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1.
Clin Ter ; 172(6): 517-519, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534514

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Couple infertility constitutes a major source of concern and even distress for those involved, affecting roughly 50-80 million people in the world, according to World Health Organization data. There is no denying that medical and technological advancements in the field of as-sisted reproductive technology (ART) are among the greatest and most beneficial achievements of modern medicine. Countless couples have been able to achieve parenthood who in the past could not have, thanks to ART. Infertility itself used to be deemed insurmountable, especially when arising from uterine conditions (referred to as absolute uterine factor infertility, AUFI), neoplastic conditions or major complications affecting reproductive organs during previous pregnancies. The inability to have children is often considered by couples as a failure severely impacting their relationships, due to the unfulfilled biological potential in regard to parenting. However, in addition to its significance as a social problem, infertility is a medical issue which requires a strict and clearly defined path of diagnosis and treatment, particularly in times of COVID-19, when access to essential care has often been delayed with potentially harmful repercussions for patients seeking to achieve parenthood or to keep their fertility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infertility , Child , Female , Humans , Parenting , Pregnancy , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1748-1754, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527995

ABSTRACT

Articles comprising this special issue on parenting and family dynamics during the COVID-19 pandemic document the profound disruptions to family life posed by a cascading multisystem catastrophe as well as the capacity of families for resilience. Results of these studies during the first year of the pandemic align well with theory and past evidence on developmental risk, vulnerability, and resilience in families contending with large-scale complex disasters, while also illustrating methodological advances, such as technologies for remote data collection. The scope and duration of the global pandemic pose extraordinary, cumulative, and variable challenges to family life, highlighting the importance of preexisting as well as unfolding adaptive capabilities embedded in multiple interacting systems. Findings illustrate the importance of relationships, the vulnerability of families already at risk, and the protective role of social support for parenting. This issue represents an exciting harbinger of knowledge to come on risk and resilience processes from multisystem, multidisciplinary, and multicultural studies of the pandemic and its effects. There are critical gaps to fill and many questions yet to answer when so many systems critical to human well-being and development are disrupted, and knowledge is needed to prepare and respond more effectively to inevitable disasters of the future. It will be essential to include more diverse and representative samples, methods amenable to dynamic modeling of change and systematic aggregation of findings across studies, and long-term assessments. This special issue reflects the progress, complexities, and promise of family-focused research on risk and resilience in the time of COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Pandemics , Parenting , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1559-1562, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527994

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic brought about worldwide challenges and had a profound impact on family dynamics, relationships, and routines. At the same time, the impact may differ largely due to regional differences in the numbers of infections and severity of preventive measures, as well as individual and contextual risk and protective factors. The aims of this special issue were therefore to (a) provide insight into the impact of the pandemic on the family system and (b) increase our understanding of how this impact may differ between families. This special issue consists of 13 original empirical studies that show how the pandemic affected families across different levels of the family system. At first sight, it seems that many families were able to cope relatively well with the stressors. Yet, for others the demands of the pandemic and pandemic-related measures seemed to exceed their capabilities and available resources. Importantly, the studies in this special issue suggest that the pandemic disproportionally affected children, caregivers and families who were already at risk. Together, the contributions to the special issue offer knowledge on the consequences of both the pandemic and preventive measures on family functioning. At the same time, it also raises questions on the long-term impact of the pandemic and its impact on families who are currently underrepresented in empirical research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Child , Humans , Parenting , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1681-1692, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527993

ABSTRACT

Developmental research during COVID-19 suggests that pandemic-related disruptions in family relationships are associated with children's mental health. Most of this research has focused on 1 child per family, thereby obfuscating patterns that are differentially operative at the family-wide (i.e., between-family) versus child-specific (i.e., within-family) levels of analysis. Thus, the current study evaluates multilevel, longitudinal associations between COVID-19 disruption, family relationships, and caregiver/child mental health using a sibling comparison methodology. Caregivers (N = 549 families with 1098 children between 5 and 18 years old) were recruited from the Prolific research panel (73% White-European; 68% female; 76% United Kingdom, 19% U.S.A.; median 2019 income $50,000-$74,999). Caregiver reports of COVID-19 disruption, psychological distress, family functioning, parenting, and child mental health (for 2 children per family) were provided during May (time 1) and July (time 2) 2020. A Bayesian multilevel path analysis with random effects revealed: (a) families were experiencing difficulties across domains when COVID-19 disruption was high; (b) COVID-19 disruption corresponded to greater sibling differences in mental health; and (c) the sibling with poorer mental health received lower quality parenting over time, especially in families who reported higher levels of differential parenting. Findings suggest that understanding children's mental health difficulties during COVID-19 requires a family system lens due to the multiple ways these consequences permeate across the family unit. Comprehensive interventions for children's mental health during this time will likely require an examination of caregiver, sibling, and whole-family dynamics in the context of evidence-based telehealth practice. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Bayes Theorem , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Parenting , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1648-1666, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527992

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented families around the world with extraordinary challenges related to physical and mental health, economic security, social support, and education. The current study capitalizes on a longitudinal, cross-national study of parenting, adolescent development, and young adult competence to document the association between personal disruption during the pandemic and reported changes in internalizing and externalizing behavior in young adults and their mothers since the pandemic began. It further investigates whether family functioning during adolescence 3 years earlier moderates this association. Data from 484 families in five countries (Italy, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States) reveal that higher levels of reported disruption during the pandemic are related to reported increases in internalizing and externalizing behaviors after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic for young adults (Mage = 20) and their mothers in all five countries, with the exception of one association in Thailand. Associations between disruption during the pandemic and young adults' and their mothers' reported increases in internalizing and externalizing behaviors were attenuated by higher levels of youth disclosure, more supportive parenting, and lower levels of destructive adolescent-parent conflict prior to the pandemic. This work has implications for fostering parent-child relationships characterized by warmth, acceptance, trust, open communication, and constructive conflict resolution at all times given their protective effects for family resilience during times of crisis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Adolescent , Family Health , Female , Humans , Mothers , Pandemics , Parenting , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Young Adult
6.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1597-1610, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527988

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article was to explore how family chaos, parenting processes, parent-child relationship qualities, and sibling relationship qualities changed before versus the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants included one parent and two adolescent-aged children from 682 families (2,046 participants). Parents and youth participating in an ongoing longitudinal study in five Midwestern states in the United States completed an additional web-based assessment of family processes and family relationship qualities during the May-June 2020 pandemic-related shutdowns. A series of two-wave latent change score models indicated that family chaos increased with the onset of pandemic-related shutdowns and that the level of chaos within a family during the shutdowns had implications for changes in several parenting processes and family relationship qualities. Specifically, higher levels of family chaos during the pandemic mitigated observed increases in parental knowledge and were associated with declines in parental autonomy granting. Family chaos during pandemic-related shutdowns also was associated with increases in maternal-child conflict, paternal-child conflict, and sibling conflict as well as decreases in paternal-child intimacy, sibling intimacy, and sibling disclosure. Overall, consistent with a family stress perspective, the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increased strain and commotion within many households, and these changes had implications for multiple family relationships. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Aged , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Parent-Child Relations , Parenting , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1611-1622, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527987

ABSTRACT

The extensive measures to prevent spread of COVID-19 have had a major impact on families' daily lives. Changes in family routines and experiences of COVID-19-related stress might negatively impact the quality of parenting and the parent-adolescent relationship. However, using active coping strategies might be associated with limited negative or even positive changes in the parent-adolescent relationship. This longitudinal, multi-informant, and pre-registered study used data of 240 mostly Dutch parents (85% mothers; Mage = 44.2 years old) and adolescents (50% girls; Mage = 11.4 years) from diverse SES backgrounds. Using Latent Change Score models, we examined how parent-reported parenting (i.e., positive parenting and discipline practices) and adolescent-reported relationship quality (i.e., support and negative interaction) changed from pre-COVID-19 (Fall 2019) to the COVID-19 period (Spring 2020). Moreover, we investigated whether parents' and adolescents' level of COVID-19-related stress was associated with the change in relationships, and whether active coping moderated the association between stress and changes in relationships. Results showed average decreases in support, positive parenting, and negative interactions between parents and adolescents. COVID-19-related stress was not a direct predictor of relationship changes and there was little evidence of moderating effects. Only adolescents' use of active coping strategies moderated the effect of stress on positive parenting. For high active coping adolescents, the link between stress and change in positive parenting was negative, whereas for low active coping adolescents this link was positive. The findings suggest that parent-adolescent relationships during a pandemic need attention, especially for adolescents with high stress levels and using active coping strategies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parenting , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1582-1596, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527985

ABSTRACT

This Dutch multi-informant study examined effects of the first COVID-19 lockdown (LD; e.g., school closure and social restrictions) on parent-adolescent relationships. Four biweekly measurements before and 4 biweekly measurements during the LD were collected among adolescents (N = 179, Mage = 14.26 years, 69% girls) and their parents (N = 144, Mage = 47.01 years, 81% female). Parents' educational level was relatively diverse: 12% low (high school or lower), 33% medium (vocational training), and 55% high (college or university). Adolescents and parents reported on parental support, parent-adolescent conflict, autonomy support, psychological control, behavioral control, and time spent on various activities. Adolescents spent more time with their parents during LD (before M = 8.6 hr, during M = 12.7 hr), but less time with friends (before M = 8.1 hr, during M = 2.1 hr), and reported on average 13 COVID-19-related rules. Preregistered piecewise growth models confirmed that autonomy support decreased immediately during the LD, but no mean level changes were observed in the other relationship dimensions. During the first 2 months of the LD, parents reported gradual increases in autonomy support and decreases in behavioral control. Moreover, significant differences between families were found in sudden and more gradual relationship changes, which correlated strongly with pre-LD characteristics of the relationship, and in some models with adolescent oppositional defiance and legitimacy beliefs. In sum, findings suggest resilience in most families, but also heterogeneity: Some families were negatively affected, and others were positively affected. A tailored approach is therefore needed to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on family functioning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parenting , Adolescent , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1623-1632, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527984

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is placing demands on parents that may amplify the risk of parents' distress and poor parenting. Leveraging a prepandemic study in New Zealand, the current research tested whether parents' psychological distress during a mandated lockdown predicts relative residual changes in poorer parenting and whether partner support and cooperative coparenting buffer this potentially detrimental effect. Participants included 362 parents; 310 were from the same family (155 dyads). Parents had completed assessments of psychological distress and parenting prior to the pandemic and then reported on their distress, parenting, partner support, and cooperative coparenting during a nationwide COVID-19 lockdown. Parents' distress during the lockdown predicted relative residual increases in harsh parenting, but this effect was buffered by partner support. Parents' distress also predicted residual decreases in warm/responsive parenting and parent-child relationship quality, but these effects were buffered by cooperative coparenting. Partner support and cooperative coparenting are important targets for future research and interventions to help parents navigate challenging family contexts, including COVID-19 lockdowns. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parenting , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
10.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1667-1680, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527982

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was an unprecedented global public health emergency with a significant psychological toll. This study aimed to understand how specific COVID-19 related stressors contributed to Chinese parents' fear induction practices, and how these practices, in turn, contributed to their children's disease prevention practices during the outbreak and depressive symptoms after the outbreak. Parents (N = 240, Mage = 38.50 years, 75% mothers) with elementary-school-age children (Mage = 9.48 years, 46% girls) in Wenzhou, 1 of the most impacted cities in China, reported on the presence of confirmed or suspected cases in their communities, their frequencies of consuming COVID-19-related information, fear induction practices, and their children's trait anxiety and disease prevention practices during the outbreak (January 28-30, 2020). Child-reported depressive symptoms were collected between March 7-11, 2020; during which there were very few remaining cases and no new confirmed cases or deaths. Parents' higher frequency of virus-related information consumption but not the presence of community infection was associated with their engagement in more fear induction practices, which was in turn associated with children's greater engagement in prevention practices during the outbreak, but more postquarantine depressive symptoms. Child trait anxiety exacerbated the association between parent fear induction and child depressive symptoms. Using fear induction parenting may promote children's willingness to cooperate and participate in disease prevention practices during the crisis but at the cost of children's long-term mental health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parenting , Child , Child Health , Disease Outbreaks , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258358, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, strict infection control measures including visitation regulations were implemented due to the COVID-19 pandemic at Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). These regulations gave restricted access for parents to their hospitalized infants. The consequence was limited ability to involve in the care of their infants. At Oslo University Hospital entry to NICU was denied to all except healthy mothers in March 2020. The absolute access ban for fathers lasted for 10 weeks. The aim of this study was to explore parental experiences with an infant hospitalized in the NICU during this absolute visitation ban period. METHODS: We invited post discharge all parents of surviving infants that had been hospitalized for at least 14 days to participate. They were interviewed during autumn 2020 using an explorative semi-structured interview approach. Data were analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Nine mothers and four fathers participated. The COVID-19 regulations strongly impacted the parent's experiences of their stay. The fathers' limited access felt life-impacting. Parents struggled to become a family and raised their voices to be heard. Not being able to experience parenthood together led to emotional loneliness. The fathers struggled to learn how to care for their infant. The regulations might lead to a postponed attachment. On the other hand, of positive aspect the parents got some quietness. Being hospitalized during this first wave was experienced as exceptional and made parents seeking alliances by other parents. Social media was used to keep in contact with the outside world. CONCLUSIONS: The regulations had strong negative impact on parental experiences during the NICU hospitalization. The restriction to fathers' access to the NICU acted as a significant obstacle to early infant-father bonding and led to loneliness and isolation by the mothers. Thus, these COVID-19 measures might have had adverse consequences for families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Qualitative Research , Quarantine/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488596

ABSTRACT

International research has evidenced the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on families, and the key role played by parenting stress levels. Although significant associations with parents' past trauma and resilience have been shown, this study aimed to explore their complex interplay on the relationship between parents' peritraumatic distress due to COVID-19, parenting stress, and children's psychopathological difficulties. We recruited 353 parents with children aged two to 16 years via an online survey during the Italian second wave of COVID-19. Parents' peritraumatic distress due to COVID-19, parenting stress, past trauma and resilience, and children's psychological difficulties were assessed through self-report and report-form questionnaires. Parents' past traumas significantly predicted peritraumatic distress due to COVID-19 and children's psychological difficulties. The relationship between past traumas and children's psychological difficulties was serial mediated by parents' peritraumatic distress and parenting stress. Direct and total effects of parent's resilience on parent's peritraumatic distress were not significant, but there were significant indirect effects via parenting stress and via parents' peritraumatic distress and parenting stress, indicating inconsistent mediation. This study evidenced the key risk and protective role played by, respectively, parents' past traumas exposure and resilience on the relationship between parents' psychological difficulties due to COVID-19, parenting stress, and children's psychological difficulties, with important clinical implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Humans , Mental Health , Parenting , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480775

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: In their efforts to contain the spread of COVID-19, most countries closed schools and kindergartens. To date, little is known about the strategies of working families reconciling work and parenting during repeated lockdown situations. (2) Methods: We performed a quantitative survey of working parents in Italy during a week of 'hard lockdown' in February/March 2021. (3) Results: 3725 voluntary adult participants from different households responded. Though officially not allowed, 53.4% of all participants sought help from people outside the nuclear family to bridge the situation, mostly the grandparents (79%; n = 1855). Overall, parental coping strategies included alternating working-childcare-turns with their partner (35%, n = 1316), working early in the morning or during nighttime (23%; n = 850), or leaving the children unattended (25%, n = 929). (4) Conclusions: The closure of schools/kindergartens forcefully shifts the responsibility for childcare onto the nuclear family, where new strategies arose, including health-damaging models of alternating work-childcare-shifts, 'illegal' involvement of third parties from outside the nuclear family, as well as neglect of age-related childcare. Our findings underline that working families need additional support strategies during repeated closure of childcare institutions to be able to reduce contact and minimize secondary damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parenting , Child , Child Care , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1887, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Up to 20% of UK children experience socio-emotional difficulties which can have serious implications for themselves, their families and society. Stark socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in children's well-being exist. Supporting parents to develop effective parenting skills is an important preventive strategy in reducing inequalities. Parenting interventions have been developed, which aim to reduce the severity and impact of these difficulties. However, most parenting interventions in the UK focus on early childhood (0-10 years) and often fail to engage families from ethnic minority groups and those living in poverty. Strengthening Families, Strengthening Communities (SFSC) is a parenting programme designed by the Race Equality Foundation, which aims to address this gap. Evidence from preliminary studies is encouraging, but no randomised controlled trials have been undertaken so far. METHODS/DESIGN: The TOGETHER study is a multi-centre, waiting list controlled, randomised trial, which aims to test the effectiveness of SFSC in families with children aged 3-18 across seven urban areas in England with ethnically and socially diverse populations. The primary outcome is parental mental well-being (assessed by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale). Secondary outcomes include child socio-emotional well-being, parenting practices, family relationships, self-efficacy, quality of life, and community engagement. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, post intervention, three- and six-months post intervention. Cost effectiveness will be estimated using a cost-utility analysis and cost-consequences analysis. The study is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 comprised a 6-month internal pilot to determine the feasibility of the trial. A set of progression criteria were developed to determine whether the stage 2 main trial should proceed. An embedded process evaluation will assess the fidelity and acceptability of the intervention. DISCUSSION: In this paper we provide details of the study protocol for this trial. We also describe challenges to implementing the protocol and how these were addressed. Once completed, if beneficial effects on both parental and child outcomes are found, the impact, both immediate and longer term, are potentially significant. As the intervention focuses on supporting families living in poverty and those from minority ethnic communities, the intervention should also ultimately have a beneficial impact on reducing health inequalities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively registered Randomised Controlled Trial ISRCTN15194500 .


Subject(s)
Parenting , Quality of Life , Child, Preschool , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Minority Groups , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Parents , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
16.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 232, 2021 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death in children and youth, with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts (referred to as non-fatal suicidal behaviors (NFSB)) being among its strongest predictors. Positive parenting (e.g., warmth, responsiveness), negative parenting (e.g., control, hostility), and parent-child relationship quality (e.g., trust, communication) have been reported to be associated with differences in NFSB in this population. To date, no comprehensive systematic review has considered together the wide range of parenting factors studied in relation to NFSB, and no meta-analysis of existing findings has been conducted. The present study will critically appraise and synthesize the existing evidence from observational studies that examine the relationships between parenting factors and (i) suicidal ideation and (ii) suicide attempt in children and youth. METHODS: Studies will be retrieved from APA PsycInfo, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases. Retrospective, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies, conducted in clinical and population settings, among youth aged less than 25 years and published as articles and dissertations in English or French will be eligible. Two reviewers will select articles using the Covidence Software after title and abstract screening and full-text assessment, will extract information using double data entry, and will appraise studies' quality using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Any disagreements will be discussed with a third reviewer. Publication bias will be evaluated using funnel plots and Egger's test. In addition to a narrative summary of results, meta-analyses will be conducted using results from at least three studies. Three-level random effect models will allow to derive pooled estimates from dependent effect sizes (from the same sample or study). In case of significant heterogeneity, moderation analyses will be performed considering participants' characteristics and methodological aspects of studies. The results will be reported according to the PRISMA guidelines, and the certainty of evidence will be assessed using the GRADE approach. DISCUSSION: In highlighting parenting factors associated with NFSB and in estimating the overall strength of these associations in children and youth, our results will inform further intervention and prevention strategies designed for young people experiencing NFSB and their families. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020165345.


Subject(s)
Parenting , Suicidal Ideation , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Systematic Reviews as Topic
17.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(6): 870-880, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453810

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders can have far reaching negative impact on both maternal mental health and child growth and development. Multimodal group parenting programs have been shown to improve maternal mental health symptoms however, they are often costly to provide and not accessible to many mothers, especially those mothers suffering from mental health symptoms. Therefore, the authors sought to answer the following question by undertaking a systematic review of the literature: are parenting interventions aimed at improving maternal-child interaction also a way to address mental health symptoms (i.e. depression, anxiety, stress) in mothers? METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. An online platform that supports the systematic review process and quality assessment according to Cochrane guidelines, Covidence, was used in conjunction with an adapted extraction tool to identify relevant studies and extract data for analysis. RESULTS: 11 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. There was great heterogeneity between study interventions and measurement of outcomes for maternal mental health symptoms which precluded meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Studies reviewed did not demonstrate consistent evidence to recommend that parenting interventions leads to improvement in maternal mental health symptoms for depression, anxiety or stress. However, there was evidence that participating in parenting programs does not worsen these symptoms and some encouraging evidence that alternative delivery methods, beyond face to face, could, with more research, lead to more financially feasible and sustainable models of delivery of these types of interventions in the future.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Mothers , Parenting , Anxiety , Female , Humans , Mother-Child Relations , Mothers/psychology
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456130

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: More than 4 decades of research indicate that parenting interventions are effective at preventing and treating mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. Pediatric primary care is a viable setting for delivery of these interventions. OBJECTIVE: Previous meta-analyses have shown that behavioral interventions in primary care can improve clinical outcomes, but few reviews have been focused specifically on the implementation of parenting interventions in primary care. We aimed to fill this gap. DATA SOURCES: We reviewed 6532 unique peer-reviewed articles published in PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycInfo. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were included if at least part of the intervention was delivered in or through primary care; parenting was targeted; and child-specific mental, emotional, and behavioral health outcomes were reported. DATA EXTRACTION: Articles were reviewed in Covidence by 2 trained coders, with a third coder arbitrating discrepancies. RESULTS: In our review of 40 studies, most studies were coded as a primary. Few researchers collected implementation outcomes, particularly those at the service delivery system level. LIMITATIONS: Including only published articles could have resulted in underrepresentation of implementation-related data. CONCLUSIONS: Parenting interventions delivered and implemented with fidelity in pediatric primary care could result in positive and equitable impacts on mental, emotional, and behavioral health outcomes for both parents and their children. Future research on the implementation strategies that can support adoption and sustained delivery of parenting interventions in primary care is needed if the field is to achieve population-level impact.


Subject(s)
Neurodevelopmental Disorders/therapy , Parenting , Parents/psychology , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Child , Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/psychology
19.
Appetite ; 168: 105714, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453999

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on food parenting practices used by parents of young children. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) was used to evaluate parents' use of coercive, indulgent, structured, and autonomy supportive food parenting practices before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among a diverse racial/ethnic sample (n = 72) of parents of preschool-aged children. The impact of parent and child mood/behavior on use of specific food parenting practices was also evaluated during both time periods. Results revealed that most parents of preschoolers use a variety of food parenting practices, including coercive control, indulgence, structure, and autonomy support practices. The use of structured and autonomy supportive practices, however, decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further, the types of practices used by parents were contextually associated with the mood of the parent as well as child mood. Parent negative mood during COVID-19 was associated with higher levels of coercive control and indulgence and lower levels of structure, whereas child positive child mood was associated with greater use of autonomy supportive practices. These findings suggest that effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on family dynamics around feeding young children include shifts away from theoretically supportive approaches to parenting and highlight the roles of parent and child mood/behavior as potentially important momentary influences on food parenting during this time. Public health practitioners and clinicians working with parents of young children during COVID-19, and in years to come, should consider the potential impact of parental mood and stress, as well as child mood and behaviors. Additional research is needed to better understand how to best help parents maintain supportive feeding practices in the face of challenging situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child Rearing , Child, Preschool , Humans , Pandemics , Parenting , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403588

ABSTRACT

Children's excessive screen use is associated with health risks such as obesity, sleep problems, attention problems, and others. The effect of parental regulative efforts focused on screen/media use (media parenting) is currently unclear and difficult to examine given the heterogeneity of measuring tools used for its assessment. We aimed to develop an inventory that would enable reliable and valid measurement of media parenting practices (especially active and restrictive mediation) in parents of primary school children. The inventory builds on existing tools, it is comprehensive, yet easy to use in research setting. The original MEPA-36 (36 items) and revised MEPA-20 (20 items) inventories were examined using data from 341 Czech and Slovak parents of children aged between 6 and 10 years. Psychometrical properties were estimated using confirmatory factor and reliability analyses. Model fit was better for MEPA-20 and similar to other currently available tools. Both active and restrictive mediation subscales demonstrated high internal consistency. The internal consistency of newly constructed risky mediation subscales (risky active, risky restrictive, and over-protective mediation) was low. MEPA-20, especially active and restrictive mediation subscales, can be recommended for research on media parenting in context of screen/media use of school-aged children.


Subject(s)
Child Behavior , Parenting , Child , Humans , Parent-Child Relations , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires
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