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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 836558, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776040

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to examine the mediation role of satisfaction with children on the association between contact with children (CCT) and healthy aging among middle-aged and older parents in China. Methods: Data from 9,575 parents over 45 years old were obtained from the 2018 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey. A multinomial logistic regression model was applied to measure the association between contact, satisfaction, and healthy aging with potential confounders controlled. We used the Sobel-Goodman Mediation test to analyze the mediation role of satisfaction on the association between types of CCT and healthy aging. Results: Parents with contact with adult children had higher satisfaction with children [for contact weekly (satisfied/unsatisfied): relative risk ratio (RRR) = 2.44, CI = 1.92-3.10] and higher healthy aging [for contact weekly (Q5/Q1): RRR = 1.41, CI = 1.13-1.77]. Satisfaction was strongly related to healthy aging [for satisfied (Q5/Q1): RRR = 3.44, CI = 2.14-5.51], and mediated 19.05% of healthy aging for weekly contact (Sobel test z = 4.338; indirect role = 0.014, CI = 0.011-0.018; direct role = 0.061, CI = 0.029-0.094). Subgroup analysis further revealed that satisfaction with contact played a partial mediating role between monthly contact and healthy aging in female and rural groups. Conclusions: Monthly CCT is more appropriate for older parents. Satisfaction with children in older parents seems to act as a significant and partial mediator of the relationship between contact and healthy aging. The contribution of satisfaction to healthy aging could be important to be considered and promoted in women and rural older parents, independent of CCT.


Subject(s)
Healthy Aging , Aged , Child , China , Female , Humans , Mediation Analysis , Middle Aged , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Personal Satisfaction
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(4): e27900, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of effectiveness studies when digital parent training programs are implemented in real-world practice. The efficacy of the internet-based and telephone-assisted Finnish Strongest Families Smart Website (SFSW) parent training intervention on the disruptive behavior of 4-year-old children was studied in a randomized controlled trial setting in Southwest Finland between 2011 and 2013. After that, the intervention was implemented nationwide in child health clinics from 2015 onwards. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to compare the treatment characteristics and effectiveness of the SFSW parent training intervention between the families who received the intervention when it was implemented as a normal practice in child health clinics and the families who received the same intervention during the randomized controlled trial. METHODS: The implementation group comprised 600 families who were recruited in the SFSW intervention between January 2015 and May 2017 in real-world implementation. The RCT intervention group comprised 232 families who were recruited between October 2011 and November 2013. The same demographic and child and parent measures were collected from both study groups and were compared using linear mixed-effect models for repeated measurements. The child psychopathology and functioning level were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) version 1.5-5 for preschool children, the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU), and a modified version of the Barkley Home Situations Questionnaire. Parenting skills were measured using the 31-item Parenting Scale and the shorter 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The estimated child and parent outcomes were adjusted for CBCL externalizing scores at baseline, maternal education, duration of the behavior problems, and paternal age. The baseline measurements of each outcome were used as covariates. RESULTS: The implementation group was more likely to complete the intervention than the RCT intervention group (514/600, 85.7% vs 176/232, 75.9%, respectively; P<.001). There were no significant differences between the implementation and RCT intervention groups with regard to child measures, including CBCL externalizing score (-0.2, 95% CI -1.3 to 1.6; P=.83), total score (-0.7, 95% CI -3.0 to 4.5; P=.70), internalizing score (-0.3, 95% CI -1.0 to 1.6; P=.64), and ICU total score (-0.4, 95% Cl -1.9 to 1.2; P=.64). No significant difference was detected in the Parenting Scale total score (0.0, 95% Cl -0.1 to 0.1; P=.50), while DASS-21 total score differed nearly significantly (2.5, 95% Cl 0.0-5.1; P=.05), indicating better improvement in the implementation group. CONCLUSIONS: The internet-based and telephone-assisted SFSW parent training intervention was effectively implemented in real-world settings. These findings have implications for addressing the unmet needs of children with disruptive behavior problems. Our initiative could also provide a quick socially distanced solution for the considerable mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01750996; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01750996. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/1471-2458-13-985.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Behavior Disorders , Problem Behavior , Child , Child Behavior Disorders/psychology , Child Behavior Disorders/therapy , Child, Preschool , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Problem Behavior/psychology , Telephone
3.
J Affect Disord ; 306: 1-8, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that family factors play an important role in adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Parent-child communication has attracted particular attention. However, it remains unclear whether parent-child communication affects PTSD and PTG via unique or shared underlying mechanisms. The study aim was to examine the effect of parent-child communication on PTSD and PTG via self-compassion and self-disclosure. METHODS: Self-report questionnaires were administered to 683 adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Open parent-child communication was positively associated with PTG and negatively associated with PTSD via two 1-step indirect paths of self-compassion and self-disclosure, and by one 2-step indirect path of self-compassion to self-disclosure. Problematic parent-child communication was negatively associated with PTG and positively associated with PTSD via two 1-step indirect paths of self-compassion and self-disclosure. LIMITATIONS: First, pandemics differ from other disasters, generalizing these findings to other traumatized populations must be cautious. Then, this was a cross-sectional study, so longitudinal effects could not be examined and causal relationships cannot be confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of parent-child communication have different influencing mechanisms on PTSD and PTG. Therefore, distinct intervention strategies are needed targeted to these two psychological reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disclosure , Humans , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(12): 1766-1767, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687400
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263016, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Substance use among adolescents in the U.S. is associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes in the long-term. Universal youth-focused substance use prevention programs have demonstrated effectiveness but are often not sustainable due to the significant amount of time, effort, and resources required. We describe a trial protocol for a brief, low-participant-burden intervention to improve substance use-specific parent-child communication through the promotion of family meals and increased parental engagement. METHODS: This study is a parallel-group randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of a 13-week intervention. A total of 500 dyads of parents and their 5th-7th grade children are recruited from across Massachusetts. Dyads are randomized to the intervention or attention-control condition using block urn randomization, based on child grade, gender, and school. Parents/guardians in the substance use preventive intervention arm receive a short handbook, attend two meetings with an interventionist, and receive two SMS messages per week. Parents/guardians in the control arm receive the same dose but with content focused on nutrition, physical activity, and weight stigma. Participant dyads submit videos of family meals, audio recordings of prompted conversations, and quantitative surveys over an 18-month period (baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18 months post-intervention). The primary outcomes measure the quantity and quality of parent-child substance use conversations and proximal child indicators (i.e., substance use attitudes and expectancies, affiliation with substance-using peers, and intentions and willingness to use substances). The secondary outcome is child substance use initiation. DISCUSSION: This is a novel, brief, communication-focused intervention for parents/guardians that was designed to reduce participant burden. The intervention has the potential to improve parent-child engagement and communication and conversations about substance use specifically and decrease child substance use risk factors and substance use initiation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03925220. Registered on 24 April 2019.


Subject(s)
Communication , Health Promotion/methods , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Adolescent , Case-Control Studies , Crisis Intervention , Humans , Meals , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
6.
J Fam Psychol ; 36(3): 325-336, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661943

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented challenging time for parents and adolescents. The present study examines the role of parent work-life conflict on adolescent adjustment (i.e., academic engagement and mental health) and family processes (i.e., parental mental health and parenting) as potential mediators for this association. A total of 692 middle school students (53.2% boys; Mage = 13.54 years, SDage = 0.58) and their parents (29.6% fathers and 70.4% mothers; Mage = 44.75 years, SDage = 4.14 years) completed an online survey in May 2020 in Beijing, China. Results indicated that many parents (24.6%) experienced work-life conflicts amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings also showed that parent work-life conflict was negatively associated with youth academic engagement and mental health indirectly through parental mental health difficulties and parenting behavior (parental control, autonomy granting, and parental involvement). In addition, parental mental health difficulties had direct and indirect effects on youth adjustment via parenting behaviors, such that parental involvement and autonomy granting predicted greater academic engagement and covitality (co-occurrence of positive traits and positive mental health), whereas the parental control predicted youth mental health difficulties. Our findings extend prior research by examining the pathways linking parental work-life conflict to youth adjustment during COVID-19. Findings are discussed in terms of how to better support families and promote better youth academic engagement and well-being during COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parenting , Adolescent , Adult , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology
8.
Acad Pediatr ; 22(3): 413-421, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between parent and adolescent reports of adolescent recreational screen time and to determine sociodemographic predictors of recreational screen time reporting differences during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (N = 5335, ages 10-14) a national prospective cohort study in the United States collected in May 2020. We compared parent-reported, adolescent-reported, and a parent-adolescent differences in recreational screen time hours per day across 5 screen categories. RESULTS: Adolescents' total recreational screen time per day was reported as 4.46 hours by parents and 3.87 hours by adolescents. Parents reported higher levels of their child's texting, video chatting, and total recreational screen time, while adolescents reported higher multiplayer gaming and social media use. Larger discrepancies in total recreational screen time were found in older, Black, and Latino/Hispanic adolescents. Larger discrepancies in total recreational screen time were also found among unmarried/unpartnered parents. CONCLUSIONS: Given discrepancies in parent-adolescent recreational screen time reporting during the pandemic, a period of high screen use, pediatricians should encourage family discussions about adolescent media use through the development of a Family Media Use Plan. The digital media industry could provide more opportunities for parental monitoring of recreational screen time within product designs.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Aged , Child , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Prospective Studies , Screen Time , United States/epidemiology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599612

ABSTRACT

Parents of children with ASD experience a higher incidence of mental health difficulties, including stress, depression, and anxiety, than parents of children without ASD. According to studies related to ASD, parent-child physical activity programs are an effective approach to encourage both parents and their children with ASD to exercise together, thus improving the mental health of parents due to this interactive family activity. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of this web-based parent-child physical activity program on the mental health of parents of children with ASD. A total of 94 parent-child pairs consented to participate in this study, and 75 parent-child pairs completed the study. Three instruments-DASS-21, PSI-4-SF, and WHOQOL-26-were used to measure mental health, parental stress, and quality of life, respectively. A randomized controlled trial design was implemented to examine the effectiveness of the 10-week web-based parent-child physical activity program on improving the mental health of parents of children with ASD. The results showed that after the 10-week parent-child physical activity program, there were significant differences in overall DASS-21 and PSI-4-SF for the experimental group, compared with control group (p < 0.05), which indicated that the parent-child physical activity program has a positive influence on mental health in parents of children with ASD. One sub-area of WHOQOL-26 between the experimental and control groups across pre-/post-testing intervals also showed greater reductions in the item of psychological health (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the findings demonstrated the efficacy of the web-based parent-child physical activity program for improving mental health in parents of children with ASD.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Mental Health , Exercise , Humans , Internet , Parent-Child Relations , Quality of Life
10.
Fam Process ; 61(1): 76-90, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583568

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic has been highly stressful for parents and children, it is clear that strategies that promote long-term family resilience are needed to protect families in future crises. One such strategy, the Family Foundations program, is focused on promoting supportive coparenting at the transition to parenthood. In a randomized trial, we tested the long-term intervention effects of Family Foundations on parent, child, and family well-being one to two months after the imposition of a national shelter-in-place public health intervention in 2020. We used regression models to test intervention impact on outcomes reported on by parents in a standard questionnaire format and a series of 8 days of daily reports. We also tested moderation of intervention impact by parent depression and coparenting relationship quality. Relative to control families, intervention families demonstrated significantly lower levels of individual and family problems (general parent hostility, harsh and aggressive parenting, coparenting conflict, sibling relationship conflict, and children's negative mood and behavior problems), and higher levels of positive family relationship quality (positive parenting, couple relationship quality, sibling relations, and family cohesion). For some outcomes, including coparenting conflict, harsh parenting, and child behavior problems, intervention effects were larger for more vulnerable families-that is, families with higher pre-pandemic levels of parent depression or lower levels of coparenting relationship quality. We conclude that targeted family prevention programming is able to promote healthy parent and child functioning during unforeseen future periods of acute stress. The long-term benefits of a universal approach to family support at the transition to parenthood indicate the need for greater investment in the dissemination of effective approaches.


Dado que la pandemia de COVID-19 ha sido muy estresante para padres e hijos, está claro que se necesitan estrategias que promuevan la resiliencia familiar a largo plazo para proteger a las familias en crisis futuras. Una de esas estrategias, el programa Family Foundations, se centra en promover la crianza compartida de apoyo en la transición a la paternidad. En un ensayo aleatorizado, probamos los efectos de la intervención a largo plazo de Family Foundations en el bienestar de los padres, el niño y la familia uno o dos meses después de la imposición de una intervención nacional de salud pública de refugio en el lugar en 2020. Usamos modelos de regresión para evaluar el impacto de la intervención en los resultados informados por los padres en un formato de cuestionario estándar y una serie de 8 días de informes diarios. También probamos la moderación del impacto de la intervención por la depresión de los padres y la calidad de la relación de coparentalidad. En relación con las familias de control, las familias de intervención demostraron niveles significativamente más bajos de problemas individuales y familiares (hostilidad general de los padres, crianza dura y agresiva, conflicto de crianza conjunta, conflicto de relaciones entre hermanos y problemas de comportamiento y estado de ánimo negativos de los niños) y niveles más altos de calidad de relación familiar positiva (crianza positiva, calidad de la relación de pareja, relaciones entre hermanos y cohesión familiar). Para algunos resultados, incluido el conflicto de crianza compartida, la crianza severa y los problemas de comportamiento infantil, los efectos de la intervención fueron mayores para las familias más vulnerables, es decir, familias con niveles más altos de depresión de los padres prepandémicos o niveles más bajos de calidad de la relación de crianza compartida. Concluimos que los programas de prevención familiar específicos pueden promover el funcionamiento saludable de padres e hijos durante períodos futuros imprevistos de estrés agudo. Los beneficios a largo plazo de un enfoque universal del apoyo familiar en la transición a la paternidad indican la necesidad de una mayor inversión en la difusión de enfoques eficaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child Behavior , Family Health , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parent-Child Relations , Parenting , Parents
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580712

ABSTRACT

Social learning experiences developed through engagement in community cultural activities can affect a child's development. Few studies have examined how children's engagement in community activities is related to their mental health. This study aimed to examine associations between children's participation in community cultural activities and their mental health. We targeted all sixth-grade children in all 69 primary schools in Adachi City, Tokyo, using the Adachi Child Health Impact of Living Difficulty (A-CHILD) study (n = 4391). Parents answered the validated Japanese version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to assess child mental health, the child's engagement in community cultural activities. The community activity in which children most frequently participated was local festivals. Participating in local festivals was significantly associated with lower behavioral difficulties (ß = -0.49, SE = 0.17, p = 0.005) and higher prosocial behaviors (ß = 0.25, SE = 0.07, p < 0.001) after adjusting for demographic variables, family social capital, and parent-child interactions. These results highlight the importance of children's engagement in community cultural activities for their mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23375, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550338

ABSTRACT

To investigate associations between parent-child relationships, children's externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and lifestyle responses to the COVID-19 epidemic, we conducted an online survey of a random, representative sample of residents with children aged 3-17 years during mid-March 2020 in Wuhan and Shanghai, China. A total of 1655 parents and children were surveyed with a response rate of 80.1% in the survey. During the epidemic, the frequency of children enquiring about the epidemic (AOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.06), parents explaining the epidemic to them (AOR = 2.87, 95% CI: 1.80, 4.58), parents expressing negative emotions in front of them (AOR = 2.62; 95% CI = 2.08-3.30), and parents with more irritable attitudes (AOR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.33-2.81) were significantly associated with children's externalizing symptoms. For internalizing symptoms, significant associations were found with worse parent-child closeness (AOR = 2.93; 95% CI = 1.80-4.79), the frequency of parents expressing negative emotions in front of them (AOR = 2.64; 95% CI = 1.68, 4.12), and more irritable attitudes (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.42-3.55). We also found that each indicator of parent-child relationships had the significantly similar associations with children's lifestyle behaviors. These findings suggest that improving parents' attitudes towards their children and parent-child closeness during the epidemic, especially among parents with lower educational levels, are important to ensure the wellbeing of children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Child Behavior/psychology , Life Style , Parent-Child Relations , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538401

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), adolescents in 70 countries have suffered the COVID-19 pandemic and flood disasters simultaneously. Although antecedent cyberbullying variables have attracted significant research attention, the effects of psychological distress and the potential mechanisms of cyberbullying among adolescents under multiple disasters remains unclear. Based on social-ecological system theory, this study examines the moderating effects of parent-child relationships and the negotiable fate on the relationship between psychological distress and cyberbullying. A total of 1204 middle school students (52.4% boys) who suffered from floods and the COVID-19 pandemic from Zhengzhou City, China, are the participants. The results reveal that psychological distress was positively related to adolescent cyberbullying during a disaster. Parent-child relationships and negotiable fate significantly moderate the relationship between psychological distress and cyberbullying. Specifically, high parent-child relationships and a high negotiable fate could protect adolescents from the negative effects of psychological distress of cyberbullying. For adolescents with low or high parent-child relationships and low negotiable fate, the links between psychological distress and cyberbullying are stronger. These findings underline the significance of considering the interaction of psychological distress, parent-child relationships, and negotiable fate when examining adolescents' cyberbullying during disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyberbullying , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Female , Floods , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1719-1734, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527991

ABSTRACT

To slow down the spread of the COVID-19 virus, schools around the world were closed in early 2020, transferring children's scholastic activities to the homes and imposing a massive burden on parents and school-age children. Using data of a 21-day diary study conducted between March and April 2020 in Germany, this work examined whether (a) distance learning and (b) parents' involvement therein were associated with negative parent-child interactions and affective well-being of parents and children, over and above the effect of daily stressors. Participants were 562 parents (489 mothers, Mage = 42.79, SDage = 6.12, range = 25-63) most of whom were married (n = 382, 68.0%). They responded to the daily items with respect to the youngest child living in their household (Mage = 9.74, SDage = 2.81, range = 6-19). On days when children were working on school tasks, parents reported more negative parent-child interactions as well as lower parental and child positive affect and higher child negative affect, but not higher parental negative affect. Moreover, days when parents were more heavily involved in learning (i.e., when children worked less independently) were days with more negative parent-child interactions, lower parental and child positive affect, and higher parental and child negative affect. Negative parent-child interactions were linked to lower affective well-being of parents and children, and partially accounted for the relation among daily stressors and affective well-being. The present work highlights the need for measures to better support school-age children and their parents during distance learning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1735-1747, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527989

ABSTRACT

School reopening during COVID-19 can be a particularly stressful transition for many adolescents. However, little is known about the impact of parent-child relationships on adolescents' mental health during this transition. Using a 2-wave longitudinal design, this research examined the role of parent-child conflict and intimacy in adolescents' psychological distress after school reopening. Immediately before school reopening, 879 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.14 years, 51% girls) reported on their parent-child conflict and intimacy. They also reported on their depressive symptoms and anger problems before and 3 months after school reopening. Youth who reported higher levels of parent-child conflict and lower levels of parent-child intimacy before school reopening were more likely to show increased depressive symptoms and anger problems over time. Moreover, the moderating role of parent-child conflict and intimacy in the link between youth's perceived stress toward school reopening and psychological distress was investigated. Specifically, parent-child conflict moderated the impact of youth's perceived stress on their psychological distress, such that greater perceived stress was only linked with more psychological distress over time in families with higher levels of parent-child conflict, but not in families with lower levels of parent-child conflict. Taken together, the findings highlight the important role of parent-child relationships in shaping adolescent's mental health as they return to school, which provides key insights into reducing adolescents' psychological distress during the transition of school reopening in COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , China , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
16.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1597-1610, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527988

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article was to explore how family chaos, parenting processes, parent-child relationship qualities, and sibling relationship qualities changed before versus the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants included one parent and two adolescent-aged children from 682 families (2,046 participants). Parents and youth participating in an ongoing longitudinal study in five Midwestern states in the United States completed an additional web-based assessment of family processes and family relationship qualities during the May-June 2020 pandemic-related shutdowns. A series of two-wave latent change score models indicated that family chaos increased with the onset of pandemic-related shutdowns and that the level of chaos within a family during the shutdowns had implications for changes in several parenting processes and family relationship qualities. Specifically, higher levels of family chaos during the pandemic mitigated observed increases in parental knowledge and were associated with declines in parental autonomy granting. Family chaos during pandemic-related shutdowns also was associated with increases in maternal-child conflict, paternal-child conflict, and sibling conflict as well as decreases in paternal-child intimacy, sibling intimacy, and sibling disclosure. Overall, consistent with a family stress perspective, the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increased strain and commotion within many households, and these changes had implications for multiple family relationships. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Aged , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Parent-Child Relations , Parenting , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1611-1622, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527987

ABSTRACT

The extensive measures to prevent spread of COVID-19 have had a major impact on families' daily lives. Changes in family routines and experiences of COVID-19-related stress might negatively impact the quality of parenting and the parent-adolescent relationship. However, using active coping strategies might be associated with limited negative or even positive changes in the parent-adolescent relationship. This longitudinal, multi-informant, and pre-registered study used data of 240 mostly Dutch parents (85% mothers; Mage = 44.2 years old) and adolescents (50% girls; Mage = 11.4 years) from diverse SES backgrounds. Using Latent Change Score models, we examined how parent-reported parenting (i.e., positive parenting and discipline practices) and adolescent-reported relationship quality (i.e., support and negative interaction) changed from pre-COVID-19 (Fall 2019) to the COVID-19 period (Spring 2020). Moreover, we investigated whether parents' and adolescents' level of COVID-19-related stress was associated with the change in relationships, and whether active coping moderated the association between stress and changes in relationships. Results showed average decreases in support, positive parenting, and negative interactions between parents and adolescents. COVID-19-related stress was not a direct predictor of relationship changes and there was little evidence of moderating effects. Only adolescents' use of active coping strategies moderated the effect of stress on positive parenting. For high active coping adolescents, the link between stress and change in positive parenting was negative, whereas for low active coping adolescents this link was positive. The findings suggest that parent-adolescent relationships during a pandemic need attention, especially for adolescents with high stress levels and using active coping strategies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parenting , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1582-1596, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527985

ABSTRACT

This Dutch multi-informant study examined effects of the first COVID-19 lockdown (LD; e.g., school closure and social restrictions) on parent-adolescent relationships. Four biweekly measurements before and 4 biweekly measurements during the LD were collected among adolescents (N = 179, Mage = 14.26 years, 69% girls) and their parents (N = 144, Mage = 47.01 years, 81% female). Parents' educational level was relatively diverse: 12% low (high school or lower), 33% medium (vocational training), and 55% high (college or university). Adolescents and parents reported on parental support, parent-adolescent conflict, autonomy support, psychological control, behavioral control, and time spent on various activities. Adolescents spent more time with their parents during LD (before M = 8.6 hr, during M = 12.7 hr), but less time with friends (before M = 8.1 hr, during M = 2.1 hr), and reported on average 13 COVID-19-related rules. Preregistered piecewise growth models confirmed that autonomy support decreased immediately during the LD, but no mean level changes were observed in the other relationship dimensions. During the first 2 months of the LD, parents reported gradual increases in autonomy support and decreases in behavioral control. Moreover, significant differences between families were found in sudden and more gradual relationship changes, which correlated strongly with pre-LD characteristics of the relationship, and in some models with adolescent oppositional defiance and legitimacy beliefs. In sum, findings suggest resilience in most families, but also heterogeneity: Some families were negatively affected, and others were positively affected. A tailored approach is therefore needed to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on family functioning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parenting , Adolescent , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1667-1680, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527982

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was an unprecedented global public health emergency with a significant psychological toll. This study aimed to understand how specific COVID-19 related stressors contributed to Chinese parents' fear induction practices, and how these practices, in turn, contributed to their children's disease prevention practices during the outbreak and depressive symptoms after the outbreak. Parents (N = 240, Mage = 38.50 years, 75% mothers) with elementary-school-age children (Mage = 9.48 years, 46% girls) in Wenzhou, 1 of the most impacted cities in China, reported on the presence of confirmed or suspected cases in their communities, their frequencies of consuming COVID-19-related information, fear induction practices, and their children's trait anxiety and disease prevention practices during the outbreak (January 28-30, 2020). Child-reported depressive symptoms were collected between March 7-11, 2020; during which there were very few remaining cases and no new confirmed cases or deaths. Parents' higher frequency of virus-related information consumption but not the presence of community infection was associated with their engagement in more fear induction practices, which was in turn associated with children's greater engagement in prevention practices during the outbreak, but more postquarantine depressive symptoms. Child trait anxiety exacerbated the association between parent fear induction and child depressive symptoms. Using fear induction parenting may promote children's willingness to cooperate and participate in disease prevention practices during the crisis but at the cost of children's long-term mental health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parenting , Child , Child Health , Disease Outbreaks , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
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