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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598306

ABSTRACT

Human toxocariasis is a helminthozoonosis caused by the migration of Toxocara species larvae through an organism. The infection in humans is transmitted either by direct ingestion of the eggs of the parasite, or by consuming undercooked meat infested with Toxocara larvae. This parasitosis can be found worldwide, but there are significant differences in seroprevalence in different areas, depending mainly on hot climate conditions and on low social status. However, the literature estimates of seroprevalence are inconsistent. Infected patients commonly present a range of symptoms, e.g., abdominal pain, decreased appetite, restlessness, fever, and coughing. This manuscript presents a case report of a polytraumatic patient who underwent a two-phase spinal procedure for a thoracolumbar fracture. After the second procedure, which was a vertebral body replacement via thoracotomy, the patient developed a pathologic pleural effusion. A microscopic cytology examination of this effusion revealed the presence of Toxocara species larvae. Although the patient presented no specific clinical symptoms, and the serological exams (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot) were negative, the microscopic evaluation enabled a timely diagnosis. The patient was successfully treated with albendazole, with no permanent sequelae of the infection.


Subject(s)
Parasites , Toxocariasis , Animals , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxocara , Toxocariasis/diagnosis , Toxocariasis/drug therapy
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258292, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480450

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease is a neglected illness caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and its treatment is done only with two drugs, nifurtimox and benznidazole. However, both drugs are ineffective in the chronic phase, in addition to causing serious side effects. This context of therapeutic limitation justifies the continuous research for alternative drugs. Here, we study the in vitro trypanocidal effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide, a molecule that has in its chemical structure a toxicophoric nitroaromatic group (NO2). The set of results obtained in this work highlights the potential for repurposing nimesulide in the treatment of this disease that affects millions of people around the world.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Drug Repositioning , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Animals , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Parasites/drug effects , Sulfonamides/chemistry , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development , Trypanosoma cruzi/ultrastructure
3.
4.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 590-591, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428861
5.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(11): 1345-1347, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393332

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a significant increase in the immunosuppressed population worldwide due to the disease pathology and extensive use of corticosteroids. This has subsequently increased the risk of opportunistic parasitic infections such as Toxoplasma gondii, Strongyloides stercoralis and other parasites in these patients. The reactivation of such parasites may remain unnoticed due to overlapping symptoms, the difficulty of diagnosis and lack of guidelines for opportunistic parasitic infections in COVID-19 management. Therefore, recommendations for systematic screening of high-risk patients in endemic regions and active research and surveillance to estimate the impact of these infections are required in COVID-19 policy guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Animals , Humans , Pandemics , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 137-144, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272471

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to systematically investigate false-negative histidine-rich protein 2 rapid diagnostic tests (HRP2-RDT) in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases from travelers to the UK and the Republic of Ireland (RoI). METHODS: Five imported malaria cases in travellers returning to the UK and RoI from East Africa were reported to the PHE Malaria Reference Laboratory as negative according to histidine-rich protein (HRP2)-RDT. The cases were systematically investigated using microscopic, RDT, molecular, genomic, and in in vitro approaches. RESULTS: In each case, HRP2-RDT was negative, whereas microscopy confirmed the presence of P. falciparum. Further analysis revealed that the genes encoding HRP2 and HRP3 were deleted in three of the five cases. Whole-genome sequencing in one of these isolates confirmed deletions in P. falciparum chromosomes 8 and 13. Our study produced evidence that the fourth case, which had high parasitemia at clinical presentation, was a rare example of antigen saturation ('prozone-like effect'), leading to a false negative in the HRP2-RDT, while the fifth case was due to low parasitemia. CONCLUSIONS: False-negative HRP2-RDT results with P. falciparum are concerning. Our findings emphasise the necessity of supporting the interpretation of RDT results with microscopy, in conjunction with clinical observations, and sets out a systematic approach to identifying parasites carrying pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletions.


Subject(s)
Malaria, Falciparum , Parasites , Animals , Antigens, Protozoan/genetics , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gene Deletion , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , United Kingdom/epidemiology
7.
Parasitology ; 148(3): 274-288, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087391

ABSTRACT

An animal's social behaviour both influences and changes in response to its parasites. Here we consider these bidirectional links between host social behaviours and parasite infection, both those that occur from ecological vs evolutionary processes. First, we review how social behaviours of individuals and groups influence ecological patterns of parasite transmission. We then discuss how parasite infection, in turn, can alter host social interactions by changing the behaviour of both infected and uninfected individuals. Together, these ecological feedbacks between social behaviour and parasite infection can result in important epidemiological consequences. Next, we consider the ways in which host social behaviours evolve in response to parasites, highlighting constraints that arise from the need for hosts to maintain benefits of sociality while minimizing fitness costs of parasites. Finally, we consider how host social behaviours shape the population genetic structure of parasites and the evolution of key parasite traits, such as virulence. Overall, these bidirectional relationships between host social behaviours and parasites are an important yet often underappreciated component of population-level disease dynamics and host-parasite coevolution.


Subject(s)
Host-Parasite Interactions , Parasites/physiology , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/epidemiology , Social Behavior , Animals , Prevalence
10.
Transfusion ; 60(6): 1319-1331, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The INTERCEPT Blood System pathogen reduction technology (PRT), which uses amotosalen and ultraviolet A light treatment (amotosalen/UV-PRT), inactivates pathogens in plasma and platelet components (PCs). This review summarizes data describing the inactivation efficacy of amotosalen/UVA-PRT for a broad spectrum of viruses and parasites. METHODS: Twenty-five enveloped viruses, six nonenveloped viruses (NEVs), and four parasites species were evaluated for sensitivity to amotosalen/UVA-PRT. Pathogens were spiked into plasma and PC at high titers. Samples were collected before and after PRT and assessed for infectivity with cell cultures or animal models. Log reduction factors (LRFs) were defined as the difference in infectious titers before and after amotosalen/UV-PRT. RESULTS: LRFs of ≥4.0 log were reported for 19 pathogens in plasma (range, ≥4.0 to ≥7.6), 28 pathogens in PC in platelet additive solution (PC-PAS; ≥4.1-≥7.8), and 14 pathogens in PC in 100% plasma (PC-100%; (≥4.3->8.4). Twenty-five enveloped viruses and two NEVs were sensitive to amotosalen/UV-PRT; LRF ranged from >2.9 to ≥7.6 in plasma, 2.4 or greater to greater than 6.9 in PC-PAS and >3.5 to >6.5 in PC-100%. Infectious titers for four parasites were reduced by >4.0 log in all PC and plasma (≥4.9 to >8.4). CONCLUSION: Amotosalen/UVA-PRT demonstrated effective infectious titer reduction for a broad spectrum of viruses and parasites. This confirms the capacity of this system to reduce the risk of viral and parasitic transfusion-transmitted infections by plasma and PCs in various geographies.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Blood Safety , Disinfection , Furocoumarins/pharmacology , Parasites , Plasma , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation , Animals , Blood Platelets/parasitology , Blood Platelets/virology , Humans , Plasma/parasitology , Plasma/virology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
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