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1.
Cancer Sci ; 113(10): 3313-3320, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052328

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is caused by infections of the human papillomavirus (HPV), which can be prevented by vaccinations. In Japan, although about 3000 people die of cervical cancer annually, the HPV vaccination rate has remained extremely low in the eligible population since many Japanese have been concerned that "diverse symptoms," such as chronic pain, movement disorders, and cognitive impairment, may occur as adverse reactions after HPV vaccination. The concern has been raised by media coverage of the ongoing HPV vaccine lawsuits, in which the plaintiffs complained of their symptoms caused by HPV vaccination. The claims have been based on the alleged pathogenic findings in research articles on HPV vaccines, summarized in the document prepared by the plaintiffs' attorneys. We critically evaluated these articles, in which the authors proposed the following findings/hypothesis: (i) molecular mimicry between HPV L1 and human proteins leads to the production of cross-reactive antibodies; and (ii) HPV vaccine injection in mice causes damage in the brain, a mouse model for HPV vaccine associated neuro-immunopathic syndrome (HANS). We found that these hypotheses were based mainly on the findings from a few research groups and that all the articles had flaws in the method, result, or discussion sections. Our current evaluation should help better understand the validity of the findings, which have been often misunderstood as the truth by the general public. We propose to accumulate high-quality data on potential adverse events following HPV vaccination and to continue critically evaluating them.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Molecular Mimicry , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(10): e1473-e1484, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An estimated 15% of girls aged 9-14 years worldwide have been vaccinated against human papillomavirus (HPV) with the recommended two-dose or three-dose schedules. A one-dose HPV vaccine schedule would be simpler and cheaper to deliver. We report immunogenicity and safety results of different doses of two different HPV vaccines in Tanzanian girls. METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial, we enrolled healthy schoolgirls aged 9-14 years from Government schools in Mwanza, Tanzania. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive one, two, or three doses of either the 2-valent vaccine (Cervarix, GSK Biologicals, Rixensart) or the 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil-9, Sanofi Pasteur MSD, Lyon). The primary outcome was HPV 16 specific or HPV 18 specific seropositivity following one dose compared with two or three doses of the same HPV vaccine 24 months after vaccination. Safety was assessed as solicited adverse events up to 30 days after each dose and unsolicited adverse events up to 24 months after vaccination or to last study visit. The primary outcome was done in the per-protocol population, and safety was analysed in the total vaccinated population. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02834637. FINDINGS: Between Feb 23, 2017, and Jan 6, 2018, we screened 1002 girls for eligibility. 72 girls were excluded. 930 girls were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive one dose of Cervarix (155 participants), two doses of Cervarix (155 participants), three doses of Cervarix (155 participants), one dose of Gardasil-9 (155 participants), two doses of Gardasil-9 (155 participants), or three doses of Gardasil-9 (155 participants). 922 participants received all scheduled doses within the defined window (three withdrew, one was lost to follow-up, and one died before completion; two received their 6-month doses early, and one received the wrong valent vaccine in error; all 930 participants were included in the total vaccinated cohort). Retention at 24 months was 918 (99%) of 930 participants. In the according-to-protocol cohort, at 24 months, 99% of participants who received one dose of either HPV vaccine were seropositive for HPV 16 IgG antibodies, compared with 100% of participants who received two doses, and 100% of participants who received three doses. This met the prespecified non-inferiority criteria. Anti-HPV 18 seropositivity at 24 months did not meet non-inferiority criteria for one dose compared to two doses or three doses for either vaccine, although more than 98% of girls in all groups had HPV 18 antibodies. 53 serious adverse events (SAEs) were experienced by 42 (4·5%) of 930 girls, the most common of which was hospital admission for malaria. One girl died of malaria. Number of events was similar between groups and no SAEs were considered related to vaccination. INTERPRETATION: A single dose of the 2-valent or 9-valent HPV vaccine in girls aged 9-14 years induced robust immune responses up to 24 months, suggesting that this reduced dose regimen could be suitable for prevention of HPV infection among girls in the target age group for vaccination. FUNDING: UK Department for International Development/UK Medical Research Council/Wellcome Trust Joint Global Health Trials Scheme, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the US National Cancer Institute. TRANSLATION: For the KiSwahili translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Female , Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18 , Human papillomavirus 18 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Tanzania
3.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 462022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955518

ABSTRACT

This report summarises Australian spontaneous surveillance data for adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) for 2020, reported to the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), and describes reporting trends over the 21-year period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2020. There were 3,827 AEFI records for vaccines administered in 2020, an annual AEFI reporting rate of 14.9 per 100,000 population. There was a slight (3.8%) decrease in the overall AEFI reporting rate in 2020 compared with 2019 (15.5 per 100,000 population). This decrease in the AEFI reporting rate in 2020 is potentially due to the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and was mainly from a decline in reported adverse events related to HPV, dTpa, and seasonal influenza vaccines. AEFI reporting rates for most individual vaccines in 2020 were similar to 2019. The most commonly reported adverse events were injection site reaction (37.1%); pyrexia (18.1%); rash (15.8%); vomiting (7.6%); pain (7.4%); headache (5.7%); and urticaria (5.1%). There were six deaths reported to the TGA. In one of the reports, the timing and clinical findings were consistent with a causal association with vaccination. In the remaining five reports, no clear causal relationship with vaccination was found.


Subject(s)
Vaccination , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 782198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902963

ABSTRACT

Misunderstanding temporal coincidence of adverse events during mass vaccination and invalid assessment of possible safety concerns have negative effects on immunization programs, leading to low immunization coverage. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the incidence rates of GBS that are temporally associated with viral vaccine administration but might not be attributable to the vaccines. By literature search in Embase and PubMed, we included 48 publications and 2,110,441,600 participants. The pooled incidence rate of GBS was 3.09 per million persons (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.67 to 3.51) within six weeks of vaccination, equally 2.47 per 100,000 person-year (95%CI: 2.14 to 2.81). Subgroup analyses illustrated that the pooled rates were 2.77 per million persons (95%CI: 2.47 to 3.07) for individuals who received the influenza vaccine and 2.44 per million persons (95%CI: 0.97 to 3.91) for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, respectively. Our findings evidence the GBS-associated safety of virus vaccines. We present a reference for the evaluation of post-vaccination GBS rates in mass immunization campaigns, including the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Mass Vaccination/adverse effects , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Vaccine ; 40(9): 1246-1252, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Between May 2005 and March 2007, three vaccines were recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for routine use in adolescents in the United States: quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY), tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap), and human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV). Understanding historical adolescent vaccination patterns may inform future vaccination coverage efforts for these and emerging adolescent vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: This was a descriptive, retrospective cohort study. All vaccines administered to adolescents aged 11 through 18 years in the Vaccine Safety Datalink population between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2016 were examined. Vaccination coverage was assessed by study year for ≥1 dose Tdap or Td, ≥1 dose Tdap, ≥1 dose MenACWY, ≥1 dose HPV, and ≥3 dose HPV. The proportion of vaccine visits with concurrent vaccination (≥2 vaccines administered at the same visit) was calculated by sex and study year. The most common vaccine combinations administered in the study population were described by sex for two time periods: 2007-2010 and 2011-2016. RESULTS: The number of 11-18-year-olds in the study population averaged 522,565 males and 503,112 females per study year. Between January 2007 and December 2016 there were 4,884,553 vaccine visits in this population (45% among males). The overall proportion of concurrent vaccine visits among males was 43% (33-61% by study year). Among females, 39% of all vaccine visits included concurrent vaccination (32-48% by study year). Vaccine coverage for Tdap, MenACWY, and 1- and 3-dose HPV increased across the study period. A wide variety of vaccine combinations were administered among both sexes and in both time periods. CONCLUSIONS: The high vaccine uptake and multitude of vaccine combinations administered concurrently in the adolescent population of the Vaccine Safety Datalink provide historical patterns with which to compare future adolescent vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
Vaccination , Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Meningococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Meningococcal Vaccines/adverse effects , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/trends , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/adverse effects
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 365-375, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490458

ABSTRACT

Concerns about vaccine safety are an important reason for vaccine hesitancy, however, limited information is available on whether common adverse reactions following vaccination affect the immune response. Data from three clinical trials of recombinant vaccines were used in this post hoc analysis to assess the correlation between inflammation-related solicited adverse reactions (ISARs, including local pain, redness, swelling or induration and systematic fever) and immune responses after vaccination. In the phase III trial of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cecolin®), the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for IgG anti-HPV-16 and -18 (P<0.001) were significantly higher in participants with any ISAR following vaccination than in those without an ISAR. Local pain, induration, swelling and systemic fever were significantly correlated with higher GMCs for IgG anti-HPV-16 and/or anti-HPV-18, respectively. Furthermore, the analyses of the immunogenicity bridging study of Cecolin® and the phase III trial of a hepatitis E vaccine yielded similar results. Based on these results, we built a scoring model to quantify the inflammation reactions and found that the high score of ISAR indicates the strong vaccine-induced antibody level. In conclusion, this study suggests inflammation-related adverse reactions following vaccination potentially indicate a stronger immune response.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis E/immunology , Human papillomavirus 16/immunology , Human papillomavirus 18/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Hepatitis E/prevention & control , Hepatitis E/virology , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18/genetics , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Papillomavirus Vaccines/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/genetics , Young Adult
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4954, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114727

ABSTRACT

The prophylactic vaccines available to protect against infections by HPV are well tolerated and highly immunogenic. People with HIV have a higher risk of developing HPV infection and HPV-associated cancers due to a lower immune response, and due to viral interactions. We performed a systematic review of RCTs to assess HPV vaccines efficacy and safety on HIV-infected people compared to placebo or no intervention in terms of seroconversion, infections, neoplasms, adverse events, CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load. The vaccine-group showed a seroconversion rate close to 100% for each vaccine and a significantly higher level of antibodies against HPV vaccine types, as compared to the placebo group (MD = 4333.3, 95% CI 2701.4; 5965.1 GMT EL.U./ml for HPV type 16 and MD = 1408.8, 95% CI 414.8; 2394.7 GMT EL.U./ml for HPV type 18). There were also no differences in terms of severe adverse events (RR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.2; 1.6) and no severe adverse events (RR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.9; 1.2) between vaccine and placebo groups. Secondary outcomes, such as CD4 + T-cell count and HIV viral load, did not differ between groups (MD = 14.8, 95% CI - 35.1; 64.6 cells/µl and MD = 0.0, 95% CI - 0.3; 0.3 log10 RNA copies/ml, respectively). Information on the remaining outcomes was scarce and that did not allow us to combine the data. The results support the use of the HPV vaccine in HIV-infected patients and highlight the need of further RCTs assessing the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine on infections and neoplasms.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Patient Safety , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Public Health , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
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