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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e060824, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874565

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Maternal and child health and parenting practices during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ceará (Iracema-COVID) is a longitudinal, prospective population-based birth cohort designed to understand the effects of the pandemic and social withdrawal in maternal mental health, child development and parenting practices of mothers and families. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of mothers who gave birth in July and August 2020 (n=351) was enrolled in the study in January 2021. Interviews were conducted by telephone. Data were collected through standardised questionnaires that, in addition to sociodemographic and economic data, collected information on breast feeding, mental health status and COVID-19. FINDINGS TO DATE: Results from the first wave show that the majority of participants have 9-11 years of schooling (54.4%; 95% CI 61.0 to 70.9) and are of mixed race (71.5%; 95% CI 66.5 to 76.0). At the time of the survey, 27.9% of the participants were out of the labor force (95% CI 23.5 to 32.9) and 78.6% reported a decrease in family income after restrictions imposed due to the pandemic (95% CI 74.0 to 82.6). The prevalence of maternal common mental disorder symptoms was 32.5% (95% CI 27.8 to 37.6). FUTURE PLANS: Follow-up visits are planned to occur every 6 months for the next five years (2021-2025). Additional topics will be included in future waves (eg, food insecurity and parenting practices). Communication strategies for bonding, such as picture cards, pictures of mothers with their children and phone calls to the participants, will be used to minimise attrition. Results of this prospective cohort will generate novel knowledge on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and child health and parenting practices in a population of women and children living in fifth largest city of Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Health , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology , Prospective Studies
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 428, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a tiered healthcare system in Australia to support maternal and child health, including, non-psychiatric day stay and residential parenting services (RPS) such as Tresillian and Karitane (in New South Wales [NSW]). RPS are unique to Australia, and currently there is limited information regarding the healthcare trajectory of women accessing RPS and if they are more likely to have admissions to other health facilities within the first-year post-birth. This study aimed to examine differences in hospital co-admissions for women and babies admitted to RPS in NSW in the year following birth compared to non-RPS admitted women. METHODS: A linked population data study of all women giving birth in NSW 2000-2012. Statistical differences were calculated using chi-square and student t-tests. RESULTS: Over the 12-year timeframe, 32,071 women and 33,035 babies were admitted to RPS, with 5191 of these women also having one or more hospital admissions (7607 admissions). The comparator group comprised of 99,242 women not admitted to RPS but having hospital admissions over the same timeframe (136,771 admissions). Statistically significant differences between cohorts were observed for the following parameters (p ≤ .001). Based upon calculated percentages, women who were admitted to RPS were more often older, Australian born, socially advantaged, private patients, and having their first baby. RPS admitted women also had more multiple births and labour and birth interventions (induction, instrumental birth, caesarean section, epidural, episiotomy). Their infants were also more often male and admitted to Special Care Nursery/Neonatal Intensive Care. Additionally, RPS admitted women had more admissions for mental health and behavioural disorders, which appeared to increase over time. There was no statistical difference between cohorts regarding the number of women admitted to a psychiatric facility; however, women attending RPS were more likely to have mood affective, or behavioural and personality disorder diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Women accessing RPS in the year post-birth were more socially advantaged, had higher birth intervention and more co-admissions and treatment for mental health disorders than those not accessing RPS. More research is needed into the impact of birth intervention and mental health issues on subsequent parenting difficulties.


Subject(s)
Mothers , Parenting , Australia/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , New South Wales/epidemiology , Parenting/psychology , Pregnancy
3.
Physiol Behav ; 252: 113837, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many mothers and fathers have spent more time at home with their children, warranting consideration of parenting practices around food during the pandemic as influences on obesogenic eating behaviors among children. Structure-related feeding practices, particularly around snacking, may be particularly challenging yet influential in the pandemic setting. Parent sex and levels of feeding-related co-operation among parents (co-feeding) are understudied potential influences on parent-child feeding relationships. METHODS: We investigated relationships between structure-related parent feeding and child food approach behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic, while considering potential moderating influences of parent sex and co-feeding levels. An online survey was completed by 318 parents (206 mothers and 112 fathers) of 2-12-year-olds who were living in states with statewide or regional lockdowns in May/June 2020 within the US. Mothers and fathers were drawn from different families, with each survey corresponding to a unique parent-child dyad. Parental stress/mental health, co-feeding (Feeding Coparenting Scale), structure-related food and snack parenting (Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire and Parenting around SNAcking Questionnaire), and child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire) were assessed. Relationships of parents' structure-related food and snack parenting practices with their child's emotional overeating and food responsiveness behaviors were examined using structural equation modelling. Further, we investigated whether these relations were moderated by parent sex or level of co-feeding. RESULTS: Parent sex differences were seen in parental stress, mental health, and co-feeding, but not in structure-related food and snack parenting or child food approach eating behaviors. Structure-related food parenting was negatively associated with emotional overeating. However, structure-related snack parenting was positively associated with emotional overeating and food responsiveness. While regression paths varied between mothers vs. fathers, as well as by co-feeding levels, neither parent sex nor co-feeding levels significantly moderated relationships between parent feeding and child eating variables. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies of food and snack parenting and co-operation in relation to feeding among mothers and fathers within a familial unit may be critical to identify intervention strategies that draw on all family resources to better navigate future disruptive events such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mothers , Child , Child Behavior , Choice Behavior , Communicable Disease Control , Fathers/psychology , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Hyperphagia , Male , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parenting/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6420, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799566

ABSTRACT

Positive parenting programmes (PPP), albeit effective, are not readily accessible to the general public, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. In 103 healthy caregiver-child dyads, we investigated the effectiveness of online PPP on parenting sense of competencies (primary outcome), parenting styles and behavioural concerns of children aged 3-6 years (secondary outcomes) between 2 blinded, parallel groups. After block of 4 randomisations, intervention group (n = 52) attended live, group-based, internet delivered PPP while both intervention and active control group (n = 51) received weekly general education via communication application. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 8 and 14 weeks. Most parents from both groups had high education and household income. From the intervention group, 87.5% of the parents attended live sessions while 8.6% subsequently watched recorded sessions. At 14 weeks, the intervention group reported higher sense of competence (Wald 9.63, p = 0.008); both groups reported using more authoritative parenting style (Wald 15.52, p ≤ 0.001) from Generalised Estimating Equations model. Compared to baseline, both groups had significant reduction of children's emotional problems at 14 weeks (mean change: Intervention = - 0.44, p = 0.033; Control = - 0.30, p = 0.046) and behavioural problems over time (Wald 7.07, p = 0.029). Online PPP offered an easily accessible, primary preventive measure to mitigate behavioural concerns and improve parental competency.Clinical trial registration Thai Clinical Trials Registry; https://www.thaiclinicaltrials.org/ ; TCTR20201030001; October 30, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parenting , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 275, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant changes in society and family life, which could be particularly difficult for parents. The present study examines the relationship between youth mental health and parental psychological distress after the first peak of the COVID-19 Outbreak in China. The parent-child and marital relationships were examined as moderators of the above relationship. METHODS: Parents and their children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for this study. The parents completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and a subset of items from the questionnaire of the COVID-19 Supporting Parents, Adolescents, and Children in Epidemics (Co-SPACE) survey of parental mental health, child's psychological symptoms, parent-child, and marital relationship. Several multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The largest variance in parental mental health was explained by the child's psychological symptoms (effect size beta = 0.27). Parent-child (effect size beta = -0.13) and marital relationship (effect size beta = -0.21) were negatively associated with parental mental health. The relationship between child's psychological symptoms and parental mental health was moderated by marital relationship (effect size beta = -0.07). Both parent-child and marital relationships presented with a significant interaction with impact scores, while only parent-child relationships with burden scores. CONCLUSIONS: Youth mental health problems were significantly associated with parental psychological symptoms during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic The parent-child and marital relationship moderated the association between youth psychological symptoms and parental mental health. Interventions for alleviating parenting stress and support services that improve family relationships may be particularly effective in reducing parental psychological distress associated with future COVID-19 or related crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 302, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic has put an unprecedented pressure on families with children. How parents were affected by the first Covid-19 lockdown during the early postpartum period, an already challenging period for many, is unknown. AIM: To investigate the associations between Covid-19 related stress, mental health, and insensitive parenting practices in mothers and fathers with young infants during the first Dutch Covid-19 lockdown. METHODS: The Dutch Covid-19 and Perinatal Experiences (COPE-NL) study included 681 parents of infants between 0 and 6 months (572 mothers and 109 fathers). Parents filled out online questionnaires about Covid-19 related stress, mental health (i.e. anxiety and depressive symptoms), and insensitive parenting. Hierarchical regression models were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Parents of a young infant reported high rates of Covid-19 related stress, with higher reported stress in mothers compared to fathers. Additionally, the percentages of mothers and fathers experiencing clinically meaningful mental health symptoms during the pandemic were relatively high (mothers: 39.7% anxiety, 14.5% depression; fathers: 37.6% anxiety, 6.4% depression). More Covid-19 related stress was associated with more mental health symptoms in parents and increased insensitive parenting practices in mothers. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasize the strain of the pandemic on young fathers' and mothers' mental health and its potential negative consequences for parenting. As poor parental mental health and insensitive parenting practices carry risk for worse child outcomes across the lifespan, the mental health burden of the Covid-19 pandemic might not only have affected the parents, but also the next generation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parenting , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Fathers/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mental Health , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology , Pregnancy
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors influencing burnout of mothers with infants or toddlers in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 105 mothers who sent their children to daycare centers or kindergartens located in S and G cities. They were women who have experienced caring for children entirely at home during the COVID-19 pandemic. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Man-Whitney U test, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and a stepwise multiple regression using the SPSS Window 25.0 program. RESULTS: The subjects' burnout and parenting stress (r = 0.62, p < 0.001), depression (r = 0.58, p < 0.001), and parenting efficacy (r = -0.62, p < 0.001) showed a large correlation. The factors affecting the subjects' burnout were parenting stress (ß = 0.28, p < 0.001), parenting efficacy (ß = -0.40, p < 0.001), depression (ß = 0.27, p < 0.001), and spouse's support (nearly none) (ß = 0.18, p = 0.004). These variables explained 64.0% of the subjects' burnout. CONCLUSIONS: Through the research results, it was confirmed that parenting stress, parenting efficacy, depression, and spouse's support influence the mother's burnout. Therefore, in future studies, it is necessary to expand mental health programs to lower parenting stress and depression into interventional studies on specific educational strategies such as programs to promote efficacy and improve spouse's support.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(2): 317-321, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756502

ABSTRACT

The most talked phenomenon and sui generis of the modern time, the coronavirus diseases-2019 impacted individuals in a variety of ways. Older adults had a higher risk of vulnerability, while there were negative ramifications among children due to indirect impact. The preventive measures, including closing down of schools, malls and playgrounds as well as practising social distancing served as a shield against the hazard of outbreak. On the contrary, these strategies inculcated fear, anxiety, ambiguous communication and manifestation of externalizing behaviours in children. Children living in dysfunctional families in underprivileged circumstances were more susceptible to abuse during the pandemic, and had increased risk of behavioural symptomology and psychological morbidities. Challenges brought by the new normal for children requires redefining the role of parenting for effective monitoring and intervention to mitigate the symptoms. Preventive strategies outlined by international scientific communities include reflective listening, debriefing and psychological first aid for effective parenting during the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse , Mental Health , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Parenting/psychology , Risk Factors
9.
Res Dev Disabil ; 124: 104200, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Considering the fact that family members necessarily spend more time together during the pandemic, this study aims to reveal the perceptions of parents with children who have autism spectrum disorder of the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey and their experiences of the difficulties during the pandemic. METHOD: A qualitative phenomenology design was used in the study. Seven mothers and one father gave their consent and participated in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: The results of the analysis were collected in two broad themes using 68 codes. The perspective of the parents, who evaluated the pandemic process positively in the beginning, became negative as lockdown lengthened. The issues and adverse effects of the pandemic that they most talked about were the increasing roles and responsibilities of parents, the deep impact on their mental health, and the problems experienced in distance education. CONCLUSIONS: During this period, parents who were psychologically depressed wanted to feel that they were not alone. Parents made many suggestions and recommendations so that others would not have the same experience.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology
10.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(3): e22253, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729118

ABSTRACT

The current study investigated the impacts of parental behaviors (threat communication and comforting) on children's COVID-19 fears and whether effects differed by age. Caregivers of 283 children (5.5-17 years, M = 10.17, SD = 3.25) from 186 families completed online measures assessing children's and parents' COVID-19-related fears, children's sources of COVID-19 threat information, and parents' engagement in behaviors to reduce child distress (i.e., comfort behaviors). Higher COVID-19 fear in parents was associated with greater communication of COVID-19 threat information, which was associated with higher COVID-19 fear in younger, but not older, children. Over and above parental fear and threat communication, greater exposure to COVID-19 threat information from community sources (e.g., media, school, friends) was associated with greater COVID-19 fear in children, regardless of age. Greater engagement of parental comfort behaviors buffered the association between community sources of COVID-19 threat information and COVID-19 fears in older, but not younger, children. These findings suggest that younger children might be more vulnerable to developing heightened COVID-19 fears as a result of increasing sources of COVID-19 threat information in their lives. This study highlights the importance of supporting the socioemotional well-being of children and families through the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Child , Fear/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology
11.
J Adolesc ; 94(2): 176-190, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712110

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has changed the way families live, interact, and connect with others, resulting in higher levels of stress for many teenagers who struggle with the ongoing uncertainty and disrupted school and family life. The current study examined the psychosocial factors that influence the capacity of adolescents to grow through the stress of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The sample included 404 secondary school students ranging in age from 11 to 18 (M = 14.75, SD = 1.59; 50.2% female, 46.8% male, and 3% non-/other gendered or declined to answer) from an independent high school in Australia. Data were collected from a battery of questionnaires that assessed strength-based parenting (SBP) and the effect of three psychosocial factors (positive reappraisal, emotional processing, and school belonging) on stress-related growth. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling showed that (SBP) was significantly associated with stress-related growth (SRG). Positive reappraisal and emotional processing were also positively and significantly associated with SRG and mediated the effect of SBP on SRG. Moreover, school belonging was positively linked to positive coping, emotional processing, and SRG, as well as mediating the association of SBP with positive reappraisal, emotional processing, and SRG in adolescents during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that teenagers can experience SRG during the COVID-19 pandemic, and adolescents adapting by engaging in constructive coping responses such as positive reappraisal and emotional processing is positively related to SRG.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Parenting/psychology , Schools , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(4): e26438, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on families' daily routines and psychosocial well-being, and technology has played a key role in providing socially distanced health care services. OBJECTIVE: The first objective of this paper was to describe the content and delivery of a single-session, internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) intervention, which has been developed to help parents cope with children's anxiety and manage daily situations with their children. The second objective was to report user adherence and satisfaction among the first participants who completed the intervention. METHODS: The Let's Cope Together intervention has been developed by our research group. It combines evidence-based CBT elements, such as psychoeducation and skills to manage anxiety, with parent training programs that strengthen how parents interact with their child and handle daily situations. A pre-post design was used to examine user satisfaction and the skills the parents learned. Participants were recruited using advertisements, media activity, day care centers, and schools and asked about background characteristics, emotional symptoms, and parenting practices before they underwent the iCBT. After they completed the 7 themes, they were asked what new parenting skills they had learned from the iCBT and how satisfied they were with the program. RESULTS: Of the 602 participants who filled in the baseline survey, 196 (32.6%) completed the program's 7 themes, and 189 (31.4%) completed the postintervention survey. Most (138/189, 73.0%) of the participants who completed the postintervention survey were satisfied with the program and had learned skills that eased both their anxiety (141/189, 74.6%) and their children's anxiety (157/189, 83.1%). The majority (157/189, 83.1%) reported that they learned how to organize their daily routines better, and just over one-half (100/189, 53.0%) reported that the program improved how they planned each day with their children. CONCLUSIONS: The single-session iCBT helped parents to face the psychological demands of the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies should determine how the participation rate and adherence can be optimized in digital, universal interventions. This will help to determine what kinds of programs should be developed, including their content and delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology
13.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 68(3): 686-692, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social Media Fatigue (SMF) has seen a significant increase through the COVID-19 pandemic. It refers to high levels of information overload experienced due to extensive usage of social media. AIM: To understand the causes and consequences for mitigating social media fatigue. METHODS: PRISMA model was followed, and 20 papers were consolidated from the years 2014 to 2021. Seven papers were screened out due to duplication and exclusion criteria. RESULTS: The studies found implicated the existence of four umbrella factors, like Cognitive Factors, Self and Personality Factors, Environmental Factors and Social Factors. Self and Personality Factors include personal and intrinsic factors that make one susceptible to developing SMF more easily, whereas aspects like increased boredom and information overload include cognitive factors that increase susceptibility to SMF. Environmental and Social Factors include aspects like parenting and social media role conflict respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings have implications to promote research to assess the levels of social media fatigue among the individuals and to evolve psychotherapeutic interventions and digital literacy programs to manage social media fatigue among the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology
14.
J Fam Psychol ; 36(3): 325-336, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661943

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented challenging time for parents and adolescents. The present study examines the role of parent work-life conflict on adolescent adjustment (i.e., academic engagement and mental health) and family processes (i.e., parental mental health and parenting) as potential mediators for this association. A total of 692 middle school students (53.2% boys; Mage = 13.54 years, SDage = 0.58) and their parents (29.6% fathers and 70.4% mothers; Mage = 44.75 years, SDage = 4.14 years) completed an online survey in May 2020 in Beijing, China. Results indicated that many parents (24.6%) experienced work-life conflicts amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings also showed that parent work-life conflict was negatively associated with youth academic engagement and mental health indirectly through parental mental health difficulties and parenting behavior (parental control, autonomy granting, and parental involvement). In addition, parental mental health difficulties had direct and indirect effects on youth adjustment via parenting behaviors, such that parental involvement and autonomy granting predicted greater academic engagement and covitality (co-occurrence of positive traits and positive mental health), whereas the parental control predicted youth mental health difficulties. Our findings extend prior research by examining the pathways linking parental work-life conflict to youth adjustment during COVID-19. Findings are discussed in terms of how to better support families and promote better youth academic engagement and well-being during COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parenting , Adolescent , Adult , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology
15.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 61(2): 168-176, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523148

ABSTRACT

Children infected with COVID-19 have a critical part in community-based viral transmission. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and behaviors of parents of pediatric dental patients on COVID-19 and to present required actions to prevent its spreading. A total of 524 parents took part in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared for determining sociodemographic characteristics and socioeconomic status of parents, along with their COVID-19-related knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and behaviors. In total, 90.6% of parents were unaware that disease may show no symptoms; 61.1% and 32.6% did not know roles of "close contact with asymptomatic patients" and "dentistry practices" in transmission, respectively; 30.2% thought it could be transmitted to their children at dental clinics, and only 16.4% stated their children as carriers. Parents need to be informed on COVID-19 transmission through contact with asymptomatic individuals, risks associated with dentistry practices, and role of children in transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Parents/psychology , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Parenting/psychology , Parenting/trends , Pediatric Dentistry/methods , Pediatric Dentistry/statistics & numerical data , Social Class , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258358, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, strict infection control measures including visitation regulations were implemented due to the COVID-19 pandemic at Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). These regulations gave restricted access for parents to their hospitalized infants. The consequence was limited ability to involve in the care of their infants. At Oslo University Hospital entry to NICU was denied to all except healthy mothers in March 2020. The absolute access ban for fathers lasted for 10 weeks. The aim of this study was to explore parental experiences with an infant hospitalized in the NICU during this absolute visitation ban period. METHODS: We invited post discharge all parents of surviving infants that had been hospitalized for at least 14 days to participate. They were interviewed during autumn 2020 using an explorative semi-structured interview approach. Data were analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Nine mothers and four fathers participated. The COVID-19 regulations strongly impacted the parent's experiences of their stay. The fathers' limited access felt life-impacting. Parents struggled to become a family and raised their voices to be heard. Not being able to experience parenthood together led to emotional loneliness. The fathers struggled to learn how to care for their infant. The regulations might lead to a postponed attachment. On the other hand, of positive aspect the parents got some quietness. Being hospitalized during this first wave was experienced as exceptional and made parents seeking alliances by other parents. Social media was used to keep in contact with the outside world. CONCLUSIONS: The regulations had strong negative impact on parental experiences during the NICU hospitalization. The restriction to fathers' access to the NICU acted as a significant obstacle to early infant-father bonding and led to loneliness and isolation by the mothers. Thus, these COVID-19 measures might have had adverse consequences for families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Qualitative Research , Quarantine/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 43(4): 756-764, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366670

ABSTRACT

RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the psychological implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for father-child bonding and mental health among Italian gay fathers pursuing surrogacy in the USA or Canada? DESIGN: Between 20 March and 29 July 2020, this cross-sectional case-control study collected data on father-child bonding quality, depression, anxiety and somatization in 30 Italian gay fathers (n=15 families) who were having or successfully had a child through cross-border surrogacy during the COVID-19 pandemic. These fathers were compared with a sociodemographically similar group of 50 Italian gay fathers (n=25 families) who had children through cross-border surrogacy prior to the pandemic. RESULTS: Although father-child bonding quality and the mental health symptoms of fathers scored below the clinical cut-off points in both groups, fathers who had or were having a child during the COVID-19 pandemic reported poorer father-child bonding (estimate 3.04, SE 1.47, P=0.044) and more depressive (estimate -1.47, SE 0.49, P=0.005), anxious (estimate -1.96, SE 0.55, P<0.001) and somatic symptoms (estimate -2.48, SE 0.52, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings call for the development of international guidelines for cross-border surrogacy and underline the need for tailored and ongoing psychological and legal support for intended gay fathers to ease their strain and anxiety related to having a child through cross-border surrogacy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fathers/psychology , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Object Attachment , Parenting/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/complications , Canada , Case-Control Studies , Depression/complications , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surrogate Mothers , United States
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