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. Searches were performed on PubMed, Embase, and Scopus for relevant studies on these topics with the purpose of comparing service access and care delivery before and during COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the methodological heterogeneity among the studies, findings were narratively discussed. Of the 715 screened titles and abstracts, 33 articles were included, corresponding to 42 reports that covered the outcomes of interest: vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) (6 reports), cancer screening (19), diagnosis (8), and treatment (8). Seven studies observed reductions in HPV vaccination uptake and coverage during COVID-19. Reports on cervical screening and cancer diagnosis activities showed a substantial impact of the pandemic on access to screening services and diagnostic procedures. All but one study that investigated cervical cancer treatment reported changes in the number of women with cervical lesions who received treatments, as well as treatment delay and interruption. With a major impact during the first wave in 2020, COVID-19 and restriction measures resulted in a substantial disruption in cervical cancer prevention and management, with declines in screening and delays in treatment. Taken together, findings from this systematic review calls for urgent policy interventions for recovering cervical cancer prevention and care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(19): 7285-7289, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081432

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak as a global pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic has impacted health services, including immunization programs, with a consequent reduction in vaccination coverage in those categories for which the prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases is strongly recommended. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on the general population and on PLWHs, comparing anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage data in 2019, before COVID-19 pandemic, and the 2020 data, after the announcement of the pandemic state and the lockdown and the implementation of restrictive measures to contain the contagion. RESULTS: Compared to 2019, 2020 data show a 42% reduction in HPV vaccine coverage in the general population and 36% in PLWHs. The greatest reduction in anti-HPV vaccination coverage occurred during periods of greatest restriction and mainly concerned the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases remains essential. Above all, it is essential to increase and recover the anti-HPV vaccine coverage, in consideration of the data that show its preventive oncological efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Humans , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065928

ABSTRACT

Healthcare professionals must play an exemplary role in the field of vaccinology. It is convenient that they are trained during their time at university. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of the vaccines against COVID-19 in health sciences students in Spanish universities. A cross-sectional study was performed regarding the acceptance of the vaccines against COVID-19 in students in the Health Sciences Degrees in Spanish universities was performed on a sample of students of nursing, medicine, and pharmacy during the spring of 2021, via an online questionnaire with 36 questions designed ad hoc, self-administered, anonymized, and standardized. There were 1222 students participating, of Spanish nationality (97.4%), women (80.5%) and with an average age of 22.0 ± 4.8 years old. Of those, 12.3% had had the disease, 44.0% had to quarantine, 70.8% had undergone diagnostic tests, out of which 14.1% were positive. In total, 97.5% of those surveyed indicated their desire of being vaccinated, if possible, with Comirnaty® (74.9%). At the time of the study, 49.6% were already vaccinated. The reasons for vaccination differed according to the degree and the doubts about vaccine safety was the largest reason for reluctance. Some 37.7% suspected that there are unknown adverse effects and 85.6% of those vaccinated experienced some mild effects after injection. Vaccine acceptance and confidence in the recommendations given by health authorities is high in health sciences students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Students , Universities , Vaccination , Young Adult
9.
Curr Oncol ; 29(10): 7379-7387, 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065745

ABSTRACT

Program ROSE (removing obstacles to cervical screening) is a primary HPV-based cervical screening program that incorporates self-sampling and digital technology, ensuring that women are linked to care. It was developed based on the principles of design thinking in the context of Malaysia. The program illustrates the importance of collaborative partnerships and addressing the multi-faceted barriers from policy changes, and infrastructure readiness to the implementation of a radically new cervical screening program in communities. The paradigm shift in cervical cancer requires a monumental and concerted effort in educating both the healthcare providers and the general public. In this short review, we highlight how Pilot Project ROSE incorporated evidence-based tools that rapidly scaled up to Program ROSE. These ideas and solutions can be adapted and adopted by other countries. Notwithstanding the impact of COVID-19, it is incumbent on countries to pave the road towards the elimination of cervical cancer with pre-existing footpaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Self-Testing , Pilot Projects , Malaysia
11.
Cancer Sci ; 113(10): 3313-3320, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052328

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is caused by infections of the human papillomavirus (HPV), which can be prevented by vaccinations. In Japan, although about 3000 people die of cervical cancer annually, the HPV vaccination rate has remained extremely low in the eligible population since many Japanese have been concerned that "diverse symptoms," such as chronic pain, movement disorders, and cognitive impairment, may occur as adverse reactions after HPV vaccination. The concern has been raised by media coverage of the ongoing HPV vaccine lawsuits, in which the plaintiffs complained of their symptoms caused by HPV vaccination. The claims have been based on the alleged pathogenic findings in research articles on HPV vaccines, summarized in the document prepared by the plaintiffs' attorneys. We critically evaluated these articles, in which the authors proposed the following findings/hypothesis: (i) molecular mimicry between HPV L1 and human proteins leads to the production of cross-reactive antibodies; and (ii) HPV vaccine injection in mice causes damage in the brain, a mouse model for HPV vaccine associated neuro-immunopathic syndrome (HANS). We found that these hypotheses were based mainly on the findings from a few research groups and that all the articles had flaws in the method, result, or discussion sections. Our current evaluation should help better understand the validity of the findings, which have been often misunderstood as the truth by the general public. We propose to accumulate high-quality data on potential adverse events following HPV vaccination and to continue critically evaluating them.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Molecular Mimicry , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
13.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(10): e1473-e1484, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An estimated 15% of girls aged 9-14 years worldwide have been vaccinated against human papillomavirus (HPV) with the recommended two-dose or three-dose schedules. A one-dose HPV vaccine schedule would be simpler and cheaper to deliver. We report immunogenicity and safety results of different doses of two different HPV vaccines in Tanzanian girls. METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial, we enrolled healthy schoolgirls aged 9-14 years from Government schools in Mwanza, Tanzania. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive one, two, or three doses of either the 2-valent vaccine (Cervarix, GSK Biologicals, Rixensart) or the 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil-9, Sanofi Pasteur MSD, Lyon). The primary outcome was HPV 16 specific or HPV 18 specific seropositivity following one dose compared with two or three doses of the same HPV vaccine 24 months after vaccination. Safety was assessed as solicited adverse events up to 30 days after each dose and unsolicited adverse events up to 24 months after vaccination or to last study visit. The primary outcome was done in the per-protocol population, and safety was analysed in the total vaccinated population. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02834637. FINDINGS: Between Feb 23, 2017, and Jan 6, 2018, we screened 1002 girls for eligibility. 72 girls were excluded. 930 girls were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive one dose of Cervarix (155 participants), two doses of Cervarix (155 participants), three doses of Cervarix (155 participants), one dose of Gardasil-9 (155 participants), two doses of Gardasil-9 (155 participants), or three doses of Gardasil-9 (155 participants). 922 participants received all scheduled doses within the defined window (three withdrew, one was lost to follow-up, and one died before completion; two received their 6-month doses early, and one received the wrong valent vaccine in error; all 930 participants were included in the total vaccinated cohort). Retention at 24 months was 918 (99%) of 930 participants. In the according-to-protocol cohort, at 24 months, 99% of participants who received one dose of either HPV vaccine were seropositive for HPV 16 IgG antibodies, compared with 100% of participants who received two doses, and 100% of participants who received three doses. This met the prespecified non-inferiority criteria. Anti-HPV 18 seropositivity at 24 months did not meet non-inferiority criteria for one dose compared to two doses or three doses for either vaccine, although more than 98% of girls in all groups had HPV 18 antibodies. 53 serious adverse events (SAEs) were experienced by 42 (4·5%) of 930 girls, the most common of which was hospital admission for malaria. One girl died of malaria. Number of events was similar between groups and no SAEs were considered related to vaccination. INTERPRETATION: A single dose of the 2-valent or 9-valent HPV vaccine in girls aged 9-14 years induced robust immune responses up to 24 months, suggesting that this reduced dose regimen could be suitable for prevention of HPV infection among girls in the target age group for vaccination. FUNDING: UK Department for International Development/UK Medical Research Council/Wellcome Trust Joint Global Health Trials Scheme, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the US National Cancer Institute. TRANSLATION: For the KiSwahili translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Female , Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18 , Human papillomavirus 18 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Tanzania
14.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(10): e1485-e1493, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are given as a two-dose schedule in children aged 9-14 years, or as three doses in older individuals. We compared antibody responses after one dose of HPV vaccine in the Dose Reduction Immunobridging and Safety Study (DoRIS), a randomised trial of different HPV vaccine schedules in Tanzania, to those from two observational HPV vaccine trials that found high efficacy of one dose up to 11 years against HPV16 and HPV18 (Costa Rica Vaccine Trial [CVT] and Institutional Agency for Research on Cancer [IARC] India trial). METHODS: In this immunobridging analysis of an open-label randomised controlled trial, girls were recruited from 54 government schools in Mwanza, Tanzania, into the DoRIS trial. Girls were eligible if they were aged 9-14 years, healthy, and HIV negative. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1), using permutated block sizes of 12, 18, and 24, to one, two, or three doses of the 2-valent vaccine (Cervarix, GSK Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) or the 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil 9, Sanofi Pasteur MSD, Lyon, France). For this immunobridging analysis, the primary objective was to compare geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) at 24 months after one dose in the per-protocol population compared with in historical cohorts: the one-dose 2-valent vaccine group in DoRIS was compared with recipients of the 2-valent vaccine Cervarix from CVT and the one-dose 9-valent vaccine group in DoRIS was compared with recipients of the 4-valent vaccine Gardasil (Merck Sharp & Dohme, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA) from the IARC India trial. Samples were tested together with virus-like particle ELISA for HPV16 and HPV18 IgG antibodies. Non-inferiority of GMC ratios (DoRIS trial vs historical cohort) was predefined as when the lower bound of the 95% CI was greater than 0·50. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02834637. FINDINGS: Between Feb 23, 2017, and Jan 6, 2018, we screened 1002 girls for eligibility, of whom 930 were enrolled into DoRIS and 155 each were assigned to one dose, two doses, or three doses of 2-valent vaccine, or one dose, two doses, or three doses of 9-valent vaccine. 154 (99%) participants in the one-dose 2-valent vaccine group (median age 10 years [IQR 9-12]) and 152 (98%) in the one-dose 9-valent vaccine group (median age 10 years [IQR 9-12]) were vaccinated and attended the 24 month visit, and so were included in the analysis. 115 one-dose recipients from the CVT (median age 21 years [19-23]) and 139 one-dose recipients from the IARC India trial (median age 14 years [13-16]) were included in the analysis. At 24 months after vaccination, GMCs for HPV16 IgG antibodies were 22·9 international units (IU) per mL (95% CI 19·9-26·4; n=148) for the DoRIS 2-valent vaccine group versus 17·7 IU/mL (13·9-22·5; n=97) for the CVT (GMC ratio 1·30 [95% CI 1·00-1·68]) and 13·7 IU/mL (11·9-15·8; n=145) for the DoRIS 9-valent vaccine group versus 6·7 IU/mL (5·5-8·2; n=131) for the IARC India trial (GMC ratio 2·05 [1·61-2·61]). GMCs for HPV18 IgG antibodies were 9·9 IU/mL (95% CI 8·5-11·5: n=141) for the DoRIS 2-valent vaccine group versus 8·0 IU/mL (6·4-10·0; n=97) for the CVT trial (GMC ratio 1·23 [95% CI 0·95-1·60]) and 5·7 IU/mL (4·9-6·8; n=136) for the DoRIS 9-valent vaccine group versus 2·2 IU/mL (1·9-2·7; n=129) for the IARC India trial (GMC ratio 2·12 [1·59-2·83]). Non-inferiority of antibody GMCs was met for each vaccine for both HPV16 and HPV18. INTERPRETATION: One dose of HPV vaccine in young girls might provide sufficient protection against persistent HPV infection. A one-dose schedule would reduce costs, simplify vaccine delivery, and expand access to the vaccine. FUNDING: UK Department for International Development/UK Medical Research Council/Wellcome Trust Joint Global Health Trials Scheme, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the US National Cancer Institute. TRANSLATION: For the KiSwahili translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Drug Tapering , Female , Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18 , Human papillomavirus 16 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Tanzania , Young Adult
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(8): e37656, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is recommended for adolescents and young adults to prevent HPV-related cancers and genital warts. However, HPV vaccine uptake among the target age groups is suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this infodemiology study was to examine public online searches in the United States related to the HPV vaccine from January 2010 to December 2021. METHODS: Google Trends (GT) was used to explore online searches related to the HPV vaccine from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2021. Online searches and queries on the HPV vaccine were investigated using relative search volumes (RSVs). Analysis of variance was performed to investigate quarterly differences in HPV vaccine searches in each year from 2010 to 2021. A joinpoint regression was used to identify statistically significant changes over time; the α level was set to .05. RESULTS: The year-wise online search volume related to the HPV vaccine increased from 2010 to 2021, often following federal changes related to vaccine administration. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that HPV vaccine searches significantly increased on average by 8.6% (95% CI 5.9%-11.4%) across each year from 2010 to 2021. Moreover, HPV vaccine searches demonstrated a similar pattern across years, with search interest increasing through August nearly every year. At the state level, the highest 12-year mean RSV was observed in California (59.9, SD 14.3) and the lowest was observed in Wyoming (17.4, SD 8.5) during the period of 2010-2021. CONCLUSIONS: Online searches related to the HPV vaccine increased by an average of 8.6% across each year from 2010 to 2021, with noticeable spikes corresponding to key changes in vaccine recommendations. We identified patterns across years and differences at the state level in the online search interest related to the HPV vaccine. Public health organizations can use GT as a tool to characterize the public interest in and promote the HPV vaccine in the United States.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Humans , Infodemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Search Engine , United States , Vaccination , Young Adult
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1611, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 80% of new cervical cancer cases occur in women living in low- and middle-income countries. It is the second highest cause of female cancer deaths in Nigeria. School based vaccination programs are an effective strategy for delivering the HPV vaccine to adolescent girls. This study aims to understand the challenges to implementing school-based HPV vaccination programs, particularly in a remote rural setting where vaccine hesitancy is high. METHODS: A 22- item interviewer administered questionnaire was used to evaluate HPV knowledge and willingness to get the HPV vaccinate among 100 female secondary school students as part of an HPV vaccination pilot in a rural community in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were used to assess community knowledge and attitudes on cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. Data collected were analyzed thematically to understand challenges and generate lessons for vaccine delivery in the study setting. RESULTS: Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer among junior secondary school aged girls was fair with a mean score of 66.05%. For senior secondary school aged girls, the knowledge score ranged from 70 to 100% with a mean of 96.25% indicating good knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer. All participants (n = 100) received the first vaccine dose but due to COVID-19, 33 participants were not able to complete the vaccine dosage within the recommended 6-month schedule. Of the parents who provided consent, none could afford the vaccine out of pocket. Challenges to vaccine delivery included operational costs exacerbated by lack of adequate health workforce and infrastructure in the study setting. CONCLUSION: An exploration of sociocultural perspectives and contextual realities is crucial to understanding the complexities of HPV vaccine introduction from the perspective of the target audience, and the local community. Strategies for introducing the HPV vaccine should address community concerns through effective communication, appropriate delivery, and targeted advocacy to make the vaccination program locally relevant. While school-based HPV immunization programs have been shown to be successful, adequate design, planning and monitoring is important. Additionally, considerations must be made to account for the high operational cost of vaccine delivery in rural, hard to reach areas where human resources and infrastructure are limited.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adolescent , Child , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunization Programs , Nigeria , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Rural Population , Schools , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination
20.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(2): 104-108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954318

ABSTRACT

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for adolescents helps in the prevention of preventable cancers caused due to HPV infection. However, many adolescents are not vaccinated due to lack of knowledge among parents. Objective: This study aimed to compare the level of knowledge and attitude of parents on HPV vaccination before and after the online educational intervention. Methods: Across-sectional pilot study was conducted among a sample of 45 parents of adolescents studying in class 7th-9th. The parents were selected two-stage simple random sampling and assigned randomly to three groups with three different methods of education - online lecture with PowerPoint presentation, online short film with discussion, and self-learning online booklet. Pre- and postintervention knowledge was assessed with a structured questionnaire and attitude with modified Likert scale administered online. Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to find the statistical significance in the study. Results: Only 36% of samples stated that they have not heard about HPV vaccination, while others had heard from health-care workers, family members, friends, or television, but their knowledge was inadequate. In all the three groups, there was significant improvement in level of knowledge, but there was no significant difference in attitude. The posttest knowledge scores of parents educated with short film were significantly more than the other two interventions. Conclusion: Online educational programs were found to be effective in improving the knowledge of parents on HPV vaccination and of the three methods; short film was more effective than the other two methods.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , India , Pandemics/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Parents , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pilot Projects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
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