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1.
Nutr Hosp ; 39(2): 266-272, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772018

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Background: it is unknown whether patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to COVID-19 are at greater risk of developing complications associated with parenteral nutrition (PN). Aim: to describe the incidence, risk factors, and clinical impact of complications in patients with ARDS-COVID-19 receiving PN. Methods: a prospective cohort study of 87 patients with ARDS-COVID-19 infection. The incidence of complications and odds ratios of risk factors were analysed. Results: age ≥ 65 years (OR, 2.52, 95 % CI: 1.16 to 5.46), obesity (OR, 3.34, 95 % CI: 2.35 to 4.33) and treatment with propofol (OR, 2.45, 95 % CI: 1.55 to 3.35) or lopinavir/ritonavir (OR, 4.98, 95 % CI: 3.60 to 6.29) were risk factors for hipertriglyceridemia. Obesity (OR, 3.11, 95 % CI: 1.10 to 8.75), dyslipidemia (OR, 3.22, 95 % CI: 1.23 to 8.40) or treatment with propofol (OR, 5.47, 95 % CI: 1.97 to 15.1) were risk factors for intravascular catheter-related infection. No risk factors were described for hiperglycemia. Mortality was higher in patients with intravascular catheter-related infection (46.7 % vs 10.8 %, p = 0.014). Mortality risk was higher in older patients (OR, 2.74, 95 % CI: 1.08 to 6.95) or patients with intravascular catheter-related infection (OR, 3.22, 95 % CI: 1.23 to 8.40). Conclusions: the incidence of complications associated with PN in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS is frequent. The mortality risk is higher in older patients or those with catheter-related infection.


Introducción: Introducción: se desconoce si los pacientes diagnosticados de infección respiratoria aguda por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) presentan más riesgo de complicaciones asociadas a la nutrición parenteral (NP). Objetivo: conocer la incidencia, los factores de riesgo y la mortalidad de las complicaciones asociadas a la NP en esta población. Métodos: estudio de cohortes prospectivo de 87 pacientes diagnosticados de infección por SARS-CoV-2. Se analizan la tasa de incidencia de las complicaciones y las odds ratio (OR) de diferentes factores. Resultados: la edad ≥ 65 años (OR: 2,52, IC 95 %: 1,16 a 5,46), los antecedentes de obesidad (OR: 3,34, IC 95 %: 2,35 a 4,33) y el tratamiento con propofol (OR: 2,45, IC 95 %: 1,55 a 3,35) o lopinavir/ritonavir (OR: 4,98, IC 95 %: 3,60 a 6,29) se asociaron al desarrollo de hipertrigliceridemia. Los pacientes con obesidad (OR: 3,11, IC 95 %: 1,10 a 8,75) o dislipemia (OR: 3,22, IC 95 %: 1,23 a 8,40) y los tratados con propofol (OR: 5,47, IC 95 %: 1,97 a 15,1) presentaron mayor riesgo de infección asociada al catéter (IAC). No se observó ningún factor de riesgo relacionado con el desarrollo de hiperglucemia. La mortalidad fue mayor en los pacientes con IAC (46,7 % vs. 10,8 %, p = 0,014). El riesgo de mortalidad fue superior en los enfermos de ≥ 65 años (OR: 2,74, IC 95 %: 1,08 a 6,95) o con IAC (OR: 3,22, IC 95 %: 1,23 a 8,40). Conclusiones: la incidencia de complicaciones asociadas a la NP en pacientes diagnosticados de infección por SARS-CoV-2 es elevada. El riesgo de mortalidad es superior en los enfermos mayores de 65 años o con IAC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Parenteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 45(S2): 79-84, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767367

ABSTRACT

Despite a mounting evidentiary base, controversies surrounding critical care nutrition support persist. Anchored by a case of a 60-year-old male with esophageal cancer who develops acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and septic shock, five panelists from the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) 2021 Pre-Conference discuss key clinical dilemmas in critical care nutrition, including hierarchy of evidence, bedside evaluation of malnutrition, optimal protein dose, use of fiber, and therapies targeting gut function and gut microbiota .


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Malnutrition , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Enteral Nutrition , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/therapy , Middle Aged , Nutritional Support , Parenteral Nutrition
3.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients who are critically ill with COVID-19 could have impaired nutrient absorption due to disruption of the normal intestinal mucosa. They are often in a state of high inflammation, increased stress and catabolism as well as a significant increase in energy and protein requirements. Therefore, timely enteral nutrition support and the provision of optimal nutrients are essential in preventing malnutrition in these patients. AIM: This review aims to evaluate the effects of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHOD: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted based on the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-Analysis framework and PICO. Searches were conducted in databases, including EMBASE, Health Research databases and Google Scholar. Searches were conducted from database inception until 3 February 2022. The reference lists of articles were also searched for relevant articles. RESULTS: Seven articles were included in the systematic review, and four articles were included in the meta-analysis. Two distinct areas were identified from the results of the systematic review and meta-analysis: the impact of enteral nutrition and gastrointestinal intolerance associated with enteral nutrition. The impact of enteral nutrition was further sub-divided into early enteral nutrition versus delayed enteral nutrition and enteral nutrition versus parenteral nutrition. The results of the meta-analysis of the effects of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients with COVID-19 showed that, overall, enteral nutrition was effective in significantly reducing the risk of mortality in these patients compared with the control with a risk ratio of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79, 0.99, p = 0.04). Following sub-group analysis, the early enteral nutrition group also showed a significant reduction in the risk of mortality with a risk ratio of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79, 1.00, p = 0.05). The Relative Risk Reduction (RRR) of mortality in patients with COVID-19 by early enteral nutrition was 11%. There was a significant reduction in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score in the early enteral nutrition group compared with the delayed enteral nutrition group. There was no significant difference between enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in relation to mortality (RR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.59, 1.28, p = 0.48). Concerning the length of hospital stay, length of ICU stay and days on mechanical ventilation, while there were reductions in the number of days in the enteral nutrition group compared to the control (delayed enteral nutrition or parenteral nutrition), the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results showed that early enteral nutrition significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the risk of mortality among critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, early enteral nutrition or enteral nutrition did not significantly (p > 0.05) reduce the length of hospital stay, length of ICU stay and days on mechanical ventilation compared to delayed enteral nutrition or parenteral nutrition. More studies are needed to examine the effect of early enteral nutrition in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enteral Nutrition , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Humans , Parenteral Nutrition/methods , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 45(S2): 41-46, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718419

ABSTRACT

Advances in treatment of malignancy including novel pharmacologic therapies and surgical interventions has led to significant improvement in survival. As cancer becomes a chronic disease, nutrition interventions play an increasingly important role in short- and long-term outcomes. The current manuscript presents a case of a 66-year-old male with new diagnosis of pancreatic cancer diagnosed incidentally in the setting of COVID-19. Expert panelists in the field of nutrition discuss optimal strategies for diagnosis of malnutrition along with preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative optimization of nutrition. This discussion focuses on the use of probiotics, immune-modulating nutrition, fish oil, specialized proresolving mediators, and use of enteral and parenteral nutrition support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nutrition Disorders , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Aged , Humans , Nutrition Disorders/therapy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pancreatic Neoplasms/therapy , Parenteral Nutrition , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 48: 17-20, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693775

ABSTRACT

The nutritional status of everyone represents a fundamental element to maintain a good health and it can be related to infectious agents in some disorders. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition should be included in the management of SARS-CoV-2 patients in order to improve both short- and long-term prognosis. In Covid patients the choice of route of administration for nutrition is closely related to respiratory autonomy. In subjects who are not mechanically ventilated or with non-invasive ventilation (NIV), spontaneous oral feeding is strongly indicated, while considering the patient's comorbidity, chewing ability and swallowing. If this is not possible or if it is not possible to meet the appropriate nutritional needs, it is necessary to resort to artificial nutrition (enteral or parenteral). Enteral nutrition (EN) is preferred to parenteral nutrition (PN) because it allows to maintain the trophism of the gastrointestinal tract, involving a lower risk of infectious complications and it is easier to manage. PN is usually used in patients in whom NE is not feasible, insufficient or contraindicated, or in patients with invasive total mechanical ventilation. Based on these considerations, it would be necessary to develop a targeted nutritional pathway in order to support the management of Covid patients. In the nutritional management of these patients, the role of the hospital pharmacists is fundamental. They collaborate with clinicians, nutritionist, dieticians and speech therapists to choose the most appropriate nutrition, based on the clinical characteristics of the patient and on the availability of nutritional formulations in the therapeutic guide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacists , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Parenteral Nutrition , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580548

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the new coronavirus strain SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) highlighted the need for appropriate feeding practices among critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This study aimed to describe feeding practices of intubated COVID-19 patients during their second week of hospitalization in the First Department of Critical Care Medicine, Evaggelismos General Hospital, and evaluate potential associations with all cause 30-day mortality, length of hospital stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. We enrolled adult intubated COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU between September 2020 and July 2021 and prospectively monitored until their hospital discharge. Of the 162 patients analyzed (52.8% men, 51.6% overweight/obese, mean age 63.2 ± 11.9 years), 27.2% of patients used parenteral nutrition, while the rest were fed enterally. By 30 days, 34.2% of the patients in the parenteral group had died compared to 32.7% of the patients in the enteral group (relative risk (RR) for the group receiving enteral nutrition = 0.97, 95% confidence interval = 0.88-1.06, p = 0.120). Those in the enteral group demonstrated a lower duration of hospital stay (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85-0.97, p = 0.036) as well as mechanical ventilation support (RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89-0.99, p = 0.043). Enteral feeding during second week of ICU hospitalization may be associated with a shorter duration of hospitalization and stay in mechanical ventilation support among critically ill intubated patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Enteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , Parenteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Critical Illness , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Enteral Nutrition/mortality , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Parenteral Nutrition/methods , Parenteral Nutrition/mortality , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(6): 1269-1276, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485616

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic has had direct implications for clinical nutrition teams (NT), both at an organizational and healthcare level. Since March 2020, expert recommendations on nutritional intervention for patients with COVID-19 have been available. Objectives: to describe the nutritional intervention that has been carried out in patients with COVID-19, to estimate the presence of clinical dietitians-nutritionists (DN) in hospitals in Catalonia, and to know the organization of NTs. Methods: a cross-sectional study through an online survey directed to clinical DNs at hospitals in Catalonia (March 2021) was made. Results: the surveys of 36 NTs, made up of 104 DNs, have been analysed. A total of 44.44 % of NTs had to interrupt or reduce some of their usual activities during the pandemic. When nutritional screening was used, it was carried out early (24-48 h) in 56.25 % of cases, and the most common tool was the NRS-2002 (66.67 %). In 41.67 % of NTs a specific hospital diet was established, this being generally hyperproteic (89.66 %). Oral nutritional supplementation was systematically prescribed by 41.67 % of NTs, prioritizing hyperproteic (97.14 %) and hypercaloric (74.29 %) formulas. It is estimated that clinical DNs are present in approximately 61.54 % of public acute hospitals in Catalonia. Conclusions: the results reflect the adaptive capacity of NTs, reorganizing and redistributing their usual tasks and establishing infrequent measures to ensure nutritional support.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Introducción: la pandemia por COVID-19 ha tenido implicaciones directas en los equipos de nutrición (EN) clínica a nivel tanto organizativo como asistencial. Desde marzo de 2020 se dispone de recomendaciones de expertos sobre la intervención nutricional en pacientes con COVID-19. Objetivos: describir la intervención nutricional que se ha llevado a cabo en los pacientes con COVID-19, estimar la presencia de dietistas-nutricionistas (DN) clínicos en los hospitales de Cataluña y conocer la organización de los EN. Métodos: estudio transversal realizado a través de una encuesta online dirigida a los DN clínicos de los hospitales de Cataluña (marzo 2021). Resultados: se han analizado las encuestas de 36 EN, formados por 104 DN. El 44,44 % de los EN han tenido que dejar de hacer o reducir alguna de sus actividades habituales durante la pandemia. Cuando se ha empleado el cribado nutricional, este se ha realizado de forma precoz (24-48 h) en el 56,25 % de los casos y la herramienta más común ha sido el NRS-2002 (66,67 %). El 41,67 % de los EN han instaurado una dieta hospitalaria específica, siendo esta generalmente hiperproteica (89,66 %). El 41,67 % de los EN han pautado la suplementación nutricional oral de forma sistemática, priorizando las fórmulas hiperproteicas (97,14 %) e hipercalóricas (74,29 %). Se estima que la figura del DN clínico está presente en aproximadamente el 61,54 % de los hospitales de agudos públicos de Cataluña. Conclusiones: los resultados reflejan la capacidad de adaptación de los EN, reorganizando y redistribuyendo sus tareas habituales e instaurando medidas poco habituales para asegurar el soporte nutricional.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nutritionists/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Energy Intake , Enteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritionists/organization & administration , Parenteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors
8.
Curr Nutr Rep ; 10(4): 288-299, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482319

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique disease process that has caused unprecedented challenges for intensive care specialists. The hyperinflammatory hypermetabolic nature of the disease and the complexity of its management create barriers to the delivery of nutritional therapy. This review identifies the key differences which characterize this pandemic from other disease processes in critical illness and discusses alternative strategies to enhance success of nutritional support. RECENT FINDINGS: Prolonged hyperinflammation, unlike any previously described pattern of response to injury, causes metabolic perturbations and deterioration of nutritional status. High ventilatory demands, hypercoagulation with the risk of bowel ischemia, and threat of aspiration in patients with little or no pulmonary reserve, thwart initial efforts to provide early enteral nutrition (EN). The obesity paradox is invalidated, tolerance of EN is limited, intensivists are reluctant to add supplemental parenteral nutrition (PN), and efforts to give sufficient nutritional therapy remain a low priority. The nature of the disease and difficulties providing traditional critical care nutrition lead to dramatic deterioration of nutritional status. Institutions should not rely on insufficient gastric feeding alone but focus instead on redoubling efforts to provide postpyloric deep duodenal/jejunal EN or re-examine the role of supplemental PN in this population of patients with such severe critical illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Critical Care , Humans , Nutritional Status , Parenteral Nutrition , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 46: 206-209, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: SARS-CoV-2 infection includes a variety of gastrointestinal manifestations along with the usual viral symptoms of malaise and myalgias. The objective of this study was to determine if intravenous parenteral nutrition (PN) affected the risk of intubation in SARS-CoV-2 patients who were dependent on non-invasive ventilation. METHODS: Retrospective, multicenter case-control study which analyzed oxygen requirements for 1974 adults with SARS-CoV-2, who were admitted to the local public hospital system between March 1 and May 17, 2020. Relevant baseline biomarkers were studied over 5 days. The main outcome was an escalation or de-escalation of oxygen requirements relative to the exposure of PN. RESULTS: 111 patients received PN while on non-invasive ventilation. Patients who received PN had a significantly lower odds (p < 0.001) of oxygen escalation in comparison to their control group counterparts (OR = 0.804, 95% CI 0.720, 0.899) when matched for age, body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, and gender. CONCLUSION: Initiating PN in the setting of non-invasive ventilation of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients was significantly associated with a lower odds of oxygen escalation. PN does not independently exacerbate oxygen requirements in SARS-CoV-2 infected pre-intubated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Oxygen , Parenteral Nutrition , Retrospective Studies
10.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 45(8): 1683-1689, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460225

ABSTRACT

The 2020 Dudrick Research Symposium, entitled "Expanding the Boundaries of Cancer Care Through Nutritional Support," was held on March 30, at the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN), Nutrition Science & Practice Conference. It was scheduled to take place in Tampa, Florida, but had to be held virtually. The Dudrick Symposium honors the many pivotal and innovative contributions made by the late Dr Stanley J. Dudrick, physician scientist, academic leader, and a founding member of ASPEN. This year, in addition to honoring his legacy, we honored his life. As the 2019 recipient of the Dudrick Research Scholar Award, Dr Pimiento chaired the symposium. The presentations focused on discussing the history, the present and future frontiers in the overlapping fields of nutrition support and cancer care. The late Dr John Daly opened the presentation with a moving tribute to Dr Dudrick's life and then spoke about the impact of nutrition support on surgical care and outcomes for cancer patients. Dr Pimiento discussed the role of nutraceuticals for cancer chemoprevention, and the level 1 clinical evidence surrounding this topic. Dr Kraemer explored the role of exercise physiology for optimal nutrient utilization and the overlap between targeted physical activity and nutrition support to obtain better outcomes on the cancer population. The symposium was closed by Dr Stephen Hursting, who discussed the impact of obesity in the soaring cancer rates and its relationship with clinical outcomes. In this article, we cover the presentations by Drs Pimiento and Kraemer.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Nutritional Support , Enteral Nutrition , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Nutritional Status , Obesity , Parenteral Nutrition
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While consent exists, that nutritional status has prognostic impact in the critically ill, the optimal feeding strategy has been a matter of debate. METHODS: Narrative review of the recent evidence and international guideline recommendations focusing on basic principles of nutrition in the ICU and the treatment of specific patient groups. Covered topics are: the importance and diagnosis of malnutrition in the ICU, the optimal timing and route of nutrition, energy and protein requirements, the supplementation of specific nutrients, as well as monitoring and complications of a Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT). Furthermore, this review summarizes the available evidence to optimize the MNT of patients grouped by primarily affected organ system. RESULTS: Due to the considerable heterogeneity of the critically ill, MNT should be carefully adapted to the individual patient with special focus on phase of critical illness, metabolic tolerance, leading symptoms, and comorbidities. CONCLUSION: MNT in the ICU is complex and requiring an interdisciplinary approach and frequent reevaluation. The impact of personalized and disease-specific MNT on patient-centered clinical outcomes remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Food, Formulated , Malnutrition/therapy , Nutritional Status , Nutritional Support , Energy Intake , Enteral Nutrition , Food, Formulated/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Nutritional Support/adverse effects , Nutritive Value , Parenteral Nutrition , Treatment Outcome
12.
Nutrition ; 91-92: 111467, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442501

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Zinc and copper are important to protect cells from oxidative stress and to enhance immunity. An association between low zinc levels and the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome has been shown for people with COVID-19. We aimed to study serum zinc and copper concentrations in people with severe COVID-19 and zinc supplementation in parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: Thirty-five people with COVID-19 in need of PN were studied in a retrospective design. Serum samples were collected at three time points: at the start of PN, between 3 and 7 d after, and at the end of PN. RESULTS: Participants were on PN for a mean of 14 d, with a mean (± SD) daily supplemental zinc of 14.8 ± 3.7 mg/d. Serum zinc increased during PN administration from 98.8 ± 22.8 to 114.1 ± 23.3 µg/dL (Wilks' λ = 0.751, F = 5.459, P = 0.009). Conversely, serum copper did not vary from baseline (107.9 ± 34.2 µg/dL) to the end of the study (104.5 ± 37.4 µg/dL, Wilks' λ = 0.919, F = 1.453, P = 0.248). Serum zinc within the first week after starting PN and at the end of PN inversely correlated with total hospital stay (r = -0.413, P = 0.014, and r = -0.386, P = 0.022, respectively). Participants in critical condition presented lower serum copper (z = 2.615, P = 0.007). Mortality was not associated with supplemental zinc or with serum zinc or copper concentrations at any time of the study (P > 0.1 for all analyses). CONCLUSIONS: Serum zinc concentrations during PN support were inversely associated with length of hospital stay but not with mortality. Serum copper concentrations were lower in participants in critical condition but not associated with prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Copper , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Parenteral Nutrition , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc
13.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374478

ABSTRACT

We aimed to study the possible association of stress hyperglycemia in COVID-19 critically ill patients with prognosis, artificial nutrition, circulating osteocalcin, and other serum markers of inflammation and compare them with non-COVID-19 patients. Fifty-two critical patients at the intensive care unit (ICU), 26 with COVID-19 and 26 non-COVID-19, were included. Glycemic control, delivery of artificial nutrition, serum osteocalcin, total and ICU stays, and mortality were recorded. Patients with COVID-19 had higher ICU stays, were on artificial nutrition for longer (p = 0.004), and needed more frequently insulin infusion therapy (p = 0.022) to control stress hyperglycemia. The need for insulin infusion therapy was associated with higher energy (p = 0.001) and glucose delivered through artificial nutrition (p = 0.040). Those patients with stress hyperglycemia showed higher ICU stays (23 ± 17 vs. 11 ± 13 days, p = 0.007). Serum osteocalcin was a good marker for hyperglycemia, as it inversely correlated with glycemia at admission in the ICU (r = -0.476, p = 0.001) and at days 2 (r = -0.409, p = 0.007) and 3 (r = -0.351, p = 0.049). In conclusion, hyperglycemia in critically ill COVID-19 patients was associated with longer ICU stays. Low circulating osteocalcin was a good marker for stress hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hyperglycemia/blood , Osteocalcin/blood , Parenteral Nutrition/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care Outcomes , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Hyperglycemia/virology , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295892

ABSTRACT

Hypertriglyceridemia is a metabolic complication associated with parenteral nutrition (PN). It is unknown if patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to COVID-19 are more at risk. Our aim was to describe the incidence, risk factors and clinical impact of hypertriglyceridemia in critically ill patients with ARDS-COVID-19 receiving PN. We designed a cohort study of patients with ARDS-COVID-19 infection that required admission to critical care units and nutritional support with PN. Individual PN prescriptions for macronutrients and insulin were provided. Lipid emulsion contained fish oil (SMOFlipid® or Lipoplus®). Hypertriglyceridemia was defined as plasma levels above 400 mg/dL. Eighty-seven patients, 66.6% men, 60.1 ± 10.8 years old, BMI 29.1 ± 5.6 kg/m2, 71% of whom received lopinavir/ritonavir, 56% received Propofol and 55% received Tocilizumab were included. The incidence of hypertriglyceridemia was 37 × 100 patient-days with PN. This complication was more frequent in obese patients (OR 3.34; 95% CI, 2.35-4.33) and in those treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (OR 4.98; 95% CI, 3.60-6.29) or Propofol (OR 2.45; 95% CI, 1.55-3.35). Total mortality was 33.3%, similar between the type of lipid emulsion (p = 0.478). On average, patients with hypertriglyceridemia had a longer requirement of PN compared to the group without elevated triglycerides (TG), probably because of their longer survival (p = 0.001). TG higher than 400 mg/dL was not a protective factor for mortality (OR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.01-1.30). In conclusion, the incidence of hypertriglyceridemia was 37 × 100 patient-days with PN. The risk of this complication is associated with obesity and the use of lopinavir/ritonavir or Propofol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hypertriglyceridemia/etiology , Parenteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Acute Disease , Female , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Parenteral Nutrition Solutions/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 30(2): 192-198, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the nutritional status of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and to determine which route of nutrition support is advantageous. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study was conducted in the ICU of a designated COVID-19 hospital. Patients were divided into an enteral nutrition (EN) group and parenteral nutrition (PN) group according to the initial route of nutrition support. NRS-2002 and NUTRIC were used to assess nutritional status. Blood nutritional markers such as albumin, total protein and hemoglobin were compared at baseline and seven days later. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. RESULTS: A total of 27 patients were enrolled in the study - 14 in the EN group and 13 in the PN group - and there were no significant demographic differences between groups. Most patients (96.3% NRS2002 score ≥5, 85.2% NUTRIC score ≥5) were at high nutritional risk. There was no significant difference in baseline albumin, total protein and hemoglobin levels between groups. After 7 days, albumin levels were significantly higher in the EN group than in the PN group (p=0.030). There was no significant difference in the other two indicators. The 28-day mortality was 50% in the EN group and 76.9% in the PN group. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed significant differences between the groups (p=0.030). Cox proportional risk regression indicated that route of nutrition support was also an independent prognostic risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of nutritional risk in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is very high. Early EN may be beneficial to patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Enteral Nutrition , Intensive Care Units , Nutritional Status , Parenteral Nutrition , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , China , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin/metabolism
16.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 383-389, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Different metabolic phases can be distinguished in critical illness, which influences nutritional treatment. Achieving optimal nutritional treatment during these phases in critically ill patients is challenging. COVID-19 patients seem particularly difficult to feed due to gastrointestinal problems. Our aim was to describe measured resting energy expenditure (mREE) and feeding practices and tolerance during the acute and late phases of critical illness in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Observational study including critically ill mechanically ventilated adult COVID-19 patients. Indirect calorimetry (Q-NRG+, Cosmed) was used to determine mREE during the acute (day 0-7) and late phase (>day 7) of critical illness. Data on nutritional intake, feeding tolerance and urinary nitrogen loss were collected simultaneously. A paired sample t-test was performed for mREE in both phases. RESULTS: We enrolled 21 patients with a median age of 59 years [44-66], 67% male and median BMI of 31.5 kg/m2 [25.7-37.8]. Patients were predominantly fed with EN in both phases. No significant difference in mREE was observed between phases (p = 0.529). Sixty-five percent of the patients were hypermetabolic in both phases. Median delivery of energy as percentage of mREE was higher in the late phase (94%) compared to the acute phase (70%) (p = 0.001). Urinary nitrogen losses were significant higher in the late phase (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: In both the acute and late phase, the majority of the patients were hypermetabolic and fed enterally. In the acute phase patients were fed hypocaloric whereas in the late phase this was almost normocaloric, conform ESPEN guidelines. No significant difference in mREE was observed between phases. Hypermetabolism in both phases in conjunction with an increasing loss of urinary nitrogen may indicate that COVID-19 patients remain in a prolonged acute, catabolic phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Critical Illness , Energy Metabolism , Enteral Nutrition , Nutritional Requirements , Adult , Basal Metabolism , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Disease Progression , Energy Intake , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nitrogen/urine , Parenteral Nutrition , Respiration, Artificial , Rest , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 30(1): 15-21, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is spreading all over the world. With the number of cases increasing rapidly, the epidemiological data on the nutritional practice is scarce. In this study, we aim to describe the clinical characteristics and nutritional practice in a cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This is a multicenter, ambidirectional cohort study conducted at 11 hospitals in Hubei Province, China. All eligible critical COVID-19 patients in the study hospital intensive care units at 00:00, March 6th, 2020, were included. Data collection was performed via written case report forms. RESULTS: A total of 44 patients were identified and enrolled, of whom eight died during the 28-day outcome follow- up period. The median interval between hospital admission and the study day was 24 (interquartile range, 13- 26) days and 52.2% (23 of 44) of patients were on invasive mechanical ventilation. The median nutrition risk in critically ill (mNUTRIC) score was 3 (interquartile range, 2-5) on the study day. During the enrolment day, 68.2% (30 of 44) of patients received enteral nutrition (EN), while 6.8% (3 of 44) received parenteral nutrition (PN) alone. Nausea and aspiration were uncommon, with a prevalence of 11.4% (5 of 44) and 6.8% (3 of 44), respectively. As for energy delivery, 69.7% (23 of 33) of patients receiving EN and/or PN were achieving their prescribed targets. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that EN was frequently applied in critical COVID-19 patients. Energy delivery may be suboptimal in this study requiring more attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Nutritional Support , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Enteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Parenteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
18.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 45(6): 1364-1368, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In line with recent guidance from the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) to minimize healthcare team exposure by clustering care and relying on other providers or telehealth to collect relevant nutrition assessments, our nutrition support team has adopted a modified workflow using information technology to provide parenteral nutrition (PN) remotely in a safe and timely manner. We aim to compare our prescribing adequacy and PN-related complications before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak using the modified workflow in non-critically ill patients. METHODS: This study reviewed a prospectively recruited cohort of adults receiving PN in the general wards or high-dependency units from December 5, 2019, to April 15, 2020. Demographic data, nutrition assessment, PN prescriptions, blood results, electronic notes, capillary blood glucose monitoring, and catheter-related bloodstream infection rates were reviewed for patients who received PN. RESULTS: We found that patients who started PN during COVID-19 were more malnourished with lower body mass index and higher proportion of Subjective Global Assessment B/C scores (52 [92.9%] vs 36 [73.5%], P < .005). The proportion of patients who achieved target energy amounts within 5 days was similar in both groups. Protein prescription was >1 g/kg/day in both groups, though there was a trend of higher protein prescription during COVID-19. Complications were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that minimal contact with effective multidisciplinary communication using the modified workflow can allow for safe and timely PN administration.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19 , Adult , Blood Glucose , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Parenteral Nutrition , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Workflow
19.
J Healthc Qual Res ; 36(3): 156-159, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099180

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has generated a mortality rate 10times higher than normal influenza according to the World Health Organization (WHO), yet they do not mention palliative care in their action guidelines on maintaining essential health services during this crisis. The aim of this study was to analyse the death process of patients who died from SARS-CoV-2 at the Hospital Costa del Sol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study of the period in which all patients who died of SARS-CoV-2 from February to April 2020 were analysed. Sociodemographic characteristics, sample characterization and a set of variables related to the death process were collected in the death event. RESULTS: A total of 16 deaths were recorded out of a total of 103 admissions positive for SARS-CoV-2. Limitation of therapeutic effort was decided in 68.8% of the patients, and admission to the intensive care unit was refused in 56.3%. Support devices had not been removed in any of the cases on the day of death, 43.8% had palliative sedation, and 18.8% were in induced coma. CONCLUSIONS: Quality standards were maintained in the death process in patients who died from SARS-CoV-2, although there were aspects that could be improved. Palliative care is an essential component of the response to SARS-CoV-2 that must be incorporated into all health care settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Death , Palliative Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Terminal Care/methods , Advance Care Planning , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Coma/chemically induced , Comorbidity , Critical Care/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Palliative Care/statistics & numerical data , Parenteral Nutrition , Patient Isolation , Respiration, Artificial , Resuscitation , Socioeconomic Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Terminal Care/statistics & numerical data , Visitors to Patients , Withholding Treatment
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