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1.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742553

ABSTRACT

Parasitic diseases are still a huge problem for mankind. They are becoming the main cause of chronic diseases in the world. Migration of the population, pollution of the natural environment, and climate changes cause the rapid spread of diseases. Additionally, a growing resistance of parasites to drugs is observed. Many research groups are looking for effective antiparasitic drugs with low side effects. In this work, we present the current trends in the search for antiparasitic drugs. We report known drugs used in other disease entities with proven antiparasitic activity and research on new chemical structures that may be potential drugs in parasitic diseases. The described investigations of antiparasitic compounds can be helpful for further drug development.


Subject(s)
Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Animals , Antiparasitic Agents/chemistry , Parasitic Diseases/drug therapy , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(4): 317-325, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643767

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which started in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has affected the whole world and caused approximately four million deaths. Consequently, scientists have done a great deal of research in such a short time about the disease. Meanwhile, parasites, whose evolutionary process is as old as human history, are often underestimated despite their high prevalence and lethality. Recent studies; however, have shown that immunity changes caused by parasitic infections affect the course of viral diseases. For example, because severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Plasmodium use a common CD147 receptor to enter the cell and have similarities in their MHC-presented antigenic determinants, scientists suggest that immunity against parasitic infections protects the body against SARS-CoV-2 infections. This could explain the low COVID-19 incidence in malaria-endemic countries. Additionally, the cytokine storm, which is responsible for mortality in COVID-19 infections, is caused by the activation of the immune system to Th1 way. On the other hand, helminth infections, which activate the immune system to Th2 way, can reduce mortality by preventing the cytokine storm. The relationship between COVID-19 and parasites is not limited to changes in the immune system changes. Studies have shown that the pause in the fight against parasitic infections due to the diversion of all attention toward COVID-19 since the beginning of the pandemic will lead to an increase in incidences of malaria, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminths. For this reason, efforts to mitigate this increase should be resumed as soon as possible by taking additional measures globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Animals , Humans , Pandemics , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Hematology ; 26(1): 1007-1012, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Haematological markers such as absolute lymphopenia have been associated with severe COVID-19 infection. However, in the literature to date, the cohorts described have typically included patients who were moderate to severely unwell with pneumonia and who required intensive care stay. It is uncertain if these markers apply to a population with less severe illness. We sought to describe the haematological profile of patients with mild disease with COVID-19 admitted to a single centre in Singapore. METHODS: We examined 554 consecutive PCR positive SARS-COV-2 patients admitted to a single tertiary healthcare institution from Feb 2020 to April 2020. In all patients a full blood count was obtained within 24 h of presentation. RESULTS: Patients with pneumonia had higher neutrophil percentages (66.5 ± 11.6 vs 55.2 ± 12.6%, p < 0.001), lower absolute lymphocyte count (1.5 ± 1.1 vs 1.9 ± 2.1 x109/L, p < 0.011) and absolute eosinophil count (0.2 ± 0.9 vs 0.7 ± 1.8 × 109/L, p = 0.002). Platelet counts (210 ± 56 vs 230 ± 61, p = 0.020) were slightly lower in the group with pneumonia. We did not demonstrate significant differences in the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, monocyte-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio in patients with or without pneumonia. Sixty-eight patients (12.3%) had peripheral eosinophilia. This was more common in migrant workers living in dormitories. CONCLUSION: Neutrophilia and lymphopenia were found to be markers associated with severe COVID-19 illness. We did not find that combined haematological parameters: neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, monocyte-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio, had any association with disease severity in our cohort of patients with mild-moderate disease. Migrant workers living in dormitories had eosinophilia which may reflect concurrent chronic parasitic infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/blood , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Eosinophilia/epidemiology , Eosinophilia/etiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Housing , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Parasitic Diseases/drug therapy , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Singapore/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data , Travel-Related Illness , Young Adult
4.
Adv Parasitol ; 114: 1-26, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458847

ABSTRACT

Human parasitic infections-including malaria, and many neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)-have long represented a Gordian knot in global public health: ancient, persistent, and exceedingly difficult to control. With the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic substantially interrupting control programmes worldwide, there are now mounting fears that decades of progress in controlling global parasitic infections will be undone. With Covid-19 moreover exposing deep vulnerabilities in the global health system, the current moment presents a watershed opportunity to plan future efforts to reduce the global morbidity and mortality associated with human parasitic infections. In this chapter, we first provide a brief epidemiologic overview of the progress that has been made towards the control of parasitic diseases between 1990 and 2019, contrasting these fragile gains with the anticipated losses as a result of Covid-19. We then argue that the complementary aspirations of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the World Health Organization (WHO)'s 2030 targets for parasitic disease control may be achieved by aligning programme objectives within the One Health paradigm, recognizing the interdependence between humans, animals, and the environment. In so doing, we note that while the WHO remains the preeminent international institution to address some of these transdisciplinary concerns, its underlying challenges with funding, authority, and capacity are likely to reverberate if left unaddressed. To this end, we conclude by reimagining how models of multisectoral global health governance-combining the WHO's normative and technical leadership with greater support in allied policy-making areas-can help sustain future malaria and NTD elimination efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , One Health , Parasitic Diseases , Tropical Medicine , Animals , Global Health , Humans , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/prevention & control , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(11): 1345-1347, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393332

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a significant increase in the immunosuppressed population worldwide due to the disease pathology and extensive use of corticosteroids. This has subsequently increased the risk of opportunistic parasitic infections such as Toxoplasma gondii, Strongyloides stercoralis and other parasites in these patients. The reactivation of such parasites may remain unnoticed due to overlapping symptoms, the difficulty of diagnosis and lack of guidelines for opportunistic parasitic infections in COVID-19 management. Therefore, recommendations for systematic screening of high-risk patients in endemic regions and active research and surveillance to estimate the impact of these infections are required in COVID-19 policy guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Animals , Humans , Pandemics , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Parasitol ; 106(6): 859-868, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033586

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the worst global health crises of this generation. The core of this pandemic is the rapid transmissibility of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, its high morbidity and mortality, and the presence of infectious asymptomatic carriers. As a result, COVID-19 has dominated this year's headlines and commanded significant research attention. As we consider SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic, it is essential that scientists, governments, the media, and the general population also come to grips with the everyday cost of parasitic diseases. Plasmodium (malaria), schistosomes, filarial worms, hookworms, Ascaris, whipworms, and other protozoan and metazoan parasites take a tremendous toll on local communities. Yet, because most of these diseases are no longer endemic to developed countries, their research and intervention are not funded at levels that are proportional to their global morbidity and mortality. The scientific and public health communities must indeed vigorously fight SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, but while doing so and beyond, it will be essential to demonstrate steadfast resolve toward understanding and combating the parasitic diseases that for centuries have haunted humankind.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases/prevention & control , Parasitic Diseases/transmission , Parasitology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Arthropod Vectors/classification , Arthropod Vectors/parasitology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Congresses as Topic/trends , Education, Distance , Humans , Museums/trends , Parasitic Diseases/economics , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Parasitology/education , Parasitology/trends , Poverty , Snails/parasitology , Societies, Scientific , Soil/parasitology , Water/parasitology
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 572-577, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459519

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, have surpassed 5 million cases globally. Current models suggest that low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) will have a similar incidence but substantially lower mortality rate than high-income countries. However, malaria and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are prevalent in LMICs, and coinfections are likely. Both malaria and parasitic NTDs can alter immunologic responses to other infectious agents. Malaria can induce a cytokine storm and pro-coagulant state similar to that seen in severe COVID-19. Consequently, coinfections with malaria parasites and SARS-CoV-2 could result in substantially worse outcomes than mono-infections with either pathogen, and could shift the age pattern of severe COVID-19 to younger age-groups. Enhancing surveillance platforms could provide signals that indicate whether malaria, NTDs, and COVID-19 are syndemics (synergistic epidemics). Based on the prevalence of malaria and NTDs in specific localities, efforts to characterize COVID-19 in LMICs could be expanded by adding testing for malaria and NTDs. Such additional testing would allow the determination of the rates of coinfection and comparison of severity of outcomes by infection status, greatly improving the understanding of the epidemiology of COVID-19 in LMICs and potentially helping to mitigate its impact.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Syndemic , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/parasitology , Coinfection/virology , Developing Countries , Humans , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tropical Medicine
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