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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 365-375, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490458

ABSTRACT

Concerns about vaccine safety are an important reason for vaccine hesitancy, however, limited information is available on whether common adverse reactions following vaccination affect the immune response. Data from three clinical trials of recombinant vaccines were used in this post hoc analysis to assess the correlation between inflammation-related solicited adverse reactions (ISARs, including local pain, redness, swelling or induration and systematic fever) and immune responses after vaccination. In the phase III trial of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cecolin®), the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for IgG anti-HPV-16 and -18 (P<0.001) were significantly higher in participants with any ISAR following vaccination than in those without an ISAR. Local pain, induration, swelling and systemic fever were significantly correlated with higher GMCs for IgG anti-HPV-16 and/or anti-HPV-18, respectively. Furthermore, the analyses of the immunogenicity bridging study of Cecolin® and the phase III trial of a hepatitis E vaccine yielded similar results. Based on these results, we built a scoring model to quantify the inflammation reactions and found that the high score of ISAR indicates the strong vaccine-induced antibody level. In conclusion, this study suggests inflammation-related adverse reactions following vaccination potentially indicate a stronger immune response.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis E/immunology , Human papillomavirus 16/immunology , Human papillomavirus 18/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Hepatitis E/prevention & control , Hepatitis E/virology , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18/genetics , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Papillomavirus Vaccines/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/genetics , Young Adult
2.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(5): 1070-1083, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the efficacy of adjuvant human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in preventing recurrent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or greater after surgical excision. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases (Cochrane, PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched for studies comparing surgical excision alone to surgical excision with adjuvant HPV vaccination for CIN 2 or greater. Studies published from January 1990 to January 2019 were included. METHODS: A total of 5,901 studies were reviewed. The primary outcomes evaluated included: recurrence of CIN 2 or greater, CIN 1 or greater, and HPV 16,18 associated CIN within 6-48 months. We used Covidence software to assist with screening, and meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Six studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. In total 2,984 women were included; 1,360 (45.6%) received adjuvant HPV vaccination after surgical excision, and 1,624 (54.4%) received either placebo or surgical management alone for CIN 2 or greater. Recurrence of CIN 2 or greater occurred within 6-48 months in 115 women (3.9%) overall; however, recurrence was significantly lower for vaccinated women: 26 of 1,360 women (1.9%) vs 89 of 1,624 unvaccinated women (5.9%) (relative risk [RR] 0.36 95% CI 0.23-0.55). The risk of CIN 1 or greater was also significantly lower with adjuvant HPV vaccination, occurring in 86 of 1,360 vaccinated women (6.3%) vs 157 of 1,624 unvaccinated women (9.7%) (RR 0.67 95% CI 0.52-0.85). Thirty-five women developed recurrent CIN 2 or greater lesions specific to HPV 16,18; nine received adjuvant vaccination (0.9%) vs 26 who were unvaccinated (2.0%) (RR 0.41 95% CI 0.20-0.85). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant HPV vaccination in the setting of surgical excision for CIN 2 or greater is associated with a reduced risk of recurrent cervical dysplasia overall and a reduction in the risk of recurrent lesions caused by the most oncogenic strains (HPV 16,18). Human papillomavirus vaccination should therefore be considered for adjuvant treatment in patients undergoing surgical excision for CIN 2 or greater. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42019123786.


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/drug therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/surgery , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/virology , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Treatment Outcome , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Young Adult
3.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 14(10): 919-926, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450634

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization global call to eliminate cervical cancer encourages countries to consider introducing or improving cervical cancer screening programs. Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS) is among the world's largest public health systems offering free cytology testing, follow-up colposcopy, and treatment. Yet, health care networks across the country have unequal infrastructure, human resources, equipment, and supplies resulting in uneven program performance and large disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality. An effective screening program needs multiple strategies feasible for each community's reality, facilitating coverage and follow-up adherence. Prioritizing those at highest risk with tests that better stratify risk will limit inefficiencies, improving program impact across different resource settings. Highly sensitive human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA testing performs better than cytology and, with self-collection closer to homes and workplaces, improves access, even in remote regions. Molecular triage strategies like HPV genotyping can identify from the same self-collected sample, those at highest risk requiring follow-up. If proven acceptable, affordable, cost-effective, and efficient in the Brazilian context, these strategies would increase coverage while removing the need for speculum exams for routine screening and reducing follow-up visits. SUS could implement a nationwide organized program that accommodates heterogenous settings across Brazil, informing a variety of screening programs worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytodiagnosis/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/analysis , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Humans , Papillomavirus Infections/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology
4.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(21-22): 6735-6744, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377320

ABSTRACT

Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) or kallikreins have been linked to diverse (patho) physiological processes, such as the epidermal desquamation and inflammation, seminal clot liquefaction, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Recent mounting evidence suggests that KLKs also represent important regulators of viral infections. It is well-established that certain enveloped viruses, including influenza and coronaviruses, require proteolytic processing of their hemagglutinin or spike proteins, respectively, to infect host cells. Similarly, the capsid protein of the non-enveloped papillomavirus L1 should be proteolytically cleaved for viral uncoating. Consequently, extracellular or membrane-bound proteases of the host cells are instrumental for viral infections and represent potential targets for drug development. Here, we summarize how extracellular proteolysis mediated by the kallikreins is implicated in the process of influenza (and potentially coronavirus and papillomavirus) entry into host cells. Besides direct proteolytic activation of viruses, KLK5 and 12 promote viral entry indirectly through proteolytic cascade events, like the activation of thrombolytic enzymes that also can process hemagglutinin, while additional functions of KLKs in infection cannot be excluded. In the light of recent evidence, KLKs represent potential host targets for the development of new antivirals. Humanized animal models to validate their key functions in viral infections will be valuable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Kallikreins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/enzymology , Animals , Asthma/etiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus/physiology , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Papillomavirus Infections/enzymology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Picornaviridae Infections/complications , Picornaviridae Infections/enzymology , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteolysis , Rhinovirus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/enzymology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/virology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Internalization
5.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302415

ABSTRACT

The potential of first-void (FV) urine as a non-invasive liquid biopsy for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and other biomarkers has been increasingly recognized over the past decade. In this study, we investigated whether the volume of this initial urine stream has an impact on the analytical performance of biomarkers. In parallel, we evaluated different DNA extraction protocols and introduced an internal control in the urine preservative. Twenty-five women, diagnosed with high-risk HPV, provided three home-collected FV urine samples using three FV urine collection devices (Colli-Pee) with collector tubes that differ in volume (4, 10, 20 mL). Each collector tube was prefilled with Urine Conservation Medium spiked with phocine herpesvirus 1 (PhHV-1) DNA as internal control. Five different DNA extraction protocols were compared, followed by PCR for GAPDH and PhHV-1 (qPCR), HPV DNA, and HBB (HPV-Risk Assay), and ACTB (methylation-specific qPCR). Results showed limited effects of collection volume on human and HPV DNA endpoints. In contrast, significant variations in yield for human endpoints were observed for different DNA extraction methods (p < 0.05). Additionally, the potential of PhHV-1 as internal control to monitor FV urine collection, storage, and processing was demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , DNA, Viral , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/urine , Adult , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , DNA, Viral/urine , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Workflow , Young Adult
6.
OMICS ; 25(6): 358-371, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243453

ABSTRACT

About a tenth of all cancers are caused by viruses or associated with viral infection. Recent global events including the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic means that human encounter with viruses is increased. Cancer development in individuals with viral infection can take many years after infection, demonstrating that the involvement of viruses in cancer development is a long and complex process. This complexity emanates from individual genetic heterogeneity and the many steps involved in cancer development owing to viruses. The process of tumorigenesis is driven by the complex interaction between several viral factors and host factors leading to the creation of a tumor microenvironment (TME) that is ideal and promotes tumor formation. Viruses associated with human cancers ensure their survival and proliferation through activation of several cellular processes including inflammation, migration, and invasion, resistance to apoptosis and growth suppressors. In addition, most human oncoviruses evade immune detection and can activate signaling cascades including the PI3K-Akt-mTOR, Notch and Wnt pathways associated with enhanced proliferation and angiogenesis. This expert review examines and synthesizes the multiple biological factors related to oncoviruses, and the signaling cascades activated by these viruses contributing to viral oncogenesis. In particular, I examine and review the Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomaviruses, and Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus in a context of cancer pathogenesis. I conclude with a future outlook on therapeutic targeting of the viruses and their associated oncogenic pathways within the TME. These anticancer strategies can be in the form of, but not limited to, antibodies and inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/virology , Neoplasms/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Retroviridae Infections/virology , Retroviridae/physiology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/virology , Tumor Virus Infections/virology , Alphapapillomavirus/physiology , Carcinogenesis , Cell Transformation, Viral , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/pathology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Herpesvirus 8, Human/physiology , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Papillomavirus Infections/pathology , Retroviridae Infections/pathology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Signal Transduction , Tumor Microenvironment , Tumor Virus Infections/pathology
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4954, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114727

ABSTRACT

The prophylactic vaccines available to protect against infections by HPV are well tolerated and highly immunogenic. People with HIV have a higher risk of developing HPV infection and HPV-associated cancers due to a lower immune response, and due to viral interactions. We performed a systematic review of RCTs to assess HPV vaccines efficacy and safety on HIV-infected people compared to placebo or no intervention in terms of seroconversion, infections, neoplasms, adverse events, CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load. The vaccine-group showed a seroconversion rate close to 100% for each vaccine and a significantly higher level of antibodies against HPV vaccine types, as compared to the placebo group (MD = 4333.3, 95% CI 2701.4; 5965.1 GMT EL.U./ml for HPV type 16 and MD = 1408.8, 95% CI 414.8; 2394.7 GMT EL.U./ml for HPV type 18). There were also no differences in terms of severe adverse events (RR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.2; 1.6) and no severe adverse events (RR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.9; 1.2) between vaccine and placebo groups. Secondary outcomes, such as CD4 + T-cell count and HIV viral load, did not differ between groups (MD = 14.8, 95% CI - 35.1; 64.6 cells/µl and MD = 0.0, 95% CI - 0.3; 0.3 log10 RNA copies/ml, respectively). Information on the remaining outcomes was scarce and that did not allow us to combine the data. The results support the use of the HPV vaccine in HIV-infected patients and highlight the need of further RCTs assessing the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine on infections and neoplasms.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Patient Safety , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Public Health , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
8.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr ; 31(1): 61-69, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105917

ABSTRACT

The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is the world's first proven and effective vaccine to prevent cancers in males and females when administered pre-exposure. Like most of the US, barely half of Vermont teens are up-to-date with the vaccination, with comparable deficits in New Hampshire and Maine. The rates for HPV vaccine initiation and completion are as low as 33% in rural New England. Consequently, there is a compelling responsibility to communicate its importance to unvaccinated teenagers before their risk for infection increases. Messaging in rural areas promoting HPV vaccination is compromised by community-based characteristics that include access to appropriate medical care, poor media coverage, parental and peer influence, and skepticism of science and medicine. Current strategies are predominantly passive access to literature and Internet-based information. Evidence indicates that performance-based messaging can clarify the importance of HPV vaccination to teenagers and their parents in rural areas. Increased HPV vaccination will significantly contribute to the prevention of a broadening spectrum of cancers. Reducing rurality-based inequities is a public health priority. Development of a performance-based peer-communication intervention can capture a window of opportunity to provide increasingly effective and sustained HPV protection. An effective approach can be partnering rural schools and regional health teams with a program that is nimble and scalable to respond to public health policies and practices compliant with COVID-19 pandemic-related modifications on physical distancing and interacting in the foreseeable future.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Physical Distancing , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/methods , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , New England/epidemiology , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
Br J Cancer ; 124(8): 1361-1365, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted cervical cancer screening services. Assuming increases to screening capacity are unrealistic, we propose two recovery strategies: one extends the screening interval by 6 months for all and the other extends the interval by 36/60 months, but only for women who have already missed being screened. METHODS: Using routine statistics from England we estimate the number of women affected by delays to screening. We used published research to estimate the proportion of screening age women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and progression rates to cancer. Under two recovery scenarios, we estimate the impact of COVID-19 on cervical cancer over one screening cycle (3 years at ages 25-49 and 5 years at ages 50-64 years). The duration of disruption in both scenarios is 6 months. In the first scenario, 10.7 million women have their screening interval extended by 6 months. In the second, 1.5 million women (those due to be screened during the disruption) miss one screening cycle, but most women have no delay. RESULTS: Both scenarios result in similar numbers of excess cervical cancers: 630 vs. 632 (both 4.3 per 100,000 women in the population). However, the scenario in which some women miss one screening cycle creates inequalities-they would have much higher rates of excess cancer: 41.5 per 100,000 delayed for screened women compared to those with a 6-month delay (5.9 per 100,000). CONCLUSION: To ensure equity for those affected by COVID-19 related screening delays additional screening capacity will need to be paired with prioritising the screening of overdue women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colposcopy/methods , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Papillomaviridae/pathogenicity , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/complications , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Vaginal Smears/methods
10.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 200, 2020 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-coronavirus-2 enters host cells through binding of the Spike protein to ACE2 receptor and subsequent S priming by the TMPRSS2 protease. We aim to assess differences in both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in normal tissues from oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and lung tissues as well as neoplastic tissues from the same areas. METHODS: The study has been conducted using the TCGA and the Regina Elena Institute databases and validated by experimental model in HNSCC cells. We also included data from one COVID19 patient who went under surgery for HNSCC. RESULTS: TMPRSS2 expression in HNSCC was significantly reduced compared to the normal tissues. It was more evident in women than in men, in TP53 mutated versus wild TP53 tumors, in HPV negative patients compared to HPV positive counterparts. Functionally, we modeled the multivariate effect of TP53, HPV, and other inherent variables on TMPRSS2. All variables had a statistically significant independent effect on TMPRSS2. In particular, in tumor tissues, HPV negative, TP53 mutated status and elevated TP53-dependent Myc-target genes were associated with low TMPRSS2 expression. The further analysis of both TCGA and our institutional HNSCC datasets identified a signature anti-correlated to TMPRSS2. As proof-of-principle we also validated the anti-correlation between microRNAs and TMPRSS2 expression in a SARS-CoV-2 positive HNSCC patient tissues Finally, we did not find TMPRSS2 promoter methylation. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings suggest that tumoral tissues, herein exemplified by HNSCC and lung cancers might be more resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection due to reduced expression of TMPRSS2. These observations may help to better assess the frailty of SARS-CoV-2 positive cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Head and Neck Neoplasms/metabolism , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/metabolism , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/virology , Survival Rate
11.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 277-284, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635339

ABSTRACT

The age-standardised incidence of cervical cancer in Europe varies widely by country (between 3 and 25/100000 women-years) in 2018. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage is low in countries with the highest incidence and screening performance is heterogeneous among European countries. A broad group of delegates of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations endorse the principles of the WHO call to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem, also in Europe. All European nations should, by 2030, reach at least 90% HPV vaccine coverage among girls by the age of 15 years and also boys, if cost-effective; they should introduce organised population-based HPV-based screening and achieve 70% of screening coverage in the target age group, providing also HPV testing on self-samples for nonscreened or underscreened women; and to manage 90% of screen-positive women. To guide member states, a group of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations engage to assist in the rollout of a series of concerted evidence-based actions. European health authorities are requested to mandate a group of experts to develop the third edition of European Guidelines for Quality Assurance of Cervical Cancer prevention based on integrated HPV vaccination and screening and to monitor the progress towards the elimination goal. The occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, having interrupted prevention activities temporarily, should not deviate stakeholders from this ambition. In the immediate postepidemic phase, health professionals should focus on high-risk women and adhere to cost-effective policies including self-sampling.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Public Health/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Alphapapillomavirus/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Early Detection of Cancer , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Public Health/standards , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/immunology , Vaccination/methods , World Health Organization , Young Adult
12.
Andrologia ; 52(9): e13791, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712969

ABSTRACT

Male infertility is linked to some viral infections including human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs). Almost nothing is known about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) effect on fertility. The possible risk factors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on fertility comes from the abundance of angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2), receptor entry of the virus, on testes, a reduction in important sex hormone ratios and COVID-19-associated fever. Recent studies have shown a gender difference for COVID-19 rates and comorbidity. In this review, we will discuss the potential effect of COVID-19 on male fertility and talk about what needs to be done by the scientific community to tackle our limited understanding of the disease. On the other side, we will focus on what is known so far about the risk of COVID-19 on pregnancy, neonatal health and the vertical transfer of the virus between mothers and their neonates. Finally, because reproduction is a human right and infertility is considered a health disease, we will discuss how assisted reproductive clinics can cope with the pandemic and what guidelines they should follow to minimise the risk of viral transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Infertility, Male/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Reproductive Health , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV Infections/virology , Herpes Simplex/complications , Herpes Simplex/transmission , Herpes Simplex/virology , Humans , Infertility, Male/pathology , Male , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/transmission , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Testis/pathology
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