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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e063706, 2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909769

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Children born very preterm (VPT; gestational age <32 weeks) are twice as likely to demonstrate behaviour problems such as aggression, non-compliance, temper tantrums and irritability compared with their term-born peers. While behavioural parent training (BPT), also referred to as behaviour therapy is a gold standard for prevention and treatment of childhood problem behaviours, there are limited accessible and effective BPT interventions for families with children born VPT. The purpose of this paper is to describe a multicentre, randomised controlled protocol for a factorial design trial evaluating the independent and combined effects of the ezParent BPT intervention plus brief, weekly coaching calls on parent and child outcomes for families with toddlers born VPT. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study employs a 2×2 factorial randomised design. Parents (n=220) of children aged 20-30 months corrected age who were born VPT (<32 weeks) will be recruited from two large metropolitan Neonatal Intensive Care Units follow-up clinics and randomised to one of four conditions: (1) ezParent (2) ezParent +coach, (3) Active control or (4) Active Control +coach. Data on parenting and child behaviour outcomes will be obtained from all participants at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months postbaseline. All analyses will use an intention-to-treat approach, independent of their actual dose of each intervention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by The Ohio State University Institutional Review Board (IRB) using a single IRB. Study results will be disseminated through presentations at regional and national conferences, publications in peer-reviewed journals, and sharing research reports with participating families and recruiting sites. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05217615.


Subject(s)
Mentoring , Humans , Infant, Extremely Premature , Infant, Newborn , Internet , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Parenting , Parents/education , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
J Adolesc Health ; 71(2): 164-171, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895126

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are currently authorized for emergency use in adolescents aged 12-17 years; however, there is concern and uncertainty regarding the safety and necessity of COVID-19 vaccination. A survey was carried out to assess the attitudes and acceptance towards vaccination in adolescents. METHODS: A nationwide web-based survey was conducted among adolescents aged 12-17 years and their parents between June 29 and July 8, 2021 on a platform provided by the Ministry of Education. RESULTS: A total of 341,326 parents and 272,914 adolescents participated in this study. Intention for vaccination was 69.1% for adolescents, and 72.2% of parents reported they would recommend vaccination for their child. Among adolescents, perception of safety (odds ratio [OR] 4.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.95-4.22), effectiveness (OR 2.24, 95% CI 2.17-2.32), and risk-benefit (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.72-1.78) had the highest impact on intention for vaccination. Also, perceived risk (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.12-1.17), severity (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.10-1.13) for COVID-19 infection, self-health perception (OR 1.12, 95%, CI 1.10-1.14) and recent vaccination of childhood vaccines (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.19-1.32) were related to intention for COVID-19 vaccination. On the other hand, self-perceived knowledge (OR 0.96, 95% 0.95-0.98) was related to vaccine hesitancy. Gender or school district did not influence intention for COVID-19 vaccination in adolescents. DISCUSSION: Decisions on COVID-19 vaccination for adolescents should be a shared process between adolescents, parents, and physicians based on updated information on safety and effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Parents/education , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2071078, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819754

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is critical for protecting adults and children from COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death. Analyzing subsamples of parent/guardians of children age 0-11 (n = 343) and 12-17 (n = 322) from a larger national survey of US adults (n = 2,022), we aimed to assess intentions to vaccinate children and how intentions might vary across parent/guardian sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare coverage, vaccination status, political affiliation, prior COVID-19 infection, exposure to COVID-19 death(s) of family or friends, perceived norms of vaccination, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. We also report the prevalence of vaccinated children for parents whose oldest child was eligible for vaccination at the time of the survey. More than one third of parents whose oldest child was not yet eligible for vaccination (11 or younger) planned to get them vaccinated right away when a vaccine became available to them. Among parents whose child was eligible to be vaccinated (age 12-17 years), approximately a third reported their child had already been vaccinated and approximately a third planned to do so right away. Intentions to vaccinate children age 0 to 11 were significantly associated with age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, COVID-19 vaccination, political affiliation, social norms, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Intentions to vaccinate children age 12 to 17 were significantly associated with age, education, healthcare coverage, COVID-19 vaccination, political affiliation, social norms, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. We discuss implications for public health officials and for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Parents/education , United States , Vaccination
4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2065838, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806180

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines (Sinovac and Pfizer/BioNTech) have recently been approved for Hong Kong children. Understanding parental intentions to vaccinate children against COVID-19 is important to the development of an effective COVID-19 vaccine campaign. From a large-scale, geographically representative dataset in Hong Kong (N = 11,141), we examined parents' intentions to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 under three conditions: (1) no policy restrictions, (2) vaccination rate considered for school resumption, and (3) more choices of vaccine. Results showed that levels of vaccine hesitancy in Hong Kong parents are high. Hong Kong parents' intention to vaccinate their children was highest when there were more vaccines to choose from, followed by when vaccination rate was considered to resume school, and when there was no policy restrictions. Finally, Hong Kong parents with higher education backgrounds and family income were less willing to vaccinate their children. Together, these findings indicate that effective vaccines campaign should consider the characteristics and preferences of parents who have little intention to vaccinate within a specific social context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Intention , Parents/education , Vaccination
5.
Child Obes ; 18(3): 168-177, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806219

ABSTRACT

Background: Parent mentors are a potential community-based mechanism for delivering behavioral interventions. For communities at a higher risk of obesity and challenges with access to care, such as migrant and seasonal farm workers, this may be an effective intervention for obesity. This study examined the effect of parent mentors on weight outcomes. Methods: This randomized clinical trial assigned parents of 2- to 5 year-old children enrolled in Head Start 1:1:1 to control, a parent mentor teaching We Can!, or a parent mentor teaching an intervention derived from positive deviance methods. The parent mentor arms were designed to have weekly interactions and monthly community meetings over 6 months. The primary outcome was change in adiposity, as measured by body mass indices. Results: We randomized 188 parents, and 155 completed the 6-month visit. Most parents, 107 (58%), had less than a high school education, and 170 (90%) reported Latino ethnicity. In the intention-to-treat analysis, no difference between the groups was observed for change in percent distance from the median or BMI z-score. The median number of interactions was 14 (IQR 10-20) over 6 months for those who did engage, though 24 of 118 (20%) had no interaction. Those with no interactions in We Can! had a mean increase in change from median of 6.7 [standard deviation (SD) = 8.2]; those with higher participation experienced a 0.4 (SD = 9.2) change, p = 0.04. Conclusions: Parent mentors were not effective in changing the adiposity indices in this study overall, with some evidence of efficacy after accounting for participation. Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT03330743.


Subject(s)
Mentors , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Parents/education , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control
8.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 65: 10-15, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768444

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study assessed parental vaccine hesitancy in a metropolitan area of the United States. The study aimed to determine what characteristics and contributing factors influenced parental vaccine hesitancy and concerns regarding COVID-19. DESIGN AND METHODS: An online survey was used to recruit 93 parents to answer demographic and vaccine hesitancy information. Vaccine hesitancy was measured using the Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines survey. The study was conducted between June 2020 and September 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The rate of vaccine hesitancy was 15%. One hundred percent of vaccine hesitant parents were mothers, at least 30 years of age, married, and had completed at least some college. When characteristics of vaccine hesitant parents were compared to non-hesitant parents, the hesitant parents reported having more children, with 93% reporting two or more children compared to only 74% of non-hesitant parents (p = 0.046). Fifty percent of hesitant parents reported no concerns regarding COVID-19 compared to only 20% of non-hesitant parents (p = 0.006), and significantly less hesitant parents reported willingness to have their children receive a safe, effective COVID-19 vaccine if it were available compared to non-hesitant parents (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that older mothers with two or more children are more likely to be vaccine hesitant and this hesitancy extends to the current COVID-19 pandemic. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Healthcare providers can use the results of this study to identify parents at risk for vaccine hesitancy and initiate individualized education to promote on-time childhood vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics , Parents/education , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
9.
Semin Perinatol ; 45(5): 151431, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454526

ABSTRACT

We discuss the use of tele-mental health in settings serving expectant parents in fetal care centers and parents with children receiving treatment in neonatal intensive care units within a pediatric institution. Our emphasis is on the dramatic rise of tele-mental health service delivery for this population in the wake of the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., including relevant practice regulations, challenges and advantages associated with the transition to tele-mental health in these perinatal settings.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/trends , Mental Health/trends , Perinatal Care , Psychosocial Intervention , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Male , Parents/education , Parents/psychology , Perinatal Care/methods , Perinatal Care/organization & administration , Pregnancy , Prenatal Education/trends , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Psychosocial Intervention/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , United States/epidemiology
10.
Fam Syst Health ; 39(1): 7-18, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: For implementation of an evidence-based program to be effective, efficient, and equitable across diverse populations, we propose that researchers adopt a systems approach that is often absent in efficacy studies. To this end, we describe how a computer-based monitoring system can support the delivery of the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a parent-focused evidence-based prevention program for divorcing parents. METHOD: We present NBP from a novel systems approach that incorporates social system informatics and engineering, both necessary when utilizing feedback loops, ubiquitous in implementation research and practice. Examples of two methodological challenges are presented: how to monitor implementation, and how to provide feedback by evaluating system-level changes due to implementation. RESULTS: We introduce and relate systems concepts to these two methodologic issues that are at the center of implementation methods. We explore how these system-level feedback loops address effectiveness, efficiency, and equity principles. These key principles are provided for designing an automated, low-burden, low-intrusive measurement system to aid fidelity monitoring and feedback that can be used in practice. DISCUSSION: As the COVID-19 pandemic now demands fewer face-to-face delivery systems, their replacement with more virtual systems for parent training interventions requires constructing new implementation measurement systems based on social system informatics approaches. These approaches include the automatic monitoring of quality and fidelity in parent training interventions. Finally, we present parallels of producing generalizable and local knowledge bridging systems science and engineering method. This comparison improves our understanding of system-level changes, facilitates a program's implementation, and produces knowledge for the field. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Consumer Health Informatics , Divorce , Health Plan Implementation/methods , Parenting , Parents/education , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Child Health , Child Rearing , Female , Humans , Male , Parent-Child Relations , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(2)2021 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, parents of infants having medical problem face challenges of insufficient medical resources at home. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of WeChat-based telehealth services on the preoperative follow-up of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 190 infants with CHD who underwent remote follow-up via WeChat from December 2019 to May 2020 in Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University. In addition, the psychological benefits of WeChat on the parents of these infants were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 190 infants were involved in this study, including 72 cases of ventricular septal defects, 42 cases of patent ductus arteriosus, 55 cases of atrial septal defects, 3 cases of tetralogy of Fallot, 2 cases of endocardial cushion defects, 12 cases of pulmonary stenosis, 2 cases of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and 2 cases of aortic arch constriction. During the follow-up period, 48 infants who received surgical indications were hospitalized in time for surgical treatment. It was recommended that 10 infants with respiratory tract infections be treated in local hospitals through the WeChat platform. We provided feeding guidance to 28 infants with dysplasia through the WeChat platform. The psychological evaluation results of parents showed that the median score and range of Self-Rating Depression Scale scores were 42 and 32-58, respectively. Nine parents (4.7%) were clinically depressed, while the majority had mild depression. The median score and range of Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores were 44 and 31-59, respectively. Twenty parents (10.5%) had clinical anxiety, while the rest had mild anxiety. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, follow-up management and health services for infants with CHD prior to surgery through the WeChat platform were useful in identifying the state of an infant's condition as well as in identifying and relieving care pressure, anxiety and depression in the parents.


Subject(s)
Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Parents/education , Parents/psychology , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Remote Consultation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media
12.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 54(2): 566-581, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086368

ABSTRACT

Children with autism spectrum disorder often display deficits in daily living skills. Behavior analysts can use telehealth, such as videoconferencing technology, to deliver interventions to families of these children. Given the COVID-19 pandemic and the common barriers to accessing behavioral interventions, it is imperative to evaluate the effectiveness and practicality of delivering behavioral interventions via telehealth. This study evaluated the efficacy of a parent-implemented intervention with coaching via telehealth to improve daily living skills. Children ranging in age from 5 to 9 years participated in the study with 1 or 2 of their parents serving as the primary implementer(s). Parents implemented the intervention with fidelity and the intervention yielded increases in independent daily living skill completion for all 4 participants.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living/psychology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Education, Nonprofessional/methods , Mentoring/methods , Parents/education , Telemedicine/methods , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Parents/psychology
15.
Pediatr Ann ; 49(12): e516-e522, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963767

ABSTRACT

Primary care providers play key roles in ensuring that children and the community receive vaccines on time. Sometimes, this role includes the task of reassuring parents who are vaccine hesitant that vaccines are safe and effective. Now, because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), providers are presented with the additional challenge of maintaining and strengthening routine vaccination during a pandemic. As COVID-19 cases increased and states implemented stay-at-home orders, outpatient visits declined significantly. As a result, childhood immunization rates also declined. Increasing communication efforts regarding the importance of vaccination will be worthwhile, as the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the threat of an infectious disease and has increased awareness of the vaccine development process. Prior to 2020, many parents had not seen the devastating consequences of an infectious disease. The pandemic may change a parent's perspective, particularly as it relates to the influenza vaccine. Providers should continue to promote the importance of well-child and vaccination visits. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(12):e516-e522.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Health Services , Immunization Schedule , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , COVID-19/diagnosis , Caregivers/education , Child , Humans , Parents/education , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccination Refusal
16.
Pediatr Ann ; 49(12): e523-e531, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963766

ABSTRACT

Although vaccine acceptance and uptake are overall high among children in the United States, vaccine delays or refusals are a growing concern. Vaccine hesitancy is a challenge for the pediatric provider, given the diverse factors associated with hesitancy and the limited evidence on effective strategies for addressing vaccine hesitancy in the provider office. In this article, we review available evidence and approaches for vaccine communication, including the importance of using a whole-team approach, building trust, starting the conversation early, using a presumptive approach for vaccine recommendations, motivational interviewing with parents who have concerns for vaccines, and additional techniques for responding to parent questions. We also review organizational strategies to help create a culture of immunization in the practice, including evidence-based approaches for increasing vaccine uptake and efficiency. Although these communication approaches and organizational strategies are intended to reassure parents who are vaccine hesitant that all routine, universally recommended vaccines are safe and effective, they likely will take on increased significance as the development, implementation, and evaluation of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines continue to unfold. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(12):e523-e531.].


Subject(s)
Immunization Programs , Parents , Pediatrics , Vaccination , Attitude to Health , Child , Communication , Humans , Parents/education , Patient Education as Topic , Physician-Patient Relations , Professional-Family Relations , Reminder Systems , Standing Orders , Vaccination Refusal
17.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 34(1): 103-107, 2021 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There has been a recent worldwide outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Most of the health system capacity has been directed to COVID-19 patients, and routine outpatient clinics have been suspended. Chronic disease patients, such as inherited metabolic disorders (IMD), have had trouble accessing healthcare services. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients with IMDs who were present for a follow-up at our clinic to address their problems during pandemic period. Our clinic's Instagram and Facebook accounts were used to invite the participants. Three reminders were given between May 1, 2020, and May 30, 2020. Survey questions were analyzed using descriptive statics. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients completed our survey. Incomplete surveys were excluded, and 175 questionnaires were evaluated. Most of patients had a special diet, and 51% of them had some difficulty with their diet. The reported rate of using a special treatment was 38%, and most of these patients (91%) had no problem receiving these special therapies during this time. Parents who were wearing masks while caring for their child were very few (17%), but a vast majority of parents (73.7%) had high handwashing rates. None of the patients had a SARS-COV2 infection until this paper was written. CONCLUSION: This is the first study that aims to determine the problems faced by patients with IMD during the COVID-19 period. Considering that the pandemic will not immediately pass, recognizing the problems faced by patients with chronic diseases and developing solutions would help these patients avoid long-term damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/physiopathology , Parents/education , Parents/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Metabolic Diseases/genetics , Metabolic Diseases/prevention & control , Metabolic Diseases/psychology , Online Systems , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , Turkey/epidemiology
18.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 45(6): 364-370, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-884878

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused many changes in health care. The status quo has been upended. We have been challenged in many ways to maintain our ability to meet the needs of our clients while keeping them safe. The Center for Perinatal Education and Lactation at NYU Langone Hospitals, in one of the initial epicenters of the pandemic in New York City, had to abruptly transition the childbirth education program to a virtual format in March of 2020. The goal for this change was to continue to provide evidence-based support and guidance our to our expectant and new families through this crisis. This report focuses on the process and challenges of transitioning to and implementation of the virtual format in the context of the COVID-19 crisis. We discuss the rapidly evolving programmatic changes to our approach and reflect on the themes and changing landscape of our newly structured model. Questions and answers live discussion webinars "Ask the Educator" on various topics were a valuable tool in connecting with families and allaying anxiety and fear.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Pandemics , Parents/education , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Pneumonia, Viral , Prenatal Care/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Virtual Reality , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Family , Female , Humans , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Pediatrics ; 146(6)2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate if the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic influences parents' intentions to have their children receive the 2020-2021 seasonal influenza vaccination. METHODS: In May 2020, we recruited 2164 US parents and guardians of children ages 6 months to 5 years to complete a brief online survey that examined parental behavior and decision-making in response to experimental stimuli and real-world events. We estimated a multivariate multinomial logistic regression (controlling for key demographics) to assess the relationship between a child's 2019-2020 influenza vaccination status and the COVID-19 pandemic's influence on a parent's intentions for their child's 2020-2021 influenza vaccination. RESULTS: Changes in vaccination intentions significantly differed between parents whose children received the 2019-2020 influenza vaccine compared with those whose children did not (P < .001). Specifically, among parents whose children did not receive the 2019-2020 vaccine, 34% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 30%-37%) reported that the COVID-19 pandemic made them less likely to have their child receive the 2020-2021 vaccine. Among those whose children did receive the 2019-2020 vaccine, this figure was just 24% (95% CI: 22%-27%). Conversely, only 21% (95% CI: 18%-24%) of parents whose children did not receive the 2019-2020 vaccine reported that the COVID-19 pandemic made them more likely to have their child receive the 2020-2021 vaccine, compared with 39% (95% CI: 36%-41%) of parents whose children did receive the 2019-2020 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic alone does not appear sufficient to encourage the uptake of pediatric seasonal influenza vaccination. Instead, the COVID-19 pandemic may exacerbate polarity in vaccination uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intention , Parents/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Child, Preschool , Confidence Intervals , Female , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Income , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Parents/education , Politics , Probability , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
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