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Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576961


Little is known about the role of complement (C') in infections with highly prevalent circulating human coronaviruses such as OC43, a group of viruses of major public health concern. Treatment of OC43-infected human lung cells with human serum resulted in C3 deposition on their surfaces and generation of C5a, indicating robust C' activation. Real-time cell viability assays showed that in vitro C'-mediated lysis of OC43 infected cells requires C3, C5 and C6 but not C7, and was substantially delayed as compared to rapid C'-mediated killing of parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV5)-infected cells. In cells co-infected with OC43 and PIV5, C'-mediated lysis was delayed, similar to OC43 infected cells alone, suggesting that OC43 infection induced dominant inhibitory signals. When OC43-infected cells were treated with human serum, their cell surfaces contained both Vitronectin (VN) and Clusterin (CLU), two host cell C' inhibitors that can alter membrane attack complex (MAC) formation and C'-mediated killing. VN and CLU were not bound to OC43-infected cells after treatment with antibody-depleted serum. Reconstitution experiments with purified IgG and VN showed that human antibodies are both necessary and sufficient for VN recruitment to OC43-infected lung cells-novel findings with implications for CoV pathogenesis.

Antibodies/metabolism , Clusterin/metabolism , Complement Inactivator Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Lung/virology , Vitronectin/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Survival/immunology , Complement Activation , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Parainfluenza Virus 5/immunology
Mol Ther ; 29(3): 1174-1185, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985497


Self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) is a cutting-edge platform for both nucleic acid vaccines and therapeutics. saRNA is self-adjuvanting, as it activates types I and III interferon (IFN), which enhances the immunogenicity of RNA vaccines but can also lead to inhibition of translation. In this study, we screened a library of saRNA constructs with cis-encoded innate inhibiting proteins (IIPs) and determined the effect on protein expression and immunogenicity. We observed that the PIV-5 V and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) ORF4a proteins enhance protein expression 100- to 500-fold in vitro in IFN-competent HeLa and MRC5 cells. We found that the MERS-CoV ORF4a protein partially abates dose nonlinearity in vivo, and that ruxolitinib, a potent Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) inhibitor, but not the IIPs, enhances protein expression of saRNA in vivo. Both the PIV-5 V and MERS-CoV ORF4a proteins were found to enhance the percentage of resident cells in human skin explants expressing saRNA and completely rescued dose nonlinearity of saRNA. Finally, we observed that the MERS-CoV ORF4a increased the rabies virus (RABV)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and neutralization half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) by ∼10-fold in rabbits, but not in mice or rats. These experiments provide a proof of concept that IIPs can be directly encoded into saRNA vectors and effectively abate the nonlinear dose dependency and enhance immunogenicity.

Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology , Viral Envelope Proteins/administration & dosage , Animals , Cell Line , Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine/drug effects , Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine/immunology , Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine/pathogenicity , Fibroblasts , Gene Expression Regulation , HeLa Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/immunology , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/immunology , Nitriles , Parainfluenza Virus 5/drug effects , Parainfluenza Virus 5/immunology , Parainfluenza Virus 5/pathogenicity , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrimidines , Rabbits , Rabies virus/drug effects , Rabies virus/immunology , Rabies virus/pathogenicity , Rats , STAT Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , STAT Transcription Factors/immunology , Signal Transduction , Vaccines, Synthetic/biosynthesis , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology